Activation in vivo of retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus, a simian homologue of human herpesvirus-8.
Retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus of rhesus macaques (RFHVMm) is a gammaherpesvirus closely related to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), which is thought to be a necessary cofactor for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in humans. Here, RFHVMm infection of rhesus macaques exposed to the D-type retrovirus simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) is described. Development of SRV-2 viraemia, infection with simian immunodeficiency virus or administration of cyclosporin A could result in persistent RFHVMm viraemia. From this, it is concluded that productive retrovirus infection or otherwise-induced immune suppression has the ability to activate this herpesvirus in vivo. Elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6, a cytokine that plays a central role in KS, were found in RFHVMm-viraemic animals. In viraemic animals, RFHVMm was found in tissues that are common sites for the development of AIDS-associated KS, especially the oral cavity. Together, these data suggest a common biology between RFHVMm infection of macaques and HHV-8 infection and pathogenesis in humans. (+info)
Idiopathic cervical and retroperitoneal fibrosis: report of a case treated with steroids.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis in a 12-year-old boy is reported. This was associated with a fibrotic mass in the neck which resolved spontaneously. Right-sided ureteric obstruction responded to treatment with steroids. (+info)
Systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis.
We describe a case of hydronephrosis as a result of retroperitoneal fibrosis in a patient who had previous sclerosing lobulitis of the breast. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported association between these two conditions in the english literature. We presume these conditions are linked and unify them under the general heading of systemic multifocal fibrosclerosis. (+info)
A case of ureteric obstruction, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and carcinoid tumour.
We report the incidental finding at surgery for retroperitoneal fibrosis of a carcinoid tumour causing complete right ureteric obstruction. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is an uncommon inflammatory disease that leads to extensive fibrosis throughout the retroperitoneum. It can occur at any age, peak incidence being in patients between 40 and 60 years of age. Carcinoid tumours arise from enterochromaffin or amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells that occur in gastrointestinal tract. Carcinoid tumours are an uncommon clinical entity and incidence varies with gender and age. No association between retroperitoneal fibrosis and carcinoid tumour has been previously reported in the English literature, although one case has been reported in a French journal. (+info)
Obstructive nephropathy as a result of retroperitoneal fibrosis: a review of its pathogenesis and associations.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare disease, typically with an insidious clinical course. It is thought that this disease process is perhaps an exaggerated reaction to an inciting inflammatory event. In this study, a case of retroperitoneal fibrosis is reported, in which the patient presented with typical symptoms of retroperitoneal fibrosis, along with some atypical vasculitic symptomatology. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a disease process with an unknown etiology, which has been observed to be associated with a number of different possible inciting factors. Two factors that have been documented in the literature as being associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis include the use of beta-blocking agents, and connective tissue disease processes such as systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient discussed was using beta-blocker medication and also had signs and symptoms suggestive of a lupus syndrome. There are no reported cases of the combined association of beta-blocker usage, lupus, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. (+info)
Hypertensive encephalopathy in a patient with retroperitoneal fibrosis.
A patient presented with retroperitoneal fibrosis but without any ureteric obstruction. The diagnosis was made by an abdominal CT scan and also at laparotomy. Post-operatively, she developed hypertensive encephalopathy. An isotope renogram with captopril was abnormal but not diagnostic of renal artery stenosis. The patient's condition improved with steroid and antihypertensive treatment. A follow-up CT scan showed complete resolution of peri-aortic thickening. A causative link is postulated between retroperitoneal fibrosis, trauma during laparotomy, and onset of acute hypertension. (+info)
Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm: A postoperative course of retroperitoneal fibrosis.
PURPOSE: The long-term outcome and the development of retroperitoneal fibrosis after surgery on an inflammatory aortic aneurysm was studied. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, 1035 patients underwent surgery for an abdominal aneurysm, 42 of whom (4.1%) had typical signs of inflammation. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scans before operation, and 26 patients were followed up with a CT scan after a median of 36 months (range, 10 to 91 months). RESULTS: The inflammatory layer resolved completely in only 23% of the patients. One patient had marked progression, 35% of patients showed improvement, and the remaining patients had no change, compared with the preoperative findings. Although clinical symptoms subsided in 90% of patients, in five cases an involvement of the ureter or intestine that did not exist at the time of operation developed. Although ureteral involvement to the inflammation tends to subside after surgery, persisting fibrosis was associated with ureteral entrapment in 30% of these cases and resulted in renal compromise in 49%. Hydronephrosis that was not present at the time of operation was found in 19% of patients, despite improving or stable inflammatory lesions. CONCLUSION: This case-control study supports the findings that retroperitoneal fibrosis persists longer than previously thought, and progression might even occur. Formerly uninvolved organs might become included in the process despite regression of the layer, leading to considerable problems if the condition is not treated in institutions familiar with this complex disease. We advocate a moderated follow-up scheme, as in the case of ordinary abdominal aortic aneurysm, and the need for long-term surveillance of inflammatory aneurysms. (+info)
Riedel's thyroiditis in multifocal fibrosclerosis: CT and MR imaging findings.
Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and may be seen isolated or as a part of multifocal fibrosclerosis. It is important to distinguish Riedel's thyroiditis from thyroid carcinoma. Reports about imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis are limited in the radiologic literature. We describe herein CT and MR imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis in a case of multifocal fibrosclerosis with previously unreported radiologic observations. (+info)