Development of a thyroid function strategy for general practice.
A study was carried out to investigate a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) frontline strategy that could potentially result in a more straightforward interpretation of thyroid function tests, a reduction in the number of inappropriate referrals to medical outpatients, an improvement in the 'turnaround time' of results, and a reduction in the number of unnecessary tests carried out, thereby reducing costs. (+info)
Central hypothyroidism associated with retinoid X receptor-selective ligands.
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of symptomatic central hypothyroidism (characterized by low serum thyrotropin and thyroxine concentrations) in a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma during therapy with the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand bexarotene led us to hypothesize that such ligands could reversibly suppress thyrotropin production by a thyroid hormone-independent mechanism and thus cause central hypothyroidism. METHODS: We evaluated thyroid function in 27 patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who were enrolled in trials of high-dose oral bexarotene at one institution. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro effect of triiodothyronine, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand LGD346 on the activity of the thyrotropin beta-subunit gene promoter. RESULTS: The mean serum thyrotropin concentration declined from 2.2 mU per liter at base line to 0.05 mU per liter during treatment with bexarotene (P<0.001), and the mean serum free thyroxine concentration declined from 1.0 ng per deciliter (12.9 pmol per liter) at base line to 0.45 ng per deciliter (5.8 pmol per liter) (P<0.001) during treatment. The degree of suppression of thyrotropin secretion tended to be greater in patients treated with higher doses of bexarotene (>300 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day) and in those with a history of treatment with interferon alfa. Nineteen patients had symptoms or signs of hypothyroidism, particularly fatigue and cold intolerance. The symptoms improved after the initiation of thyroxine therapy, and all patients became euthyroid after treatment with bexarotene was stopped. In vitro, LGD346 suppressed the activity of the thyrotropin beta-subunit gene promoter in thyrotrophs by as much as 50 percent, an effect similar to that of triiodothyronine and 9-cis-retinoic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothyroidism may develop in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who are treated with high-dose bexarotene, most likely because the retinoid X receptor-selective ligand suppresses thyrotropin secretion. (+info)
Clinical study on early changes in thyroid function of hyperthyroidism treated with propylthiouracil and a relatively small dose of iodide.
In order to compare the acute effects of three kinds of antithyroid agents of iodide (I-), propylthiouracil (PTU) and PTU combined with iodide (PTU+I-) on thyroid function in hyperthyroid patients with diffuse goiter, serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), T3-resin sponge uptake (T3-RU) and free thyroxine index (FT4I) were employed as thyroid function parameters. In the group given iodine (1 mg/day) as iodinated-lecithine, the initial values of T4, T3, T3-RU and FT4I were 20.9 +/- 1.6 microng/100 ml (T4), greater than 740 ng/100 ml (T3), 49.5 +/- 2.3% (T3-RU) and 14.7 +/- 1.8 (FT4I). At the end of one week of therapy, they decreased clearly to 15.6 +/- 2.2 microng/100 ml, 457 +/- 87 ng/100 ml, 42.2 +/- 4.0% and 9.7 +/- 2.4. The so-called "escape phenomenon" from iodide inhibition was observed in serum T4, T3-RU and FT4I values at the end of two weeks of iodide therapy, while serum T3 continued to decrease but the value of T3 was far outside of the normal range. In the PTU group (300 mg/day), thyroid function parameters were 22.5 +/- 0.8 microng/100 ml (T4), greater than 592 ng/100 ml (T3), 54.9 +/- 1.0% (T3-RU) and 18.7 +/- 1.0 (FT4I) before treatment. They decreased continually week by week. At the end of four-week treatment with PTU, the value of each thyroid function parameter was 11.1 +/- 1.9 microng/100 ml, 229 +/- 56 ng/100 ml, 36.6 +/- 4.4% and 5.7 +/- 1.7. In the group of hyperthyroidism simultaneously given both PTU and iodide (300 mg/PTU and 1 mg/iodine), these thyroid function parameters decreased as well as in the group treated with PTU alone for more than two weeks. More rapid or significant decrease of T4, T3, T3-RU and ft4i in PTU+I- group than in PTU group was observed in the present study. These results suggested strongly that iodide alone was not an adequate therapy for hyperthyroidism as well known and they were also compatible with the idea that the concomitant administration of PTU and iodide was more effective in the early phase of therapy of hyperthyroidism than PTU alone. (+info)
Short-term influence of prednisone and phenobarbital on thyroid function in euthyroid dogs.
