Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects. (+info)
Bacterial meningitis associated with lumbar drains: a retrospective cohort study.
OBJECTIVES: The infective potential of lumbar drainage is an important topic deserving particular study. The aetiology, incidence, and clinical findings associated with bacterial meningitis are described in patients having continuous lumbar CSF drainage to treat communicating hydrocephalus after subarachnoid haemorrhage or CSF leaks after traumatic dural rents. METHODS: Retrospective review of the records of patients with a positive CSF bacterial culture who underwent lumbar drain placement over a 39 month period. RESULTS: Thirteen cases of bacterial meningitis occurred subsequent to the use of 312 lumbar drain kits (4.2%). All meningitic patients had CSF pleocytosis, but not all had peripheral leukocytosis. Fever, peripheral leukocytosis, and CSF pleocytosis did not help to differentiate the presence of bacterial meningitis from other infections. Eight patients had prior CSF drainage procedures, including ventriculostomy (n=5) or lumbar drain (n=5) placements; two patients received both procedures. Six of 13 patients developed their CSF infection within 24 hours of lumbar drain insertion. Six of 13 patients developed meningitis while receiving antibiotics for other reasons. CONCLUSIONS: External lumbar drainage seems to carry a low risk of infectious meningitis and offers a safe alternative to ventriculostomy or serial lumbar punctures. Antibiotics do not seem to protect completely against developing the infection. The infection happens most often with skin organisms. The meningitis often appears within 24 hours after lumbar drain placement. Daily CSF samples should include bacterial cultures but cell counts may not offer any additional useful information in diagnosing the complication. Lumbar drain insertion and management need not be confined to the intensive care unit. (+info)
Bilateral subdural haematomas following lumbar puncture in three haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Between 1990 and 1996, three patients (1.1%), all with CML, among 272 patients with haematological malignancies, developed bilateral subdural haematomas (SDH) after treatment with i.t. MTX before HSCT in our unit. Since October 1996, we have given i.t. MTX only to patients at increased risk of CNS leukaemia such as ALL and AML M4 or M5. We suggest that intrathecal treatment before HSCT should only be given to patients at increased risk of CNS leukaemia. (+info)
Diagnosis and management of increased intracranial pressure in patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Cooperative Treatment Groups.
This study was undertaken to characterize the laboratory and clinical course of patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis who had normal or elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. Data were obtained retrospectively from a randomized multicenter quasifactorial phase III study comparing amphotericin B with or without flucytosine in primary treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. CSF pressure was measured before treatment and at 2 weeks. Repeated lumbar punctures were done to drain CSF and to reduce pressure. Patients with the highest baseline opening pressures (> or = 250 mm H2O) were distinguished by higher titers of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen in CSF; more frequently positive India ink smears of CSF; and more frequent headache, meningismus, papilledema, hearing loss, and pathological reflexes. After receiving antifungal therapy, those patients whose CSF pressure was reduced by >10 mm or did not change had more frequent clinical response at 2 weeks than did those whose pressure increased >10 mm (P<.001). Patients with pretreatment opening pressure <250 mm H2O had increased short-term survival compared with those with higher pressure. We recommend that opening pressures >/=250 mm H2O be treated with large-volume CSF drainage. (+info)
Giant cervical epidural veins after lumbar puncture in a case of intracranial hypotension.
A 29-year-old woman presented with dilated epidural veins and incapacitating headache after undergoing a lumbar puncture. Two months later, the results of follow-up MR imaging were normal. These findings suggest that temporary dilation of the epidural vein may occur in association with post-lumbar puncture intracranial hypotension syndrome. In these cases, it seems useful to confirm whether the patient has recently undergone a lumbar puncture. (+info)
Pain-sensitive temperament: does it predict procedural distress and response to psychological treatment among children with cancer?
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between pain sensitivity and children's distress during lumbar punctures (LPs), and whether pain sensitivity functions as a moderator of children's responses to a psychological intervention aimed at reducing LP distress. METHOD: Fifty-five children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ages 3 to 18) and their parents completed a questionnaire measure of pain sensitivity. Self-report, physiological, and observed measures of distress were collected during the study baseline LP. Children were then randomized into a psychological intervention or an attention control group. Postintervention and follow-up LPs were observed. RESULTS: Higher levels of pain sensitivity were associated with greater anxiety and pain, both prior to and during the LP. Preliminary analyses indicated that pain sensitivity moderated the effects of intervention on distress. Children who were more pain-sensitive and who received no intervention showed greater increases in LP distress over time. In contrast, children who were more pain-sensitive and who received intervention showed greater decreases in LP distress over time. CONCLUSIONS: A measurement of pain sensitivity may be useful in pediatric oncology settings for effectively targeting pain-vulnerable children for psychological intervention. Preliminary analyses indicate that an empirically-supported intervention for procedural distress is efficacious for those children who are most pain-sensitive. (+info)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-9 in cerebrospinal fluid during bacterial meningitis: association with blood-brain barrier damage and neurological sequelae.
To evaluate the spectrum and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in bacterial meningitis (BM), concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, and MMP-9 and endogenous inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 27 children with BM. MMP-8 and MMP-9 were detected in 91% and 97%, respectively, of CSF specimens from patients but were not detected in control patients. CSF levels of MMP-9 were higher (P<.05) in 5 patients who developed hearing impairment or secondary epilepsy than in those who recovered without neurological deficits. Levels of MMP-9 correlated with concentrations of TIMP-1 (P<.001) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P=.03). Repeated lumbar punctures showed that levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were regulated independently and did not correlate with the CSF cell count. Therefore, MMPs may derive not only from granulocytes infiltrating the CSF space but also from parenchymal cells of the meninges and brain. High concentrations of MMP-9 are a risk factor for the development of postmeningitidal neurological sequelae. (+info)
How much work is required to puncture dura with Tuohy needles?
The effects of needle bevel orientation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure on dural displacement and force required to penetrate cadaveric dura were studied using 40 samples. A constant hydrostatic pressure was applied to the subdural surface, either high or low, simulating the sitting and lateral positions. A 17-gauge Tuohy needle was advanced through the dura with the bevel oriented parallel or perpendicular to dural fibres. Travel distance and peak force at which dural penetration occurred were measured under both pressure conditions. The work required to produce dural penetration was calculated. Greater force and work were required to penetrate dura in the perpendicular orientation (P < 0.05), regardless of the subdural pressure exerted. Dural displacement was similar under both pressure conditions. (+info)