The effect of a tilting seat on back, lower back and legs during sitting work.
The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effects of a tilting seat on the back, lower back and legs. Ten healthy male subjects aged 22-28 performed word-processing operations while sitting on a chair for one hour under two different seating conditions: the rocking condition and the fixed condition. While the subjects were performing the task, measurements of lower leg swelling were taken using bioelectrical impedance plethysmography, and pain scores were recorded every five min for the neck, shoulders, back, lower back, hips and legs. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the back and lower back (at Th5-6, Th8-9, L1-2 and L3-4) were recorded every sec. In addition, the subjects were videotaped while using the rocking seat, in order to analyze the angle and frequency of seat tilting. At the end of the experiment, the subjects were asked to evaluate the two conditions with respect to localized fatigue and operational efficiency. There was no significant difference in lower leg swelling between the two conditions. EMGs were significantly different at Th5-6, Th8-9 and L1-2 between the two conditions. The rocking condition generated greater EMGs at Th5-6 and L1-2, whereas the fixed condition produced greater EMGs at Th8-9. The pain scores for the neck, shoulders, back and lower back were higher under the fixed condition, while those for the buttocks were higher under the rocking condition. The average tilting frequency was as low as 25.2 times per hour, with 15.6 times per hour for tilting angles ranging from 1 to 2 degrees, and 9.6 times per hour for tilting angles exceeding 2 degrees. As for the subjective evaluations of localized fatigue, seven of the ten subjects preferred the rocking condition, while two preferred the fixed condition and one subject had no preference. Thus, there was a significant difference in the subjective evaluations of the two chairs. These findings suggest that the rocking condition, in contrast to the fixed seating condition, reduced back and lower back pain as a result of its tilting capability. The results of EMGs suggest that the rocking condition reduced back and lower back pain by increasing the overall muscle activity of the back and lower back. The leg impedance measurements showed no effect of the rocking condition on the leg swelling, as compared with the fixed condition. (+info)
CHROMA: consensus-based colouring of multiple alignments for publication.
CHROMA annotates multiple protein sequence alignments by consensus to produce formatted and coloured text suitable for incorporation into other documents for publication. The package is designed to be flexible and reliable, and has a simple-to-use graphical user interface running under Microsoft Windows. Both the executables and source code for CHROMA running under Windows and Linux (portable command-line only) are freely available at http://www.lg.ndirect.co.uk/chroma. Software enquiries should be directed to [email protected] (+info)
Looking back or looking all around: comparing two spell checking strategies for documents edition in an electronic patient record.
We report on the comparison of two systems for correcting spelling errors resulting in non-existent words (i.e. not listed in any lexicon). Both systems aim at improving edition of medical reports. Unlike traditional systems, based on word language models, both semantic and syntactic contexts are considered here. Both systems share the same string-to-string edit distance module, and the same contextual disambiguation principles. The differences between the two systems are located at the user interaction level: while the first system is using exclusively the left context, simulating the underlining of every mis-spelling at the end of every word typing, the second system uses the left as well as the right context and simulate a post-edition correction, when asked by the author. Our conclusion shows the improvements brought by the second approach. (+info)
We present a software package, Genquire, that allows visualization, querying, hand editing, and de novo markup of complete or partially annotated genomes. The system is written in Perl/Tk and uses, where possible, existing BioPerl data models and methods for representation and manipulation of the sequence and annotation objects. An adaptor API is provided to allow Genquire to display a wide range of databases and flat files, and a plugins API provides an interface to other sequence analysis software. AVAILABILITY: Genquire v3.03 is open-source software. The code is available for download and/or contribution at http://www.bioinformatics.org/Genquire (+info)
CINEMA-MX: a modular multiple alignment editor.
Analyzing and visualizing multiple sequence alignments is a common task in many areas of molecular biology and bioinformatics. Many tools exist for this purpose, but are not easily customizable for specific in-house uses. Here we report the development of an editor, CINEMA-MX, that addresses these issues. CINEMA-MX is highly modular and configurable, and we present examples to illustrate its extensibility. AVAILABILITY: The program and full source code, which are available from http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/cinema-mx, are being released under a combination of the LGPL and GPL, for Unix or Windows platforms. (+info)
Matrix2png: a utility for visualizing matrix data.
We describe a simple software tool, 'matrix2png', for creating color images of matrix data. Originally designed with the display of microarray data sets in mind, it is a general tool that can be used to make simple visualizations of matrices for use in figures, web pages, slide presentations and the like. It can also be used to generate images 'on the fly' in web applications. Both continuous-valued and discrete-valued (categorical) data sets can be displayed. Many options are available to the user, including the colors used, the display of row and column labels, and scale bars. In this note we describe some of matrix2png's features and describe some places it has been useful in the authors' work. AVAILABILITY: A simple web interface is available, and Unix binaries are available from http://microarray.cpmc.columbia.edu/matrix2png. Source code is available on request. (+info)
Java editor for biological pathways.
SUMMARY: A visual Java-based tool for drawing and annotating biological pathways was developed. This tool integrates the possibilities of charting elements with different attributes (size, color, labels), drawing connections between elements in distinct characteristics (color, structure, width, arrows), as well as adding links to molecular biology databases, promoter sequences, information on the function of the genes or gene products, and references. It is easy to use and system independent. The result of the editing process is a PNG (portable network graphics) file for the images and XML (extended markup language) file for the appropriate links. (+info)
SUMMARY: BioEditor is an application to enable scientists and educators to prepare and present structure annotations containing formatted text, graphics, sequence data, and interactive molecular views. It is intended to bridge the gap between printed journal articles and Internet presentation formats. BioEditor is relevant in the era of structural genomics, where annotation and publication could become the rate determining step in structure determination. AVAILABILITY: BioEditor is available at http://bioeditor.sdsc.edu. The Web site includes the latest version of the software for Microsoft Windows, including documentation, the opportunity to submit bug reports and suggestions, example documentaries prepared with BioEditor and a repository where users can submit documentaries for posting to the site. (+info)