Xenopus cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein (xCTBP) is aldehyde dehydrogenase catalyzing the formation of retinoic acid.
Amino acid sequencing of an internal peptide fragment derived from purified Xenopus cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein (xCTBP) demonstrates high similarity to the corresponding sequence of mammalian aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) (Yamauchi, K., and Tata, J. R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 225, 1105-1112). Here we show that xCTBP was co-purified with ALDH and 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) binding activities. By photoaffinity labeling with [125I]T3, a T3-binding site in the xCTBP was estimated to reside in amino acid residues 93-114, which is distinct from the active site of the enzyme but present in the NAD+ binding domain. The amino acid sequences deduced from the two isolated xALDH1 cDNAs (xALDH1-I and xALDH1-II) were 94.6% identical to each other and very similar to those of mammalian ALDH1 enzymes. The two recombinant xALDH1 proteins exhibit both T3 binding activity and ALDH activity converting retinal to retinoic acid (RA), which are similar to those of xCTBP. The mRNAs were present abundantly in kidney and intestine of adult female Xenopus. Interestingly, their T3 binding activities were inhibited by NAD+ and NADH but not by NADP+ and NADPH, whereas NAD+ was required for their ALDH activities. Our results demonstrate that xCTBP is identical to ALDH1 and suggest that this protein might modulate RA synthesis and intracellular level of free T3. (+info)
Potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption in humans: interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin.
Organochlorine compounds, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alter serum thyroid hormone levels in humans. Hydroxylated organochlorines have relatively high affinities for the serum transport protein transthyretin, but the ability of these compounds to interact with the human thyroid receptor is unknown. Using a baculovirus expression system in insect cells (Sf9 cells), we produced recombinant human thyroid receptor ss (hTRss). In competitive binding experiments, the recombinant receptor had the expected relative affinity for thyroid hormones and their analogs. In competitive inhibition experiments with PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and several organochlorine herbicides, only the OH-PCBs competed for binding. The affinity of hTRss for OH-PCBs was 10,000-fold lower (Ki = 20-50 microM) than its affinity for thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; Ki = 10 nM). Because their relative affinity for the receptor was low, we tested the ability of OH-PCBs to interact with the serum transport proteins--transthyretin and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). With the exception of one compound, the OH-PCBs had the same affinity (Ki = 10-80 nM) for transthyretin as thyroid hormone (thyroxine; T4). Only two of the OH-PCBs bound TBG (Ki = 3-7 microM), but with a 100-fold lower affinity than T4. Hydroxylated PCBs have relatively low affinities for the human thyroid receptor in vitro, but they have a thyroid hormonelike affinity for the serum transport protein transthyretin. Based on these results, OH-PCBs in vivo are more likely to compete for binding to serum transport proteins than for binding to the thyroid receptor. (+info)
Type 1 deiodinase is stimulated by iodothyronines and involved in thyroid hormone metabolism in human somatomammotroph GX cells.
BACKGROUND: Local 5'-deiOdination of l-thyroxine (T4) to the active thyroid hormone, 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) via two deiodinase isoenzymes (D1 and D2) has an important role for various T3-dependent functions in the anterior pituitary. However, no evidence has been presented yet for thyroid hormone inactivation via the 5-deiodinase (D3) in anterior pituitary models. METHODS: Using the human somatomammotroph cell line, GX, we analysed effects of T3 and its 5'-deiodination product, 3,5-di-iodothyronine (3,5-T2), on deiodinase activities, measuring release of iodide-125 (125I-) from phenolic-ring- or tyrosyl-ring-labelled substrates respectively. RESULTS: T3 and 3,5-T2 rapidly stimulated D1 activity in GX cells in the presence of serum in the culture medium, whereas D2 activity was not detectable under these conditions. However, when the cells were kept under serum-free conditions, specific activity of D2 reached levels similar to those of D1. With tyrosyl-ring labelled 3, 5-[125I]-,3'-T3 as substrate, a significant release of 125I- was observed in GX cell homogenates. This is comparable to the D1 activity of liver membranes, which preferentially catalyses 5'-deiodination, but to some extent also 5-deiodination, at the tyrosyl ring. CONCLUSIONS: D1 activity of human GX cells is increased by T3 and 3,5-T2. Inactivation of T3 in the anterior pituitary might occur by deiodination at the tyrosyl ring via D1, thus terminating the stimulatory thyroid hormone signal in human somatomammotroph cells. (+info)
Assessment of thyroid hormone assays.
Four techniques for estimating serum T4 and three for estimating serum T3 have been investigated and found to be satisfactory in routine use. Normal ranges for each techniques have been established. Estimation of serum T3 by the commerical kits tested appears to have a high discriminant value in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, although the diagnostic definition used inevitably enhances the apparent sensitivity of these techniques. Estimation of serum T4 will identify the majority of patients with symptomatic hypothyroidism. The low sensitivity of T3 in the diagnosis of thyroid failure is confirmed. (+info)
Reverse triiodothyronine, thyroid hormone, and thyrotrophin concentrations in placental cord blood.
Reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and thyrotrophin (TSH) were measured in sera from placental cord blood in an unselected series of 272 deliveries. In this series the concentrations of rT3 (mean 3.33 nmol/l, 95% confidence limits 1.6--7.0 nmol/l), were log normally distributed and did not overlap the adult normal range (0.11--0.44 nmol/l). There were no correlations between the cord blood concentrations of rT3, T3, T4, and TSH. The cord serum rT3 concentration was not influenced by maturity, birth-weight, or neonatal risk factors, whereas these factors did affect the concentrations of T3, T4, AND TBG. There is no arteriovenous rT3 concentration difference across the placenta, therefore the cord rT3 reflects the systemic rT3 concentration in the baby at birth. As rT3 in the neonate largely, if not entirely, derives from thyroxine from the fetal thyroid, measurement of the cord rT3 concentration may be a good immediate screening test for neonatal hypothyroidism. (+info)
Hormonal regulation of apolipoprotein AI.
Apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) is the major protein component of the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The antiatherogenic properties of apo AI alone or as part of HDL and their inverse correlation with the incidence of coronary heart disease underlie the clinical importance of the protein. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which apo AI is regulated will help us develop new and better ways to manipulate expression of the protein. Although there are many factors that influence apo AI expression, endogenous hormones are attractive because simple changes in abundance of these compounds will alter gene activity. Hormones belonging to the thyroid/steroid family that influence activity of the gene include thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, gender-specific steroids and retinoic acid. Whereas thyroid, glucocorticoid and estradiol enhance activity of the gene, retinoic acid and androgens decrease it. The mechanisms that mediate the effects of the hormones include direct effects of the ligand and nuclear receptor complex on gene activity. However, indirect means involving the participation of transcription factors other than the hormone receptors are also possible. In summary, members of the same hormone family may have different mechanisms that mediate their activities on apo AI gene activity. (+info)
Comparison of mechanisms mediating uptake and efflux of thyroid hormones in the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR.
We compared the specificities of transport mechanisms for uptake and efflux of thyroid hormones in cells of the human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR, to determine whether triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and reverse T3 (rT3) are carried by the same transport mechanism. Uptake of 125I-T3, 125I-T4 and 125I-rT3 was saturable and stereospecific, but not specific for T3, T4 and rT3, as unlabelled L-stereoisomers of the thyroid hormones inhibited uptake of each of the radiolabelled hormones. Efflux of 125I-T3 was also saturable and stereospecific and was inhibited by T4 and rT3. Efflux of 125I-T4 or 125I-rT3 was, in contrast, not significantly inhibited by any of the unlabelled thyroid hormones tested. A range of compounds known to interfere with receptor-mediated thyroid hormone uptake in cells inhibited uptake of 125I-T3 and 125I-rT3, but not 125I-T4. We conclude that in JAR cells uptake and efflux of 125I-T3 are mediated by saturable and stereospecific membrane transport processes. In contrast, the uptake, but not the efflux, of 125I-T4 and 125I-rT3 is saturable and stereospecific, indicating that uptake and efflux of T4 and rT3 in JAR cells occur by different mechanisms. These results suggest that in JAR cells thyroid hormones may be transported by at least two types of transporters: a low affinity iodothyronine transporter (Michaelis constant, Km, around 1 microM) which interacts with T3, T4 and rT3, but not amino acids, and an amino acid transporter which takes up T3, but not T4 or rT3. Efflux of T4 and rT3 appears to occur by passive diffusion in these cells. (+info)
Thyroid hormones modulate zinc transport activity of rat intestinal and renal brush-border membrane.
Thyroid hormone status influences the Zn2+ and metallothionein levels in intestine, liver, and kidney. To evaluate the impact of thyroid hormones on Zn2+ metabolism, Zn2+ uptake studies were carried out in intestinal and renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Steady-state Zn2+ transport in intestinal and renal cortical BBMV was increased in hyperthyroid (Hyper-T) rats and decreased in the hypothyroid (Hypo-T) rats relative to euthyroid (Eu-T) rats. In both the intestinal and renal BBMV, Hyper-T rats showed a significant increase in maximal velocity compared with Eu-T and Hypo-T rats. Apparent Michaelis constant was unaltered in intestinal and renal BBMV prepared from the three groups. Fluorescence anisotropy of diphenyl hexatriene was decreased significantly in intestinal and renal brush-border membrane (BBM) isolated from Hyper-T rats compared with Hypo-T and Eu-T rats. A significant reduction in the microviscosity and transition temperature for Zn2+ uptake in intestinal and renal BBM from Hyper-T rats is in accordance with the increased fluidity of these BBMs. These findings suggest that the increased rate of Zn2+ transport in response to thyroid hormone status could be associated with either an increase in the number of Zn2+ transporters or an increase in the active transporters due to alteration in the membrane fluidity. Thus the thyroid hormone-mediated change in membrane fluidity might play an important role in modulating Zn2+ transport activity of intestinal and renal BBM. (+info)