Effective method for activity assay of lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum.
A method was devised for activity assay of the lipase [triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolase, EC 220.127.116.11] excreted from Chromobacterium viscosum into the culture medium; olive oil emulsified with the aid of Adekatol 45-S-8 (a non-ionic detergent, the ethoxylate of linear sec-alcohols having chain lengths of 10--16 carbon atoms) was used as the substrate. This method was specifically effective for Chromobacterium lipase acitvity assay, and was approximately twice as sensitive as the conventional method, in which polyvinyl alcohol is used for the emulsification of the substrate. (+info)
An organosulfur compound isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract, and its antimicrobial effect.
An organosulfur compound was isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract by silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC. From the results of NMR, IR, and MS analyses, its structure was determined as E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,7-diene-9-oxide (iso-E-10-devinylajoene, iso-E-10-DA). This compound was different from E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6-diene-9-oxide (E-10-devinylajoene, E-10-DA) only in the position of a double bond. Iso-E-10-DA had antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts at the concentration lower than 100 micrograms/ml, but Gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited at the same concentration. The antimicrobial activity of iso-E-10-DA was inferior to those of similar oil-macerated garlic extract compounds such as E-ajoene, Z-ajoene, and Z-10-DA. From these results, it was suggested that trans structure and/or the position of double bond of iso-E-10-DA reduce the antimicrobial activity. (+info)
A model for evaluation of the peroral insulin therapy: short-term treatment of alloxan diabetic rats with oral water-in-oil-in-water insulin emulsions.
Alloxan diabetic rats with fasting blood glucose levels above 300 mg/100 ml were treated with oral administration of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) insulin emulsions at a dose of 50 U/100 g body weight, three times daily for 10 to 14 days. The course of diabetes was followed by determinations of glucose levels in blood and urine. During treatment with oral W/O/W insulin emulsions, daily excretion of urinary glucose decreased by about 30 to 40% (2 to 3 g/day) in all of the five rats studied, and returned to the pre-treatment levels after the treatment being discontinued. During treatment, a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels was observed in 4 out of 5 rats, giving the decrease by 18 to 44%. Quantitative estimates suggested that the effectiveness of 50 U/100 g of oral W/O/W insulin emulsions was comparable to that after intramuscular regular insulin at a dose of 0.5 U/100 g. Although oral W/O/W insulin emulsions are still of low efficiency, these results would indicate that diabetes can be controlled by effective oral insulin preparations. (+info)
Food groups, oils and butter, and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx.
To elucidate the role of dietary habits, a study was carried out in 1992-1997 in the province of Pordenone in Northeastern Italy, and those of Rome and Latina in central Italy. Cases were 512 men and 86 women with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (lip, salivary glands and nasopharynx excluded) and controls were 1008 men and 483 women who had been admitted to local hospitals for a broad range of acute non-neoplastic conditions. The validated dietary section of the questionnaire included 78 foods or recipes and ten questions on fat intake patterns. After allowance for education, smoking, alcohol and total energy intake, significant trends of increasing risk with increasing intake emerged for soups, eggs, processed meats, cakes and desserts, and butter. Risk was approximately halved in the highest compared to the lowest intake quintile for coffee and tea, white bread, poultry, fish, raw and cooked vegetables, citrus fruit, and olive oil. The inverse association with oils, especially olive oil, was only slightly attenuated by allowance for vegetable intake. Thus, frequent consumption of vegetables, citrus fruit, fish and vegetable oils were the major features of a low-risk diet for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. (+info)
An octaene fatty acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25-octacosaoctaenoic acid (28:8n-3), found in marine oils.
