Participation of a trisaccharide-lipid in glycosylation of oviduct membrane glycoproteins.
Preincubation of a hen oviduct membrane preparation with UDP-Nactyl[14C]glucosamine and bacitracin, followed by incubation with GDP-mannose, leads to formation of a chloroform/methanol (2/1)-extractable glycolipid. Treatment of the lipid with mild acid results in the release of a trisaccharide shown to have the structure beta-mannosyl-N-acetylglucosamineyl-N-acetylglucosamine. Incubation of purified trisaccharide-lipid with oviduct membranes in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, Mn2+, and GDP-mannose leads to formation of a labeled glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 25,000... (+info)
Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step.
Low concentrations of the glucose (Glc) analog mannose (Man) inhibit germination of Arabidopsis seeds. Man is phosphorylated by hexokinase (HXK), but the absence of germination was not due to ATP or phosphate depletion. The addition of metabolizable sugars reversed the Man-mediated inhibition of germination. Carbohydrate-mediated regulation of gene expression involving a HXK-mediated pathway is known to be activated by Glc, Man, and other monosaccharides. Therefore, we investigated whether Man blocks germination through this system. By testing other Glc analogs, we found that 2-deoxyglucose, which, like Man, is phosphorylated by HXK, also blocked germination; no inhibition was observed with 6-deoxyglucose or 3-O-methylglucose, which are not substrates for HXK. Since these latter two sugars are taken up at a rate similar to that of Man, uptake is unlikely to be involved in the inhibition of germination. Furthermore, we show that mannoheptulose, a specific HXK inhibitor, restores germination of seeds grown in the presence of Man. We conclude that HXK is involved in the Man-mediated repression of germination of Arabidopsis seeds, possibly via energy depletion. (+info)
Glycosylation of asparagine-28 of recombinant staphylokinase with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides results in a protein with highly attenuated plasminogen activator activity.
The properties of recombinant staphylokinase (SakSTAR) expressed in Pichia pastoris cells have been determined. The single consensus N-linked oligosaccharide linkage site in SakSTAR (at Asn28 of the mature protein) was occupied in approximately 50% of the expressed protein with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. The majority of these glycans ranged in polymerization state from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man14GlcNAc2, with the predominant species being Man10GlcNAc2 and Man11GlcNAc2. Glycosylated SakSTAR (SakSTARg) did not differ from its aglycosyl form in its aggregation state in solution, its thermal denaturation properties, its ability to form a complex with human plasmin (hPm), the amidolytic properties of the respective SakSTAR-hPm complexes, or its ability to liberate the amino-terminal decapeptide required for formation of a functional SakSTAR-hPm plasminogen activator complex. However, this latter complex with SakSTARg showed a greatly reduced ability to activate human plasminogen (hPg) as compared with the same complex with the aglycosyl form of SakSTAR. We conclude that glycosylation at Asn28 does not affect the structural properties of SakSTAR or its ability to participate in the formation of an active enzymatic complex with hPm, but it is detrimental to the ability of the SakSTAR-hPm complex to serve as a hPg activator. This is likely due to restricted access of hPg to the active site of the SakSTARg-hPm complex. (+info)
Genetic evidence for the role of GDP-mannose in plant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis.
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid; AsA) acts as a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant in plants and animals. AsA has long been known to have many critical physiological roles in plants, yet its biosynthesis is only currently being defined. A pathway for AsA biosynthesis that features GDP-mannose and L-galactose has recently been proposed for plants. We have isolated a collection of AsA-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that are valuable tools for testing of an AsA biosynthetic pathway. The best-characterized of these mutants (vtc1) contains approximately 25% of wild-type AsA and is defective in AsA biosynthesis. By using a combination of biochemical, molecular, and genetic techniques, we have demonstrated that the VTC1 locus encodes a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (mannose-1-P guanyltransferase). This enzyme provides GDP-mannose, which is used for cell wall carbohydrate biosynthesis and protein glycosylation as well as for AsA biosynthesis. In addition to genetically defining the first locus involved in AsA biosynthesis, this work highlights the power of using traditional mutagenesis techniques coupled with the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative to rapidly clone physiologically important genes. (+info)
Alteration of mannose transport in fibroblasts from type I carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome patients.
