Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.
Commercial sex workers (CSWs) serve as the most important reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including gonorrhea. Periodic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a high-risk population provides essential clues regarding the rapidly changing pattern of antimicrobial susceptibilities. A study concerning the prevalence of gonococcal infection among CSWs was conducted in Bangladesh. The isolates were examined with regards to their antimicrobial susceptibility to, and the MICs of, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The total plasmid profile of the isolates was also analyzed. Of the 224 CSWs, 94 (42%) were culture positive for N. gonorrhoeae. There was a good correlation between the results of the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Some 66% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin, and 34% were moderately susceptible to penicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 23.4% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG). 60.6% of the isolates were resistant and 38.3% were moderately susceptible to tetracycline, 17.5% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, 11.7% were resistant and 26.6% had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, 2.1% were resistant and 11.7% had reduced susceptibility to cefuroxime, and 1% were resistant to ceftriaxone. All PPNG isolates contained a 3.2-MDa African type of plasmid, and a 24.2-MDa conjugative plasmid was present in 34.1% of the isolates. Since quinolones such as ciprofloxacin are recommended as the first line of therapy for gonorrhea, the emergence of significant resistance to ciprofloxacin will limit the usefulness of this drug for treatment of gonorrhea in Bangladesh. (+info)
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal specimens from female commercial sex workers using a new improved enzyme immunoassay.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a new improved enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens from female commercial sex workers, in comparison with a conventional EIA test and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. METHODS: A high risk group of 163 female commercial sex workers who visited a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in order to undergo screening for major STDs, including chlamydial infection, were enrolled. A total of four swab specimens, including two vaginal and two endocervical specimens, were collected from each woman by a clinician. To identify C trachomatis, a new improved EIA kit (IDEIA PCE), a conventional EIA kit (IDEIA), and PCR assay (Amplicor) were used. Discrepancies in the results were resolved using supplementary PCR assay. A female patient was considered to be infected with C trachomatis if the IDEIA PCE test and PCR test for both sample sites (endocervical and vaginal) gave positive results. Following resolution of these discrepancies, relative sensitivity and specificity, confidence intervals, and predictive values for each type of specimen by each assay were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 163 women tested, 35 (21.5%) were shown to be infected with C trachomatis. The relative sensitivities in vaginal swab specimens were 88.8%, 68.6%, and 91.4% using IDEIA PCE, IDEIA, and PCR, respectively. The relative specificities in vaginal swab specimens were 99.2%, 99.2%, and 100%, respectively. The relative sensitivities in endocervical swab specimens were 85.7%, 77.1%, and 91.4% with IDEIA PCE, IDEIA, and PCR, respectively. The relative specificities in endocervical swab specimens were all 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IDEIA PCE test on vaginal swab and endocervical swab specimens were similar to those of PCR assay on the two types of specimen. It is concluded that IDEIA PCE test on vaginal swab specimens is an acceptable, sensitive, and less invasive approach for the detection of C trachomatis in commercial sex workers with a high prevalence of C trachomatis infection. (+info)
Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serology of syphilis, HIV, and HBV. RESULTS: A total of 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.3) of the population were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. The general prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was 6.3% (95% CI 5.5-7.1). This marker of previous exposition to HBV, was independently associated by logistic regression multivariate analysis with age, working in the street, and history of blood transfusion (BT) before 1987 (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.1-11.3). Syphilis prevalence was 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-8.9) and HIV prevalence was 0.1% (95% CI 0-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV infection in this group of Mexican FSW is lower than previously reported in other countries. In addition, the frequency of HBsAg carriers is similar to that in the general Mexican population. The absence of two major risk factors for HBV transmission in this group of FSW--that is, injecting drug use and anal intercourse, could help to explain this finding. However, the positive association between anti-HBc and history of blood transfusion demonstrated here, highlights the need to reinforce strict control of blood supplies in Mexico. (+info)
AIDS-related perceptions and condom use of prostitutes in Korea.
