Comparison of osteopathic and allopathic medical Schools' support for primary care.
OBJECTIVE: To contrast prevailing behaviors and attitudes relative to prJgiary care education and practice in osteopathic and allopathic medical schools. DESIGN: Descriptive study using confidential telephone interviews conducted in 1993-94. Analyses compared responses of osteopaths and allopaths, controlling for prJgiary care orientation. SETTING: United States academic health centers. PARTICIPANTS: National stratified probability samples of first-year and fourth-year medical students, postgraduate year 2 residents, and clinical faculty in osteopathic and allopathic medical schools, a sample of allopathic deans, and a census of deans of osteopathic schools (n = 457 osteopaths; n = 2,045 allopaths). MEASUREMENTS: Survey items assessed personal characteristics, students' reasons for entering medicine, learners' prJgiary care educational experiences, community support for prJgiary care, and attitudes toward the clinical and academic competence of prJgiary care physicians. MAIN RESULTS: PrJgiary care physicians composed a larger fraction of the faculty in osteopathic schools than in allopathic schools. Members of the osteopathic community were significantly more likely than their allopathic peers to describe themselves as socioemotionally oriented rather than technoscientifically oriented. Osteopathic learners were more likely than allopathic learners to have educational experiences in prJgiary care venues and with prJgiary care faculty, and to receive encouragement from faculty, including specialists, to enter prJgiary care. Attitudes toward the clinical and academic competence of prJgiary care physicians were consistently negative in both communities. Differences between communities were sustained after controlling for prJgiary care orientation. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with allopathic schools, the cultural practices and educational structures in osteopathic medical schools better support the production of prJgiary care physicians. However, there is a lack of alignment between attitudes and practices in the osteopathic community. (+info)
The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination, COMLEX-USA: a new paradigm in testing and evaluation.
Medical licensure in the United States demands a dynamic and current means to evaluate the competency of physicians seeking to practice medicine. A systematic measuring tool is required--one that is based on actual patient encounters and how physicians should apply their knowledge and skills to the clinical setting according to their level of training and professional development. Osteopathic physicians have a distinctive approach to healthcare, applying the biopsychosocial model with emphasis on the neuromusculoskeletal system. A component of this distinctive approach is a high level of knowledge and skill in the application of osteopathic manipulative treatment. Developed by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, COMPLEX-USA is the new sequential three-level examination process for osteopathic medical licensure in the United States. The examination process is interdisciplinary and highly clinical, with even basic science components tested within a clinical context. Examination content is based on wide expert consensus and data consistent with osteopathic medical education, training, and practice. Its design is a novel multidimensional structure that emphasizes clinical problem-solving skills and osteopathic principles and practice within the context of life cycle, gender, ethnicity, and points of service. Design schemata and blueprints are included along with descriptions of strategic research and development. COMPLEX-USA represents the most appropriate pathway for initial licensure for a distinctive and unique professional: the osteopathic physician in the United States. (+info)
Relationship of preadmission variables and first- and second-year course performance to performance on the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' COMLEX-USA Level 1 examination.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of performance on the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 licensing examination to (1) academic performance during the first 2 years of the curriculum, and (2) preadmission grade point averages (GPAs) and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores for one osteopathic medical school with the unique mission of providing osteopathic family physicians for West Virginia and rural Appalachia. Simple correlations were calculated for the 63 students at West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine who completed all requirements of the first 2 years of the curriculum in May 1998 and were first eligible for board exams in June 1998. These included 26 (41.3%) female students and 5 (7.9%) minority students. Students who had failed a year and/or a course but subsequently successfully completed the first 2 years of the curriculum in May 1998 were included in this study. Every student who qualified to take the June 1998 administration of COMLEX-USA Level 1 did so at that time. For the 55 academic or preadmissions variables of interest, correlation coefficients with COMLEX-USA Level 1 scores and significance levels were calculated using SPSS Base 9.0. The correlation of COMLEX-USA Level 1 performance with GPA for Phase I was 0.64; with GPA for Phase II, 0.67; and total GPA for the first 2 years, 0.70. Grades in most individual courses also correlated significantly with COMLEX-USA Level 1 performance. Given the special focus of this curriculum on the needs of the Appalachian region and use of clinical performance measures or participation measures in calculating academic GPAs, these correlations show a remarkable degree of agreement between these two sets of performance measures. Further research is needed to see if similar relationships exist for osteopathic medical schools with other missions and with other curriculum structures. Preadmissions GPAs and MCATs did not significantly relate to performance on COMLEX-USA Level 1. (+info)
National study of the impact of managed care on osteopathic physicians.
