The Arabidopsis photomorphogenic mutant hy1 is deficient in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis as a result of a mutation in a plastid heme oxygenase.
The HY1 locus of Arabidopsis is necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis and is defined by mutants that show a long hypocotyl phenotype when grown in the light. We describe here the molecular cloning of the HY1 gene by using chromosome walking and mutant complementation. The product of the HY1 gene shows significant similarity to animal heme oxygenases and contains a possible transit peptide for transport to plastids. Heme oxygenase activity was detected in the HY1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Heme oxygenase catalyzes the oxygenation of heme to biliverdin, an activity that is necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. The predicted transit peptide is sufficient to transport the green fluorescent protein into chloroplasts. The accumulation of the HY1 protein in plastids was detected by using immunoblot analysis with an anti-HY1 antiserum. These results indicate that the Arabidopsis HY1 gene encodes a plastid heme oxygenase necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. (+info)
Plastidic pathway of serine biosynthesis. Molecular cloning and expression of 3-phosphoserine phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
In plants, Ser is biosynthesized by two different pathways: a photorespiratory pathway via Gly and a plastidic pathway via the phosphorylated metabolites from 3-phosphoglycerate. In contrast to the better characterization of the photorespiratory pathway at a molecular level, the molecular regulation and significance of the plastidic pathway are not yet well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding 3-phosphoserine phosphatase, the enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of 3-phosphoserine to Ser in the final step of the plastidic pathway of Ser biosynthesis, was cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli serB- mutant. The 1.1-kilobase pair full-length cDNA, encoding 295 amino acids in its open reading frame, contains a putative organelle targeting presequence. Chloroplastic targeting has been demonstrated by particle gun bombardment using an N-terminal 60-amino acid green fluorescence protein fusion protein. Southern hybridization suggested the existence of a single-copy gene that mapped to chromosome 1. 3-Phosphoserine phosphatase enzyme activity was detected in vitro in the overexpressed protein in E. coli. Northern analysis revealed preferential gene expression in leaf and root tissues of light-grown plants with an approximately 1.5-fold abundance in the root compared with the leaf tissues. This indicates the possible role of the plastidic pathway in supplying Ser to non-photosynthetic tissues, in contrast to the function of the photorespiratory pathway in photosynthetic tissues. This work completes the molecular cloning and characterization of the three genes involved in the plastidic pathway of Ser biosynthesis in higher plants. (+info)
Plastid sedimentation kinetics in roots of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis.
Sedimentation and movement of plastids in columella cells of the root cap were measured in seedlings of wild-type, a reduced starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis. To assay for sedimentation, we used both linear measurements and the change of angle from the cell center as indices in vertical and reoriented plants with the aid of computer-assisted image analysis. Seedlings were fixed at short periods after reorientation, and plastid sedimentation correlated with starch content in the three strains of Arabidopsis. Amyloplasts of wild-type seedlings showed the greatest sedimentation, whereas plastids of the starchless mutant showed no significant sedimentation in the vertically grown and reoriented seedlings. Because previous research has shown that a full complement of starch is needed for full gravitropic sensitivity, this study correlates increased sensitivity with plastid sedimentation. However, although plastid sedimentation contributed to gravisensitivity, it was not required, because the gravitropic starchless mutant had plastids that did not sediment. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to measure plastid sedimentation in Arabidopsis roots after reorientation of seedlings. Taken together, the results of this study are consistent with the classic plastid-based and protoplast-based models of graviperception and suggest that multiple systems of perception exist in plant cells. (+info)
Homeologous plastid DNA transformation in tobacco is mediated by multiple recombination events.
Efficient plastid transformation has been achieved in Nicotiana tabacum using cloned plastid DNA of Solanum nigrum carrying mutations conferring spectinomycin and streptomycin resistance. The use of the incompletely homologous (homeologous) Solanum plastid DNA as donor resulted in a Nicotiana plastid transformation frequency comparable with that of other experiments where completely homologous plastid DNA was introduced. Physical mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis of the targeted plastid DNA region in the transformants demonstrated efficient site-specific integration of the 7.8-kb Solanum plastid DNA and the exclusion of the vector DNA. The integration of the cloned Solanum plastid DNA into the Nicotiana plastid genome involved multiple recombination events as revealed by the presence of discontinuous tracts of Solanum-specific sequences that were interspersed between Nicotiana-specific markers. Marked position effects resulted in very frequent cointegration of the nonselected peripheral donor markers located adjacent to the vector DNA. Data presented here on the efficiency and features of homeologous plastid DNA recombination are consistent with the existence of an active RecA-mediated, but a diminished mismatch, recombination/repair system in higher-plant plastids. (+info)
A plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from oilseed rape.
The biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lipids, is controlled by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or 1-acyl-glycerol-3-P) acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 18.104.22.168). We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel LPAAT by functional complementation of the Escherichia coli mutant plsC with an immature embryo cDNA library of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Transformation of the acyltransferase-deficient E. coli strain JC201 with the cDNA sequence BAT2 alleviated the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the plsC mutant and conferred a palmitoyl-coenzyme A-preferring acyltransferase activity to membrane fractions. The BAT2 cDNA encoded a protein of 351 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kD and an isoelectric point of 9.7. Chloroplast-import experiments showed processing of a BAT2 precursor protein to a mature protein of approximately 32 kD, which was localized in the membrane fraction. BAT2 is encoded by a minimum of two genes that may be expressed ubiquitously. These data are consistent with the identity of BAT2 as the plastidial enzyme of the prokaryotic glycerol-3-P pathway that uses a palmitoyl-ACP to produce phosphatidic acid with a prokaryotic-type acyl composition. The homologies between the deduced protein sequence of BAT2 with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microsomal LAP acytransferases suggest that seed microsomal forms may have evolved from the plastidial enzyme. (+info)
Molecular phylogenetic analysis among bryophytes and tracheophytes based on combined data of plastid coded genes and the 18S rRNA gene.
The basal relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes is problematic in land plant phylogeny. In addition to cladistic analyses of morphological data, molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the plastic gene rbcL have been performed, but no confident conclusions have been reached. Using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method, we analyzed 4,563 bp of aligned sequences from plastid protein-coding genes and 1,680 bp from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. In the ML tree of deduced amino acid sequences of the plastid genes, hornworts were basal among the land plants, while mosses and liverworts each formed a clade and were sister to each other. Total-evidence evaluation of rRNA data and plastid protein-coding genes by TOTALML had an almost identical result. (+info)
Comparative analysis of splicing of the complete set of chloroplast group II introns in three higher plant mutants.
The barley mutant albostrians and the maize mutants crs1 and crs2 are defective in the splicing of various plastid group II introns. By analysing tRNA precursors and several mRNAs not previously examined, the investigation of in vivo splicing defects in these mutants has been completed. The albostrians mutation causes the loss of plastid ribosomes resulting secondarily in a disruption of splicing of all subgroup IIA introns in the chloroplast. Thus MatK, the only putative chloroplast intron-specific maturase of higher plants, might have evolved to function in splicing of multiple introns. We show that in the case of tRNA-Ala(UGC)the first step of splicing is affected, as suggested by the absence of lariat molecules. Thus the plastid-encoded splicing factor lacking in albostrians must participate in the formation of the catalytically active structure. In contrast, a mutation in the nuclear gene crs1 prevents splicing of only one intron but causes specific additional effects as precursor transcripts for tRNA-Ile(GAU), tRNA-Ala(UGC), tRNA-Lys(UUU)and tRNA-Val(UAC), but not tRNA-Gly(UCC), have significantly enhanced steady-state levels in this mutant. Our data provide evidence for a variety of splicing factors and pathways in the chloroplast, some encoded by nuclear and some by chloroplast genes, and possibly for a dual function of some of these factors. (+info)
The phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator is required for phenolic metabolism, palisade cell development, and plastid-dependent nuclear gene expression.
The Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b binding protein (CAB) gene underexpressed 1 (cue1) mutant underexpresses light-regulated nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. cue1 also exhibits mesophyll-specific chloroplast and cellular defects, resulting in reticulate leaves. Both the gene underexpression and the leaf cell morphology phenotypes are dependent on light intensity. In this study, we determine that CUE1 encodes the plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) and define amino acid residues that are critical for translocator function. The biosynthesis of aromatics is compromised in cue1, and the reticulate phenotype can be rescued by feeding aromatic amino acids. Determining that CUE1 encodes PPT indicates the in vivo role of the translocator in metabolic partitioning and reveals a mesophyll cell-specific requirement for the translocator in Arabidopsis leaves. The nuclear gene expression defects in cue1 suggest that a light intensity-dependent interorganellar signal is modulated through metabolites dependent on a plastid supply of phosphoenolpyruvate. (+info)