Use of the blue MACS: acceptance by clinical instructors and self-reports of adherence.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical instructors' (CIs') acceptance of and self-reported adherence to instructions for use of The Blue MACS (5th edition) for evaluating the clinical performance of physical therapist students. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-four usable survey instruments were returned by CIs. RESULTS: Twenty-two items from The Blue MACS were collapsed into a score representing acceptance, and 10 items were collapsed into a score representing reported adherence to instructions. Ninety-six percent of the CIs surveyed expressed a positive opinion of the instrument. Ninety-eight percent of the CIs reported at least moderately consistent adherence to instructions. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The instrument was regarded as a useful tool, and most CIs reported using the instrument according to the instructions. A positive opinion of the clinical performance assessment instrument is desirable to facilitate its use by CIs. Consistent use by different CIs is desirable to promote accurate communication among students, CIs, and the educational institution. (+info)
Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling.
Although automobile refueling represents the major source of benzene exposure among the nonsmoking public, few data are available regarding such exposures and the associated uptake of benzene. We repeatedly measured benzene exposure and uptake (via benzene in exhaled breath) among 39 self-service customers using self-administered monitoring, a technique rarely used to obtain measurements from the general public (130 sets of measurements were obtained). Benzene exposures averaged 2.9 mg/m(3) (SD = 5.8 mg/m(3); median duration = 3 min) with a range of < 0.076-36 mg/m(3), and postexposure breath levels averaged 160 microg/m(3) (SD = 260 microg/m(3)) with a range of < 3.2-1,400 microg/m(3). Log-transformed exposures and breath levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). We used mixed-effects statistical models to gauge the relative influences of environmental and subject-specific factors on benzene exposure and breath levels and to investigate the importance of various covariates obtained by questionnaire. Model fitting yielded three significant predictors of benzene exposure, namely, fuel octane grade (p = 0.0011), duration of exposure (p = 0.0054), and season of the year (p = 0.032). Likewise, another model yielded three significant predictors of benzene concentration in breath, specifically, benzene exposure (p = 0.0001), preexposure breath concentration (p = 0.0008), and duration of exposure (p = 0.038). Variability in benzene concentrations was remarkable, with 95% of the estimated values falling within a 274-fold range, and was comprised entirely of the within-person component of variance (representing exposures of the same subject at different times of refueling). The corresponding range for benzene concentrations in breath was 41-fold and was comprised primarily of the within-person variance component (74% of the total variance). Our results indicate that environmental rather than interindividual differences are primarily responsible for benzene exposure and uptake during automobile refueling. The study also demonstrates that self-administered monitoring can be efficiently used to measure environmental exposures and biomarkers among the general public. (+info)
Changes in learning-resource use across physicians' learning episodes.
INTRODUCTION: This study explores the numbers of learning resources physicians use at each stage in self-directed learning episodes addressing general problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of a statewide random sample of doctors estimated the number of resources used at each stage in solving various general problems. RESULTS: The 50% response rate for faculty allowed generalization of findings to the population of these physicians; the rate for nonfaculty physicians was too low to allow generalization. Faculty findings showed (1) broader resource use in learning about diseases than diagnosis or therapeutics (2) comparable numbers of resources used in deciding whether to take on the learning problem and learning the required skills and knowledge, (3) greater numbers of resources selected to evaluate the problem and to learn the required skills and knowledge than to gain experience with the newly learned skills and knowledge, and (4) support for assertions that doctors value learning resources that are accessible, applicable, familiar, and time effective. DISCUSSION: The findings were interpreted in light of theory describing physicians' self-directed learning episodes, and implications are presented for physicians-in-training, physicians, and medical librarians. (+info)
Multiple choice question quiz: a valid test for needs assessment in CME in rheumatology and for self assessment.
Drawing from experience in Switzerland, a test of 60 multiple choice questions covering the entire area of rheumatology was constructed and used at the international symposium of rheumatology, EULAR, Geneva 1998. It was introduced as a multiple choice question game, the language was English, and the level of acceptance was very high. Language posed only occasional problems. The reliability of the test for internal consistency was high (Cronbach alpha 0.852). One of the main target groups, the private practitioners, was the largest group of rheumatologists (nearly 50%). Evaluative statements of the participants indicate that it was a highly relevant test for rheumatology. This test is a valuable way for needs assessment in continuing medical education and for self assessment. Importantly, it has been shown that such a test can be conducted at an international level. (+info)
The process of gathering information should remain completely separate from the process of analysing it, or else assumptions can be made that might lead the organisation into some hasty training without appreciating the full picture. (+info)
Experiences and perceptions of vocational training reported by the 1999 cohort of vocational dental practitioners and their trainers in England and Wales.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the self-reported confidence of vocational dental practitioners (VDPs) in clinical procedures together with vocational trainers' perceptions of the VDPs confidence in the same procedures, immediately after qualification and towards the end of the vocational training year. DESIGN: A questionnaire-based cohort study. SETTING: A general practice study carried out in 1999. SUBJECTS: Vocational Dental Practitioners and vocational trainers in England and Wales. METHOD: VDPs and trainers were asked on a single occasion to grade the clinical confidence of the VDP at the beginning and near the end of vocational training as high, satisfactory or low. RESULTS: Questionnaires were sent to 531 VDPs and 555 trainers; 82 per cent of VDPs and trainers responded. Approximately half the VDPs were male and 57 per cent were white, whilst 89 per cent of trainers were male and 81 per cent white. A large proportion of both VDPs and trainers reported low confidence in orthodontics, molar endodontics and surgical extractions at the start of the training year. Towards the end of training, both groups reported improved confidence levels in most clinical procedures. However, a higher proportion of trainers reported low confidence than their VDPs in most clinical procedures at both time points (p<0.001). VDPs appeared to gain most from experience and training in administration/management and interpersonal skills. CONCLUSION: Vocational training appears to satisfy its aim to enhance clinical and administrative confidence. (+info)
Competency-based education in a clinical course in conservative dentistry.
The conceptual difference between a competency-based education and an education based upon a conventional dental curriculum is, perhaps, the starting point for the development of new curricula. The two systems are not, in themselves, exclusive. There is common ground to be found, and the concept of combining instruction with competency-based learning experiences is emerging in recent publications. This paper describes a competency-based approach applied to a clinical course in conservative dentistry. The learning outcomes of the fourth-year dental students in the new course were assessed using methods that included continuous clinical assessments, student presentations and peer-group reflective evaluations, patient management reviews, a clinical progress examination, the range and amount of work completed, and a written examination and viva voce. Different weightings were given to various elements of the assessment. A formal student assessment of the course rated it as being satisfactory. (+info)
University of Kentucky community-based field experience: program description.
Community-based field experiences (CBFE) provide students with exemplary experiential learning opportunities. The purposes of this paper are to describe the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry (UKCD) CBFE and report the results of a two-year, self-report survey that assessed the primary course goal, students' perceptions of change in knowledge and skills related to nineteen areas of patient care (n = 90, 100% return rate), and their overall rating of the program. Knowledge and skill data were analyzed using the non-parametric binomial test for comparing proportions. A significant (.05 level) majority of students reported increases in knowledge in all areas to which they were exposed. Descriptive frequencies summarizing the results of the total CBFE experience indicate that the majority of students felt it was a positive experience. The CBFE continues to be a meaningful element in the UKCD curriculum as it provides students with a relevant, authentic educational experience. (+info)