The short-term effects of prednisone and phenobarbital on serum total thyroxine (tT4), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated in euthyroid dogs. Twenty-six beagles were randomly divided into 3 groups receiving, respectively, a placebo, prednisone (1.2 to 2 mg/kg body weight, per os, every 12 hours for 3 weeks), or phenobarbital (1.8 to 3 mg/kg body weight for 1 week, then 2.7 to 4.5 mg/kg body weight, per os, every 12 hours for 2 weeks). Blood samples taken over a 6-week period were assayed for serum tT4, fT4, and TSH. Phenobarbital therapy in our study did not affect serum tT4, fT4, or TSH concentrations. Prednisone therapy, however, significantly decreased serum tT4 and fT4, but did not affect serum TSH concentrations. (+info)
Measurement of red blood cell zinc concentration with Zn-test kit: discrimination between hyperthyroid Graves' disease and transient thyrotoxicosis.
We have previously reported in patients with hyperthyroidism that the red blood cell (RBC) zinc (Zn) concentration reflects the mean thyroid hormone concentration over the preceding months. In the present study, the concentration of RBC Zn was measured by a simple and easy method with a Zn-test Wako kit. Within-run and between-run precision were 1.4% and 1.3%, respectively. The relationship between RBC concentration and dilution was linear. The average recovery was 103%. A good correlation (r=0.97) was obtained between this method and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentration of RBC Zn in 39 euthyroid controls was 12.6 +/- 1.3 mg/l, ranging from 10.4 to 15.1 mg/l. The RBC Zn concentrations in 38 patients with Graves' disease, in 10 patients with silent thyroiditis and in 3 patients with gestational thyrotoxicosis were 7.3 +/- 1.6 (3.2-9.8), 12.0 +/- 1.6 (9.5-14.2) and 11.8 +/- 1.7 (10.5-13.7) mg/l, respectively. The concentration of RBC Zn was able to differentiate hyperthyroid Graves' disease from transient thyrotoxicosis except in 1 case and was a better index than TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin. These results indicate that measuring RBC Zn with the Zinc-test Wako kit is very useful in differentiating hyperthyroid Graves' disease from transient thyrotoxicosis. (+info)
Changes in thyroid function during development of thyroid hyperplasia induced by kojic acid in F344 rats.
To clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis by kojic acid (KA), dose and time dependence of iodine uptake in the thyroid gland and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels were investigated in F344 rats fed a diet containing 2% KA. After 4 weeks, thyroid hyperplasia was apparent in males, associated with a decrease in (125)I uptake into the thyroid gland to only 3% of that in controls. The serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) levels dropped to 0.36 ng/ml, 1.7 micrograms/dl from the initial values of 0.61 ng/ml, 4.0 micrograms/dl and TSH increased seven times to 15 ng/ml. In females, the effects on thyroid weight and (125)I uptake were less prominent, although the changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels were similar to those in males. Time-dependent changes in serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels correlated with the inhibition of iodine uptake in the thyroid. Inhibition of organic iodine formation was only observed after 3 weeks treatment. On return to the control diet, normal serum T(3), T(4) and TSH levels became evident within 48 h in both sexes. These data suggest that KA interrupts thyroid function, primarily by inhibiting iodine intake, consequently causing a decrease in serum T(3) and T(4). Increased TSH from the pituitary gland in turn stimulates thyroid hyperplasia, which is reversible on withdrawal of KA. (+info)
Clinical perspectives in the diagnosis of thyroid disease.
BACKGROUND: The wide array of available thyroid diagnostic tests can help provide accurate diagnoses for most cases of thyroid disease but can be confusing and costly when used inappropriately. METHODS: Published articles were reviewed and combined with the author's clinical experience and data collected from patients. RESULTS: The discussions focus on confusing aspects of thyroid diagnostic tests, the use and limitations of the thyrotropin test to screen for thyroid dysfunction, biological factors that complicate the interpretation of this and other thyroid diagnostic tests, and a combined clinical and laboratory approach to (a) thyroid diseases with only one important dimension ("simplex" conditions) and (b) thyroid diseases with several important dimensions ("multiplex" conditions). CONCLUSION: The optimal use of thyroid diagnostic tests is patient-specific and depends on the patient's specific thyroid disease, the stage of disease, and coexisting medical conditions. (+info)
Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. METHODS: In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. RESULTS: The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings. (+info)