The study reported here was designed to provide insight into the impact managed care has had on osteopathic physicians' ability to practice medicine, as well as data to substantiate the prevalence of the specific problems encountered by the 40,000 osteopathic physicians in the United States. New data on the extent to which osteopathic physicians use osteopathic manipulative treatment was also obtained, as a review of the literature revealed only two previous surveys on the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment. The American Osteopathic Association hired an independent research company to conduct the survey. (+info)
Relationship between academic achievement and COMLEX-USA Level 1 performance: a multisite study.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of performance on the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 with academic performance at colleges accredited by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA). Eighteen (95%) of 19 AOA-accredited colleges and 2146 students (91% of those taking the June 1999 examination) met criteria and participated. Students were classified by school representatives on the basis of academic performance in the first 2 years of the curriculum. The relationships of Level 1 performance with assigned classifications and grade point averages (GPAs) were studied. Of students classified in the highest 20% academically, the Level 1 pass rate was 100%, with a mean score of 599. Of students classified in the lowest 5%, the pass rate was 63.5%, with a mean of 416.3. For 16 schools that provided GPAs, the within-school correlations between Level 1 scores and GPAs ranged from r = 0.76 to r = 0.85, with a mean correlation of r = 0.79. School representatives were also asked to indicate, for each student, whether they expected the student to pass the examination. Pass rate for students in the "sure pass" category was 98.9%; "borderline," 82.5%; and "concerns," 61.5%. Academic performance in the first 2 years of osteopathic medical school was strongly associated with performance on COMPLEX-USA Level 1. The national pass rate for this examination was similar to those in previous years, and it remains unclear why school representatives overpredicted the number of failures. Further research is needed. (+info)
Survey of medical ethics in US medical schools: a descriptive study.
In light of the fact that the incidence of revocation of physician licenses is on the rise, a survey was sent to 118 allopathic and 16 osteopathic medical schools in the United States to assist in appraising the current resources of US medical schools training in bioethics. The author contends that, in view of the statistics on increasing actions against postgraduate physicians, the time has come to determine what constitutes an effective experience for our students. It is hoped that the details of this investigative process will give educators and researchers insight into the current state of medical school ethics curriculum and increase awareness of the need to address the problems. (+info)
Use of a computer-assisted clinical case (CACC) SOAP note exercise to assess students' application of osteopathic principles and practice.
Osteopathic medical students are future osteopathic physicians, and how they view the manipulative aspect of patient care will have an effect on the distinctiveness of osteopathic medicine. To encourage students' application of osteopathic principles and practice, a Web-based computer-assisted clinical case (CACC) was designed, for which students were required to submit a SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan) note. Results from the CACC-SOAP note exercise indicate that the experience engages medical students and can determine the students' abilities to recognize osteopathic principles in patient care. (+info)
Effects of a structured curriculum in osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on osteopathic structural examinations and use of OMT for hospitalized patients.
Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is a defining feature of osteopathic medicine; however, use of OMT by osteopathic physicians is declining. Recent studies reveal that many osteopathic physicians are abandoning use of OMT as early as medical school. Current national efforts are aimed at reversing this trend by standardizing osteopathic medical records and clinical training in OMT. The authors found that a structured clinical curriculum in OMT taught to house staff significantly increased the percentage of patients who received osteopathic structural examinations and the percentage of patients who received OMT as part of their hospital care. (+info)