Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda).
Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness. (+info)
Endemic tropical sprue in Rhodesia.
The existence of tropical sprue in Africa is controversial. In this paper we present 31 cases seen in Rhodesia over a 15 month period. They have the clinical features, small intestinal morphology, malabsorption pattern, and treatment response of tropical sprue. Other causes of malabsorption, and primary malnutrition, have been excluded. The severity of the clinical state and intestinal malabsorption distinguish these patients from those we have described with tropical enteropathy. The previous work on tropical sprue in Africa is reviewed and it is apparent that, when it has been adequately looked for, it has been found. It is clear that the question of tropical sprue in Africa must be re-examined and that it existence may have hitherto been concealed by the assumption that primary malnutrition is responsible for the high prevalence of deficiency states. (+info)
Central autonomic activation by intracisternal TRH analogue excites gastric splanchnic afferent neurons.
Intracisternal (ic) injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or its stable analogue RX 77368 influences gastric function via stimulation of vagal muscarinic pathways. In rats, the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow evoked by a low ic dose of RX 77368 occurs via release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, most probably of spinal origin. In this study, the effect of low ic doses of RX 77368 on afferent impulse activity in splanchnic single fibers was investigated. The cisterna magna of overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was acutely cannulated, and fine splanchnic nerve twigs containing at least one fiber responsive to mechanical probing of the stomach were isolated at a site immediately distal to the left suprarenal ganglion. Unit mechanoreceptive fields were encountered in all portions of the stomach, both superficially and in deeper layers. Splanchnic afferent unit impulse activity was recorded continuously during basal conditions and in response to consecutive ic injections of saline and RX 77368 (15-30 min later; 1.5 or 3 ng). Basal discharge rates ranged from 0 to 154 impulses/min (median = 10.2 impulses/min). A majority of splanchnic single units with ongoing activity increased their mean discharge rate by >/=20% after ic injection of RX 77368 at either 1.5 ng (6/10 units; median increase 63%) or 3 ng (19/24 units; median increase 175%). Five units lacking impulse activity in the 5-min before ic RX 77368 (3 ng) were also excited, with the onset of discharge occurring within 1.0-5.0 min postinjection. In units excited by ic RX 77368, peak discharge occurred 15.6 +/- 1.3 min after injection and was followed by a decline to stable activity levels +info)
Conformation-dependent inhibition of gastric H+,K+-ATPase by SCH 28080 demonstrated by mutagenesis of glutamic acid 820.
Gastric H+,K+-ATPase can be inhibited by imidazo pyridines like 2-methyl-8-[phenylmethoxy] imidazo-(1,2a) pyridine 3-acetonitrile (SCH 28080). The drug shows a high affinity for inhibition of K+-activated ATPase and for prevention of ATP phosphorylation. The inhibition by SCH 28080 can be explained by assuming that SCH 28080 binds to both the E2 and the phosphorylated intermediate (E2-P) forms of the enzyme. We observed recently that some mutants, in which glutamic acid 820 present in transmembrane domain six of the catalytic subunit had been replaced (E820Q, E820N, E820A), lost their K+-sensitivity and showed constitutive ATPase activity. This ATPase activity could be inhibited by similar SCH 28080 concentrations as the K+-activated ATPase of the wild-type enzyme. SCH 28080 also inhibited ATP phosphorylation at 21 degrees C of the mutants E820D, E820N, and E820A, although with varying efficacy and affinity. ATP-phosphorylation of mutant E820Q was not inhibited by SCH 28080; in contrast, the phosphorylation level at 21 degrees C was nearly doubled. These findings can be explained by assuming that mutation of Glu820 favors the E1 conformation in the order E820Q >E820A >E820N >wild-type = E820D. The increase in the phosphorylation level of the E820Q mutant can be explained by assuming that during the catalytic cycle the E2-P intermediate forms a complex with SCH 28080. This intermediate hydrolyzes considerably slower than E2-P and thus accumulates. The high tendency of the E820Q mutant for the E1 form is further supported by experiments showing that ATP phosphorylation of this mutant is rather insensitive towards vanadate, inorganic phosphate, and K+. (+info)
A chimeric gastric H+,K+-ATPase inhibitable with both ouabain and SCH 28080.
