Long-term anoxia tolerance in leaves of Acorus calamus L. and Iris pseudacorus L.
Mature green leaves of Acorus calamus and Iris pseudacorus have been shown to survive at least 28 d of total anoxia in the dark during the growing season, increasing up to 75 d and 60 d in overwintering leaves in A. calamus and I. pseudacorus, respectively. During the period of anaerobic incubation the glycolytic rate is reduced, carbohydrate reserves are conserved and ethanol levels in the tissues reached an equilibrium. Prolonged anoxia significantly suppressed leaf capacity for respiration and photosynthesis. After 28 d of anoxia, respiratory capacity was reduced in A. calamus and I. pseudacorus by 80% and 90%, respectively. The photosynthetic capacity of leaves decreased by 83% in A. calamus and by 97% in I. pseudacorus after 28 d of anoxia. This reduction in photosynthetic capacity was accompanied by a modification of the chlorophyll fluorescence pattern indicating damage to the PSII reaction centre and subsequent electron transport. Chlorophyll content was only slightly reduced after 28 d under anoxia and darkness in A. calamus, whereas there was a 50% reduction in I. pseudacorus. On return to air A. calamus leaves that endured 28 d of anoxia recovered full photosynthetic activity within 7 d while those of I. pseudacorus had a lag phase of 3-10 d. This well-developed ability to endure prolonged periods of oxygen deprivation in both these species is associated with a down-regulation in metabolic activity in response to the imposition of anaerobiosis. It is suggested that when leaf damage eventually does take place in these species after protracted oxygen deprivation, it is anoxic rather than post-anoxic stress that is responsible. (+info)
Cycloartane glycosides from Cimicifuga dahurica.
A new cycloartane bisdesmoside and two new trinorcycloartane glycosides, along with four known cycloartane compounds, were isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga dahurica (Ranunculaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl cimigenol 15-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 24-hydroxy-12beta-acetoxy-25,26,27-trinorcycloartan-16,23-dione 3beta-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, and 16alpha,24alpha-dihydroxy-12beta acetoxy-25,26,27-trinor-16,24-cyclocycloartan-23-one 3beta-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside by extensive NMR methods, FAB-MS, and hydrolysis. (+info)
Purification, characterization, immunolocalization and structural analysis of the abundant cytoplasmic beta-amylase from Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed) rhizomes.
An abundant catalytically active beta-amylase (EC 18.104.22.168) was isolated from resting rhizomes of hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium). Biochemical analysis of the purified protein, molecular modeling, and cloning of the corresponding gene indicated that this enzyme resembles previously characterized plant beta-amylases with regard to its amino-acid sequence, molecular structure and catalytic activities. Immunolocalization demonstrated that the beta-amylase is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. It is suggested that the hedge bindweed rhizome beta-amylase is a cytoplasmic vegetative storage protein. (+info)
Effects of polysaccharides from rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria on macrophage functions.
The effects of Curcuma zedoaria, which is used as a condiment, in perfumery, and as a medicine, on immune response were investigated by measuring macrophage-stimulating activity in macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, CZ-1 and CZ-1-III, the fractions partially purified from C. zedoaria, had a strong, dose-dependent lysosomal enzyme activity. It was suggested that active portions of CZ-1-III were polysaccharides rather than proteins. Phagocytic activity increased as a similar pattern in both the gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, time-dependently. It was demonstrated that CZ-1-III can augment the oxygen burst response but had an even higher activity in vivo than in vitro. Also a significant increase of H2O2, NO, and TNF-alpha production was observed. However, the production of TNF-alpha at the concentration of 1,000 microg/ml decreased. These data suggested that C. zedoaria had macrophage-stimulating activity and the possibility of being used as a biological response modifier. (+info)
Cycloartane glycosides from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa and their cytotoxic activities.
Phytochemical analysis of the rhizomes of Cimicifuga racemosa (Ranunculaceae) resulted in the isolation of twelve cycloartane glycosides (1--12), including four new ones (4--6, 12). The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR data, and chemical methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). (+info)
Protein kinase C activation by iridal type triterpenoids.
Eleven iridal type triterpenoids from Iris tectorum and Belamcanda chinensis were examined for protein kinase C (PKC) activation and binding activity to PKC. Among the tested compounds, nine iridals showed dose-dependent activities, and a mutual relation between the two activities was also observed. 28-Deacetylbelamcandal, which has been found to be a new class 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate type tumor promoter, showed the most potent activity in both tests. The structural requirements of the iridals inducing these activities were as follows: 1) a hydrophobic side-chain, 2) an E-methylidene aldehyde group at the C-1 position, and 3) a hydroxyl group at the C-26 position. (+info)
Genes from the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA lineages are expressed in developing vascular bundles of the tuberous rhizome, flowering stem and flower Primordia of Eranthis hyemalis.
In Arabidopsis thaliana expression of the B-class MADS-box genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) is confined to petals and stamens but in other plant species these genes are also transcribed in non-flower tissues; in Solanum tuberosum they are transcribed specifically in vascular bundles leading to petals and stamens. Transcription analysis of B-class genes in Eranthis hyemalis using reverse transcribed in situ PCR revealed that both AP3 and PI are expressed in developing vascular bundles in the tuberous rhizome, flowering stem and floral primordia. In addition, AP3 and PI transcripts are also found in stems and leaves. These results suggest a more complex role of B-class genes in Eranthis and possible involvement in the development of vascular tissue. (+info)
New farnesane-type sesquiterpenes, hedychiols A and B 8,9-diacetate, and inhibitors of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells from the rhizome of Hedychium coronarium.
Two new farnesane-type sesquiterpenes, hedychiols A and B 8,9-diacetate, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fresh rhizome of Hedychium coronarium KOEN. cultivated in Japan. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of isolated constituents on the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells were examined, and hedychilactone A and coronarin D were found to show the inhibitory activity. (+info)