Nematode intestinal parasites of children in rural Guinea, Africa: prevalence and relationship to geophagia.
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitism is common among children in developing countries, but the risk factors for infection are not well characterized. METHODS: A stool examination was performed on 286 randomly selected children aged 1-18 years from three rural villages in Guinea, Africa. Information collected by questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between geophagia and infection with intestinal nematodes acquired by ingestion versus skin penetration. RESULTS: Fifty-three per cent of children were infected by at least one type of soil-transmitted nematode. Geophagia was reported by parents to occur in 57%, 53%, and 43%, of children ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years, respectively. The pattern of geophagia by age and gender of the children more closely resembled the infection pattern for the two orally acquired and soil-transmitted nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura) than it did the infection pattern for the two soil-transmitted nematodes that infect by skin penetration (hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that geophagia is an important risk factor for orally acquired nematode infections in African children. Education regarding geophagia prevention should be an integral component of any soil-transmitted parasite control programme. (+info)
Doxorubicin-cisplatin chemotherapy for high-grade nonosteogenic sarcoma of bone. Comparison of treatment and control groups.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of chemotherapy with a combination of doxorubicin (adriamycin) and cisplatin in high-grade, nonosteogenic, non-Ewing's sarcoma (non-OSA) of bone. DESIGN: A case series comparison with a literature-derived control group. SETTING: A university-affiliated tertiary care centre. PATIENTS: Thirty patients with a diagnosis of non-OSA. Of these, 8 had low-grade disease (grade 1 or 2) and 22 had high-grade disease (grade 3). Eleven of the 22 with high-grade disease had malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Seventeen patients with nonmetastatic high-grade non-OSA were compared with a literature cohort of 37 patients who met the eligibility criteria of nonmetastatic, high-grade non-OSA treated with surgery, with or without radiotherapy. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months. INTERVENTIONS: Eight patients with low-grade tumour underwent surgery alone; 22 patients with high-grade tumour underwent surgery and 6 courses of adriamycin (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease-free survival and overall survival in those with high-grade tumours treated with or without chemotherapy. RESULTS: Of 8 patients who had low-grade tumours and underwent surgery alone, 3 had systemic relapse. Of the 22 having high-grade tumours, 4 did not receive chemotherapy because of age and comorbid conditions. Of the other 18, 13 received 3 courses of chemotherapy preoperatively and 3 courses postoperatively, 4 received all 6 courses postoperatively and 1 received all chemotherapy preoperatively to treat metastatic disease. In the 17-patient cohort used for comparison with the literature control group, disease-free survival was 57% at a mean follow-up of 25.6 months and overall survival was 57% at a mean follow-up of 30.1 months. In the control group, disease-free survival was 16% at a mean follow-up of 20.9 months and overall survival was 26% at a mean follow-up of 29.9 months. These differences are significant: p = 0.0000, chi 2 = 41.61 for disease-free survival and p = 0.0000, chi 2 = 46.49 for overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with high-grade non-OSA, in whom malignant fibrous histiocytoma was the predominant histologic subtype. (+info)
The hazards of vinyl glove ingestion in the mentally retarded patient with pica: new implications for surgical management.
OBJECTIVE: To report experience with the treatment of complications of vinyl glove ingestion in mentally retarded patients with pica. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Two university-affiliated hospitals. PATIENTS: Five mentally retarded patients, 4 with a history of pica, who were admitted for the management of complications resulting from the ingestion of vinyl gloves. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type of complication, treatment and operative outcome. FINDINGS: The patients ranged in age from 26 to 46 years. One patient died while awaiting surgical consultation of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from a large gastric ulcer caused by a vinyl glove bezoar (VGB). Four VGBs were removed surgically. Endoscopic removal was difficult or impossible because the gloves had become hardened and matted. CONCLUSIONS: VGB should be considered in institutionalized mentally retarded people with a history of pica when they present with gastrointestinal symptoms. VGBs should be removed directly by laparotomy, gastrotomy or enterotomy. Endoscopic removal is not recommended. (+info)
Multicomponent assessment and treatment of cigarette pica.
We conducted a multicomponent assessment and treatment for 4 individuals who engaged in cigarette pica. During Phase 1, three stimulus preference assessments were conducted to identify (a) the reinforcing component of the cigarette, (b) potential alternative reinforcers that may be used during treatment, and (c) whether the alternative reinforcer would compete effectively with cigarettes. Results were successful in identifying the reinforcing component of the cigarette and suggested the feasibility of using alternative reinforcers during treatment to eliminate cigarette pica. During Phase 2, the effects of two treatment procedures were evaluated. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with the alternative edible reinforcer reduced the pica of 2 of the participants, but effects were not maintained when the initial dense schedule of NCR was thinned. Subsequently, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior with the alternative edible reinforcer was effective in reducing pica for 3 participants. An evaluation of nine treatment procedures failed to identify an effective intervention for the remaining participant; consequently, preventive measures were designed to minimize occurrences of cigarette pica. (+info)
Pica during pregnancy in low-income women born in Mexico.
OBJECTIVE: To describe pica behavior (ingestion of nonfood items) in pregnant low-income Mexican-born women in Mexico and the United States. DESIGN: A convenience sample of informants was interviewed with a questionnaire containing open-ended and closed-ended questions. SETTING: A low-income community on the outskirts of Ensenada, Mexico, and clinics serving low-income people in southern California (Santa Ana, Bakersfield, and Los Angeles). PARTICIPANTS: Of a total of 225 Mexican-born women, 75 (33%) were interviewed in Ensenada, and 150 (67%) were interviewed in southern California. RESULTS: The prevalence of pica during pregnancy was 44% (n = 33) in the Ensenada group and 31% (n = 46) in the southern California group. Those who reported pica behavior more commonly had a relative who also practiced pica. CONCLUSION: The high reported rate of pica in this sample indicates that pregnant Mexican-born women should be screened for pica and educated about the potentially serious effects on the fetus and mother. (+info)
A case of lead poisoning due to snooker chalk.
A 3 year, 9 month old child with pica presented with a blood lead concentration of 1.74 micromol/l (360 microg/l). The source of poisoning was snooker chalk (lead content 7200 microg/g). She was treated with intravenous calcium disodium edetate chelation. Thirty months later her blood lead was 0.39 micromol/l (80 microg/l). This case illustrates the need to be vigilant for more unusual causes of lead poisoning in the home. (+info)
The effects of a vitamin supplement on the pica of a child with severe mental retardation.
The effects of a common multiple vitamin on the pica of a child with severe mental retardation and anemia were evaluated. A BAB design revealed that pica was decreased by the vitamin. The results suggest that pica can be effectively treated by implementation of a simple nutritional or biological intervention. Further research investigating the generality of this finding and the effects of combining biological and behavioral interventions are discussed. (+info)
Zinc deficiency occurring in females. Report of two cases.
The syndrome of dwarfism, hypogonadism, iron-deficiency anemia and geophagia, first reported in 1960 from Iran, was thought to be limited to males. In 1971-1972 two females with the same clinical features were observed over a 14-month period. The anemia responded rapidly to iron. Growth and sexual development occurred promptly when 120 mg of zinc sulfate was administered daily in conjunction with a well-balanced diet and iron supplement. This diet prior to the addition of zinc sulfate, resulted in gradual but much slower growth and sexual development. Observations in these two patients provide confirmation of the occurrence of human zinc deficiency in females, which responds to large doses of zinc salt. (+info)