Real-time PCR detection of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters: comparison of oligonucleotide primers and probes targeting vvhA.
We compared three sets of oligonucleotide primers and two probes designed for Vibrio vulnificus hemolysin A gene (vvhA) for TaqMan-based real-time PCR method enabling specific detection of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters. Two of three sets of primers with a probe were specific for the detection of all 81 V. vulnificus isolates by TaqMan PCR. The 25 nonvibrio and 12 other vibrio isolates tested were negative. However, the third set of primers, F-vvh1059 and R-vvh1159, with the P-vvh1109 probe, although positive for all V. vulnificus isolates, also exhibited positive cycle threshold (C(T)) values for other Vibrio spp. Optimization of the TaqMan PCR assay using F-vvh785/R-vvh990 or F-vvh731/R-vvh1113 primers and the P-vvh874 probe detected 1 pg of purified DNA and 10(3) V. vulnificus CFU/ml in pure cultures. The enriched oyster tissue homogenate did not exhibit detectable inhibition to the TaqMan PCR amplification of vvhA. Detection of 3 x 10(3) CFU V. vulnificus, resulting from a 5-h enrichment of an initial inoculum of 1 CFU/g of oyster tissue homogenate, was achieved with F-vvh785/R-vvh990 or F-vvh731/R-vvh1113 primers and P-vvh875 probe. The application of the TaqMan PCR using these primers and probe, exhibited detection of V. vulnificus on 5-h-enriched natural oysters harvested from the Gulf of Mexico. Selection of appropriate primers and a probe on vvhA for TaqMan-PCR-based detection of V. vulnificus in post-harvest-treated oysters would help avoid false-positive results, thus ensuring a steady supply of safe oysters to consumers and reducing V. vulnificus-related illnesses and deaths. (+info)
Branchial lesions associated with abundant apoptotic cells in oysters Ostrea edulis of Galicia (NW Spain).
An experiment to evaluate differences in growth, mortality and disease susceptibility among Ostrea edulis stocks was performed. Five families were produced from each of 4 oyster populations (Irish, Greek and 2 Galician). The spat were transferred to a raft in the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, Spain) for grow-out. Monthly samples of each family were histologically processed from 2001 to 2003. One of the pathological conditions discovered by this study was the occurrence of extensive branchial lesions characterized by haemocytic infiltration and loss of branchial architecture. Furthermore, abundant atypical cells occurred among the haemocytes in the lesions in the branchial connective and epithelial tissues, but rarely in the mantle. These cells were contracted in size with nuclei showing chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Some nuclear chromatin aggregated under the nuclear membranes into crescent shapes, whereas others were uniformly dense. Those characteristics suggested that the cells were apoptotic haemocytes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay using the Apoptag Kit on paraffin sections. A low prevalence of gill lesions was detected in some, but not all, families of every origin peaking in July 2002 and April 2003. No etiologic agent was identified by either histology or TEM; thus, the cause of the abundance of apoptotic cells remains unclear. (+info)
Development of a TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of Bonamia species.
The development of molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity compared with conventional histological techniques is highly desirable for effective management of bonamiosis in cultured oyster stocks and wild populations. A real-time TaqMan PCR assay was developed for the specific detection of Bonamia species in infected oyster tissues. The TaqMan assay was shown to be significantly more sensitive than histopathology. Although a real-time TaqMan PCR assay is comparable with conventional PCR in terms of sensitivity, it offers the advantages that it is a rapid test and has a very low risk of sample cross-contamination. Furthermore, it can be optimised to quantify the parasite load in samples. The assay detected Bonamia isolates from Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Canada, Chile and the USA and therefore demonstrated genus specificity as tested in this study. (+info)
Molecular characterisation of an Australian isolate of Bonamia exitiosa.
An Australian (New South Wales) isolate of Bonamia was characterised at the molecular level by sequencing the 18S-ITS-1 region of the small subunit rRNA operon obtained from flat oysters Ostrea angasi shown to be infected by histological examination. Sequence data alignment with homologous genes from 2 other isolates of Bonamia (New Zealand and France) revealed high levels of nucleotide identity with both isolates. However, the Australian Bonamia is shown to be more closely related to the New Zealand isolate, suggesting the existence of an oceanic subgroup of Bonamia. (+info)
Ultrastructure of sporulation in Haplosporidium armoricanum.
An ultrastructural study was carried out on the tissues of an oyster (Ostrea edulis), heavily infected with Haplosporidium armoricanum, that had been fixed in Carson's fixative. The well-fixed tissues revealed details of sporulation and of the spores, which had not been previously reported from H. armoricanum. These include the initial presence of sparse haplosporosomes after thickening of the plasma membrane in early sporonts, division of sporont nuclei by multiple fission, cup-like indentations in the nuclear surface associated with putative nuclear material in both the sporonts and spores, and cytoplasmic multi-vesicular bodies in the cytoplasm of sporonts and spores. The spore wall and operculum were formed from a light matrix that occurred in short cisternae of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the episporoplasm, and parallel bundles of microfibrils were present in some spores. Spores were rarely bi-nucleate with the nuclei occurring as a diplokaryon, with putative nuclear material at the junction of the 2 nuclei. Nuclear membrane-bound Golgi (NM-BG) cisternae were common in spores, and they appeared to synthesise a light granular material into lysosome-like granules. Dense bodies similar to those reported from H. lusitanicum, H. pickfordi and H. monforti occurred in, or outside, the peripheral endosporoplasm, which was closely apposed to the spore wall. Spore haplosporosomes were frequently axehead-shaped, more like those of H. costale than those previously reported from H. armoricanum, and in some haplosporosomes there was a small round lucent patch with a dark point near the centre of the lucent patch. Overall, H. armoricanum appears to be closely related to H. costale and Bonamia spp. Although the endosporoplasm of H. armoricanum has NM-BG and it resembles the uni-nucleate stage, it appears to be unlikely that they are the same, as the axehead-shaped haplosporosomes of the spore differ considerably from the spherical haplosporosomes of vegetative stages. (+info)
Herpesvirus infection in European flat oysters Ostrea edulis obtained from brood stocks of various geographic origins and grown in Galicia (NW Spain).