2-Methyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3acetonitrile+ ++ (SCH 28080) is a K+ site inhibitor specific for gastric H+,K+-ATPase and seems to be a counterpart of ouabain for Na+,K+-ATPase from the viewpoint of reaction pattern (i.e. reversible binding, K+ antagonism, and binding on the extracellular side). In this study, we constructed several chimeric molecules between H+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunits by using rabbit H+,K+-ATPase as a parental molecule. We found that the entire extracellular loop 1 segment between the first and second transmembrane segments (M1 and M2) and the luminal half of the M1 transmembrane segment of H+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were exchangeable with those of Na+, K+-ATPase, respectively, preserving H+,K+-ATPase activity, and that these segments are not essential for SCH 28080 binding. We found that several amino acid residues, including Glu-822, Thr-825, and Pro-829 in the M6 segment of H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are involved in determining the affinity for this inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that a chimeric H+,K+-ATPase acquired ouabain sensitivity and maintained SCH 28080 sensitivity when the loop 1 segment and Cys-815 in the loop 3 segment of the H+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit were simultaneously replaced by the corresponding segment and amino acid residue (Thr) of Na+,K+-ATPase, respectively, indicating that the binding sites of ouabain and SCH 28080 are separate. In this H+, K+-ATPase chimera, 12 amino acid residues in M1, M4, and loop 1-4 that have been suggested to be involved in ouabain binding of Na+, K+-ATPase alpha-subunit are present; however, the low ouabain sensitivity indicates the possibility that the sensitivity may be increased by additional amino acid substitutions, which shift the overall structural integrity of this chimeric H+,K+-ATPase toward that of Na+,K+-ATPase. (+info)
Phycomycotic gastritis in buffalo calves (Bubalis bubalis).
Mycotic gastritis, primarily caused by Rhizopus sp. was seen in six buffalo calves (7-13 days old) at postmortem examination. The predominant lesions were numerous raised ulcers in which were hyphae of Rhizopus. In three calves, Candida organisms were also present superficially in the ulcers. Other changes in the mucosa were severe congestion, haemorrhage, thrombosis, necrosis, and infiltration by lymphocytes and neutrophils. Both Rhizopus and Candida were highly pathogenic to rabbits when inoculated intravenously. The disease could not be reproduced experimentally by feeding of Rhizopus orally to rabbits and calves. (+info)
Experimental enteropathy in athymic and euthymic rats: synergistic role of lipopolysaccharide and indomethacin.
The aim of this study was to investigate the immunologic and microbiological bases of indomethacin enteropathy. Athymic nude and euthymic specific pathogen-free (SPF) rats were reared under conventional or SPF conditions. In each group, indomethacin was given intrarectally for 2 days. Indomethacin enteropathy was evaluated using a previously described ulcer index and tissue myeloperoxidase activity. Both euthymic and athymic nude rats developed intestinal ulcers to the same degree under conventional conditions but no or minimal ulcer under SPF conditions. Pretreatment of conventional rats with intragastric kanamycin sulfate, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, attenuated indomethacin enteropathy in a dose-dependent fashion. Interestingly, when lipopolysaccharide was injected intraperitoneally in kanamycin-pretreated rats, it fully restored enteropathy in these rats in a dose-dependent manner. We confirmed that kanamycin decreased the number of gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin concentration of the small intestine in a dose-dependent fashion. These results indicate that indomethacin enteropathy is bacteria dependent and does not require a T cell function. Synergy between indomethacin and bacterial lipopolysaccharide may play a major role in this enteropathy. (+info)
Physiological changes in blood glucose do not affect gastric compliance and perception in normal subjects.
Marked hyperglycemia (blood glucose approximately 14 mmol/l) slows gastric emptying and affects the perception of sensations arising from the gut. Elevation of blood glucose within the physiological range also slows gastric emptying. This study aimed to determine whether physiological changes in blood glucose affect proximal gastric compliance and/or the perception of gastric distension in the fasting state. Paired studies were conducted in 10 fasting healthy volunteers. On a single day, isovolumetric and isobaric distensions of the proximal stomach were performed using an electronic barostat while the blood glucose concentration was maintained at 4 and 9 mmol/l in random order. Sensations were quantified using visual analog scales. The blood glucose concentration had no effect on the pressure-volume relationship during either isovolumetric or isobaric distensions or the perception of gastric distension. At both blood glucose concentrations, the perceptions of fullness, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort, but not hunger or desire to eat, were related to intrabag volume (P +info)