Diagnosis and management of subdural haematoma complicating bone marrow transplantation.
Subdural haematoma (SDH) is a known complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A retrospective review of 657 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic or autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation at the Royal Brisbane Hospital between January 1991 and December 1998 is reported. Seventeen cases of subdural haematoma/hygroma were identified (2.6%). Eleven of these (65%) were bilateral. Four required surgical drainage, with two developing re-accumulation of SDH. All cases presented with a headache and eight of these had associated neurological complications. Diagnosis was made predominately by CT scan: however in 25% of cases definitive diagnosis could only be made in MRI studies. An association with intrathecal methorexate-containing conditioning therapy, post lumbar puncture headache, prolonged thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy was noted. In our experience, conservative management with platelet support and correction of coagulopathy achieved resolution of subdural haematoma in most cases, with surgical intervention being reserved for neurological deterioration. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 549-552. (+info)
Intracranial hypotension due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage detected by radioisotope cisternography.
Seven patients, six females and one male aged 26 to 39 years old, presented with headache in the upright posture, which was completely relieved in the recumbent posture. Radioisotope cisternography with technetium-99m-human serum albumin detected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage at the cervicothoracic level in six patients, and at the high cervical level in one patient. The diagnosis was intracranial hypotension due to spontaneous CSF leakage. Complete bed rest for more than 2 weeks resulted in complete resolution of the headache in all patients, and follow-up cisternography showed no leakage. Radioisotope cisternography is useful for the diagnosis of spontaneous CSF leakage, and complete bed rest for more than 2 weeks may be the best method of treatment. (+info)
The fate of traumatic subdural hygroma in serial computed tomographic scans.
We reviewed serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 58 patients with traumatic subdural hygroma (SDG) to investigate its natural history. All were re-evaluated with a special reference to the size and density of SDG. Thirty-four patients (58.6%) were managed conservatively and 24 patients (41.4%) underwent surgery. The lesion was described as remained, reduced, resolved, enlarged and changed. Means of interval from injury to diagnosis and any changes in CT were calculated. SDGs were resolved in 12 (20.7%), reduced in 15 (25.9%), remained in 10 (17.2%), enlarged in 2 (3.4%), and changed into chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in 19 patients (32.8%). SDG was diagnosed at 11.6 days after the injury. It was enlarged at 25.5 days, remained at 46.0 days, reduced at 59.3 days, resolved at 107.5 days, and changed into CSDH at 101.5 days in average. SDGs were developed as delayed lesions, and changed sequentially. They enlarged for a while, then reduced in size. The final path of a SDG was either resolution or CSDH formation. Nearly half of SDGs was resolved or reduced within three months, however, 61.3% of unresolved or unreduced SDG became iso- or hyperdense CSDH. These results suggest that the unresolved SDG is the precursor of CSDH. (+info)
Multi-level disruption of the spinal nerve root sleeves in spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage--two case reports.
A 37-year-old male and an 18-year-old male presented with spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage from multiple nerve root sleeves. Both patients suffered abrupt onset of intense headache followed by nausea, dizziness, and one patient with and one without positional headache. Radioisotope spinal cisternography of both patients revealed that the CSF leaks were not localized in a special zone but distributed to multiple spinal nerve root sleeves. Magnetic resonance (MR) myelography suggested that the spinal CSF column was fully expanded to the root sleeves. The extraspinal nerve bundles demonstrated numerous high intensity spots. Both patients were treated conservatively, and their symptoms resolved within one month. Repeat radioisotope cisternography and MR myelography confirmed the spine was normal after recovery. We suggest that spreading disruption of the arachnoid membrane occurs at the nerve root sleeves due to CSF overflow into the spinal canal. (+info)
Transoral transclival approach for intradural lesions using a protective bone baffle to block cerebrospinal fluid pulse energy--two case reports.
The transoral transclival approach for the treatment of intradural lesions of the clivus is often associated with serious complications such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and meningitis. CSF pulse energy may be the most significant factor in CSF leakage and meningitis, but a bone baffle can block such CSF pulse energy. A 64-year-old female presented with sudden onset of severe headache. She had subarachnoidal hemorrhage due to a rupture of the vertebral-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. A 66-year-old female complaining of occipitalgia and numbness of the extremities had a foramen magnum meningioma. Both patients were treated via the transoral transclival route with a protective bone baffle, obtained from the iliac bone, securely fixed in the bone window to protect the repaired dura from injury by CSF pulse energy. Neither patient showed CSF leakage or meningitis, and the period of continuous lumbar CSF drainage was only 7 days. The transoral transclival approach with a bone baffle is still very effective in selected cases. (+info)
Bilateral subdural effusion and subcutaneous swelling with normally functioning csf shunt.
We report a child with hydrocephalus due to tuberculous meningitis who developed a subcutaneous fluid collection around the ventriculoperitoneal shunt tube entry point, after one month of shunting. On investigation, he had decompressed ventricles with bilateral fronto parietal subdural hygroma. Bifrontal burr hole drainage helped resolution of both subdural effusion and subcutaneous scalp swelling. This complication is unique and its pathogenesis has been postulated. (+info)
Cerebral cysticercus granuloma associated with a subdural effusion.
The association of a solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma with a subdural effusion is being reported. The granuloma and the effusion resolved following albendazole therapy. We speculate that the spread of the inflammatory changes around the granuloma to the subdural space could have led to the development of the subdural effusion. (+info)
Should the new pneumococcal vaccine be used in high-risk children?
A new conjugate 7-valent vaccine to prevent pneumococcal infection (Prevenar, Wyeth) has recently received a European licence for use in young healthy children. The vaccine is not currently included in the universal immunisation schedule in the UK or elsewhere in Europe, although it is being used widely in the USA. Its availability for purchase raises the question whether paediatricians should consider using it in high risk children, including those for whom the polysaccharide 23-valent vaccine was previously recommended, until (or unless) it is introduced into general use-indeed the Chief Medical Officer for England and Wales has recently made a recommendation regarding such children aged less than 2 years. We review the evidence concerning use of the vaccine in such children and make suggestions as to how the vaccine may be used while further information is collected. (+info)