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes of prostitutes on condom use from diverse 'sex markers' in Korea. The data were collected by interviewers at five different 'sex markets'. During March 1993, research assistants at the Institute of Health Services Research interviewed 371 prostitutes visiting sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Multiple regression method was used in identifying the determinants of condom use. The level of condom use was regressed on personal characteristics of prostitutes, AIDS-related perceptions, and market type. Prostitutes' level of condom use turned out to be different across the markets featuring diverse types of services and fees. Neither perceived vulnerability nor perceived seriousness of AIDS had significant effects on condom use. Our findings suggested that the many AIDS-preventive educational efforts by STD clinics are ineffective. Hence, individual STD clinics need to develop AIDS-preventive education programs which are suitable for the unique circumstances of their respective 'sex markets'. (+info)
Association of Chlamydia trachomatis heat-shock protein 60 antibody and HLA class II DQ alleles.
A total of 113 female commercial sex workers had individual alleles for HLA class II genes determined by using labeled sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes to hybridize to polymerase chain reaction products of amplified DNA. Women also had microimmunofluorescent (MIF) antibody titers to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies and ELISA antibody to recombinant chlamydial heat-shock protein 60 (Chsp60) determined. Women were prospectively followed at monthly intervals over 2 years for incident C. trachomatis infection and acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). HLA DQA1*0401 and DQB1*0402 alleles were statistically associated with increased prevalence and amount of antibody to Chsp60 but not MIF antibody. However, these alleles did not alter the risk for chlamydial PID. The potential role that HLA DQ may play in chlamydial disease pathogenesis requires further study. (+info)
Analysis of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 infection in women with high risk sexual behaviour in Mexico.
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the seroprevalence and risk factors of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in a group of female prostitutes from Mexico City. METHODS: Women who consented to participate in the study voluntarily attended a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic during 1992. A standardized questionnaire was administered and a blood sample was obtained from each participant. Type-specific Western blot serology was performed to determine the serostatus of HSV-1 and HSV-2 for participants. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify variables associated with an increased risk for HSV infection. RESULTS: Prevalences of infection among the 997 prostitutes studied were 93.9% for HSV-1 and 60.8% for HSV-2. Only 1.8% of the women were seronegative for both viruses. The only variable associated with HSV-1 seropositivity was crowding index. The following variables were associated with an increased risk for infection with HSV-2: age, level of education, working site, born outside Mexico City and increasing time as a prostitute. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first assessment of HSV infection in Mexico and may be useful for the development and application of control and preventive measures among the prostitute population at risk of acquiring and transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other STD. (+info)
Sexual behaviour of commercial sex workers and their clients in Cambodia. Japan-Cambodia Collaborating Research Group.
OBJECTIVE: This study surveyed the sexual behaviour of commercial sex workers and their clients in an attempt to identify factors of transmission of STDs (including HIV/AIDS) and to control their epidemics in Cambodia and South-East Asia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Trained questioners asked items of the questionnaires to each objective subject in December 1996. Data were analysed to show the descriptive status by risk group of each person. PARTICIPANTS: 200 direct commercial sex workers, 220 indirect commercial sex workers, and 211 clients in Phnom Penh. RESULTS: Prostitution was widely accepted by both young males and females, and this was an easy way for young girls to obtain money. Although commercial sex workers and clients were knowledgeable about prevention methods against STDs, they seldom used condoms. Some commercial sex workers had been infected with STDs many times, and many of them incompletely treated the diseases by themselves. Social support from governmental and non-governmental organisation was poor. CONCLUSIONS: It is very important to support both commercial sex workers in practicing preventive methods against STDs and also visiting physicians when they notice symptoms of STDs. It is strongly recommended that not only governmental but also non-governmental organisations should be more active in this area. (+info)
Risk factors for human T cell lymphotropic virus type II infection among the Guaymi Indians of Panama.
To examine risk factors for human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection, a case-control study was conducted among the Guaymi Indians of Panama. In females, HTLV-II seropositivity was associated with early sexual intercourse (15 years; odds ratio [OR], 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-6.14) and number of lifetime sex partners. One partner increased risk of seropositivity by 30% (OR, 1.30; CI, 1.05-1.64), and risk increased with number of partners. Similar risk was associated with number of long-term sexual relationships. Among males, intercourse with prostitutes was associated with HTLV-II seropositivity (OR, 1.68; CI, 1.04-2.72). These data support a role for sexual transmission in HTLV-II infection. Association of seropositivity with primary residence in a traditional village (OR, 3.75; CI, 1.02-15.38) and lack of formal education (0 vs. >6 years [OR, 3.89; CI, 1.67-9.82]) observed in males may reflect differences in sexual practices associated with acculturation. (+info)