We report structure determination of an octaene fatty acid, 4,7,10, 13,16,19,22,25-octacosaoctaenoic acid (28:8n-3). The molecular weight and double bond locations were determined using acetonitrile chemical ionization mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS and were confirmed by MS of hydrogenated and deuterogenated 28:8 and by argentation thin-layer chromatography. 28:8n-3 was 1.2 +/- 0.1%, in oil derived from the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii and a commercial polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate derived from fish oils (0.16 +/- 0.01%), both components of human dietary supplements. It was not found in whole bovine retina, cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells, or neonate baboon cerebral cortex. The long chain polyunsaturates present in the C. cohnii oil suggest a possible route for 28:8n-3 biosynthesis similar to that for biosynthesis of 22:6n-3. (+info)
Visual pigments and oil droplets in the retina of a passerine bird, the canary Serinus canaria: microspectrophotometry and opsin sequences.
The visual receptors of the passeriform bird Serinus canaria, the canary, have been examined microspectrophotometrically and the sequences of the opsins determined. Rods have a maximum absorbance (lambda max) at 506 nm. Four spectral classes of single cone are present: long-wave-sensitive (LWS) containing a photopigment with lambda max at 569 nm, middle-wave-sensitive (MWS) with lambda max at 505 nm, short-wave-sensitive (SWS) with lambda max at 442 nm, and ultraviolet-sensitive (UVS) with lambda max at about 366 nm. Double cones possess the 569-nm pigment in both members. Typical combinations of photopigment and oil droplet occur in most cone classes. An ambiguity exists in the oil droplet of the single LWS cones. In some birds, LWS cones are paired with an R-type droplet, whereas in the majority of canaries the LWS pigment is paired with a droplet similar to the P-type of double cones. Mechanisms of spectral tuning within each opsin class are discussed. (+info)
Identification of the gene encoding esterase, a homolog of hormone-sensitive lipase, from an oil-degrading bacterium, strain HD-1.
The gene encoding an esterase (HDE) was cloned from an oil-degrading bacterium, strain HD-1. HDE is a member of the hormone-sensitive lipase family and composed of 317 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 33,633. The HDE-encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that the methionine residue was removed from its NH(2)-terminus. The good agreement of the molecular weights estimated by SDS-PAGE (35,000) and gel filtration (38,000) suggests that it acts in a monomeric form. HDE showed hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids with an acyl chain length of 2 to 14 and tributyrin, whereas it showed little hydrolytic activity towards p-nitrophenyl oleate (C(18)), tricaprylin and triolein. Determination of the kinetic parameters for the hydrolyses of the p-nitrophenyl substrates from C(2) to C(14) indicated that HDE shows a relatively broad substrate specificity. However, comparison of the k(cat)/K(m) values indicated that the C(10)-C(14) substrates are the most preferred ones. Such a preference for substrates with long acyl chains may be a characteristic of HDE. (+info)
Response to influenza vaccine in adjuvant 65-4.
A comparison was made of the antibody response and subjective reactions to zonally-purified influenza vaccine in aqueous suspension and in peanut oil adjuvant 65-4. Both preparations contained 700 CCA units of A/Aichi/2/68, and 300 CCA units of B/Mass/1/71. Subjective reactions were recorded by asking the volunteers to complete a record daily for 5 days. Pain at the injection site was recorded by 64 per cent of the recipients of the oil adjuvant vaccine compared with 35 per cent of the aqueous recipients, but local redness was more frequent after aqueous vaccine. Systemic symptoms was recorded a little more frequently after aqueous than oil adjuvant vaccine. When measured 71/2 weeks after a single dose of vaccine, the HAI geometric mean antibody titre (G.M.T) to the A/Hong Kong/1/68 antigen (antigenically similar to the A/Aichi/2/68 antigen in the vaccine) increased 2-7 fold after aqueous and 16-4 fold after adjuvant vaccine. Sixty-two weeks after vaccination the antibody titres remained higher in those given adjuvant vaccine. The G.M.T. to B/Mass/1/71 increased 1-9 fold 71/2 weeks after aqueous vaccine and 3-7 fold after adjuvant vaccine. The antibody response to both influenza A and B antigens was broader in the recipients of adjuvant vaccine. The G.M.T. to A/England/42/72 increased 2-8-fold after aqueous and 13-fold after adjuvant vaccine; and to B/England/847/73 it increased 1-3-fold after aqueous and 1-9-fold after adjuvant vaccine. (+info)