The aim of the present study was to explore how mannose enters fibroblasts derived from a panel of children suffering from different subtypes of type I carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome: seven carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome subtype Ia (phosphomannomutase deficiency), two carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome subtype Ib (phosphomannose isomerase deficiency) and two carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome subtype Ix (not identified deficiency). We showed that a specific mannose transport system exists in all the cells tested but has different characteristics with respect to carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome subtypes. Subtype Ia fibroblasts presented a mannose uptake equivalent or higher (maximum 1.6-fold) than control cells with a D-[2-3H]-mannose incorporation in nascent N-glycoproteins decreased up to 7-fold. Compared to control cells, the mannose uptake was greatly stimulated in subtype Ib (4.0-fold), due to lower Kuptake and higher Vmax values. Subtype Ib cells showed an increased incorporation of D-[2-3H]-mannose into nascent N-glycoproteins. Subtype Ix fibroblasts presented an intermediary status with mannose uptake equivalent to the control but with an increased incorporation of D-[2-3H]-mannose in nascent N-glycoproteins. All together, our results demonstrate quantitative and/or qualitative modifications in mannose transport of all carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome fibroblasts in comparison to control cells, with a relative homogeneity within a considered subtype of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome. These results are consistent with the possible use of mannose as a therapeutic agent in carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome Ib and Ix. (+info)
Sugars and sugar derivatives which inhibit the short-circuit current of the everted small intestine of the rat.
1. The short-circuit current of everted rat intestine supported on a perforated cannula proved to be stable for up to 3 hr and has been used to study competition between transportable and non-transportable sugars. 2. 4,6-O-Ethylidene-alpha-D-glucopyranose (ethylidene glucose) and 4,6-O-benzylidene-e alpha-D-glucopyranos (benzylinene glucose), two nontransportable inhibitors of the hexose transfer system in human erythrocytes, were found to reduce the short-circuit current generated by transportable sugars such as galactose or 3-O-methyl glucose. 3. These compounds were also found to reduce the basal short-circuit current established by the everted intestine in a sugar-free Krebs solution. Both types of inhibition approached saturation at the higher concentrations used. 4. Similar inhibitory properties were shown by mannose, a non-actively accumulated monosaccharide, and by the beta-disaccharides lactose and cellobiose. 5. It is suggested that this common pattern of behaviour is due to the ability of these compounds to react with the sites for active hexose transfer but without translocation by the system. The significance of the inhibition of the basal short-circuit current is briefly discussed in this context. (+info)
Transmembrane folding of the human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3) determined by scanning and insertional N-glycosylation mutagenesis.
The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3) contains up to 14 transmembrane segments, with a single site of N-glycosylation at Asn642 in extracellular (EC) loop 4. Scanning and insertional N-glycosylation mutagenesis were used to determine the folding pattern of AE1 in the membrane. Full-length AE1, when expressed in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 or COS-7 cells, retained a high-mannose oligosaccharide structure. Scanning N-glycosylation mutagenesis of EC loop 4 showed that N-glycosylation acceptor sites (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr) spaced 12 residues from the ends of adjacent transmembrane segments could be N-glycosylated. An acceptor site introduced at position 743 in intracellular (IC) loop 5 that could be N-glycosylated in a cell-free translation system was not N-glycosylated in transfected cells. Mutations designed to disrupt the folding of this loop enhanced the level of N-glycosylation at Asn743 in vitro. The results suggest that this loop might be transiently exposed to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum during biosynthesis but normally folds rapidly, precluding N-glycosylation. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 428, 484, 754 and 854 in EC loops 1, 2, 6 and 7 respectively were efficiently N-glycosylated, showing that these regions were extracellular. EC loop 4 insertions into positions 731 or 785 were poorly N-glycosylated, which was inconsistent with an extracellular disposition for these regions of AE1. Insertion of EC loop 4 into positions 599 and 820 in IC loops 3 and 6 respectively were not N-glycosylated in cells, which was consistent with a cytosolic disposition for these loops. Inhibitor-affinity chromatography with 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (SITS)-Affi-Gel was used to assess whether the AE1 mutants were in a native state. Mutants with insertions at positions 428, 484, 599, 731 and 785 showed impaired inhibitor binding, whereas insertions at positions 754, 820 and 854 retained binding. The results indicate that the folding of the C-terminal region of AE1 is more complex than originally proposed and that this region of the transporter might have a dynamic aspect. (+info)
Recombinant human interleukin-12 is the second example of a C-mannosylated protein.
The beta-chain of human interleukin 12 (IL-12) contains at position 319-322, the sequence Trp-x-x-Trp. In human RNase 2 this is the recognition motif for a new, recently discovered posttranslational modification, i.e., the C-glycosidic attachment of a mannosyl residue to the side chain of tryptophan. Analysis of C-terminal peptides of recombinant IL-12 (rHuIL-12) by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy revealed that Trp-319beta is (partially) C-mannosylated. This finding was extended by in vitro mannosylation experiments, using a synthetic peptide derived from the same region of the protein as an acceptor. Furthermore, human B-lymphoblastoid cells, which secrete IL-12, were found to contain an enzyme that carries out the C-mannosylation reaction. This shows that nonrecombinant IL-12 is potentially C-mannosylated as well. This is only the second report on a C-mannosylated protein. However, the occurrence of the C-mannosyltransferase activity in a variety of cells and tissues, and the presence of the recognition motif in many proteins indicate that more C-mannosylated proteins may be found. (+info)