Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci.
Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties. (+info)
Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature.
The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. (+info)
Protective effect of dietary tomato against endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice.
The effects of dietary ingestion of tomato were studied in mice that had been made hypercholesterolemic by feeding atherogenic diets. Mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet without tomato for 4 months had significantly increased plasma lipid peroxide, and the vaso-relaxing activity in the aorta induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was harmed when compared with mice fed on a common commercial diet. On the other hand, mice which had been fed on the atherogenic diet containing 20% (w/w) lyophilized powder of tomato showed less increase in the plasma lipid peroxide level, and ACh-induced vaso-relaxation was maintained at the same level as that in normal mice. These results indicate that tomato has a preventive effect on atherosclerosis by protecting plasma lipids from oxidation. (+info)
LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen.
During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. (+info)
Tissue tropism related to vector competence of Frankliniella occidentalis for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus.
The development of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection in the midgut and salivary glands of transmitting and non-transmitting thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was studied to elucidate tissue tropism and the virus pathway within the body of this vector. Immunohistological techniques used in this study showed that the midgut, foregut and salivary glands were the only organs in which virus accumulated. The first signals of infection, observed as randomly distributed fluorescent granular spots, were found in the epithelial cells of the midgut, mainly restricted to the anterior region. The virus subsequently spread to the circular and longitudinal midgut muscle tissues, a process which occurred late in the larval stage. In the adult stage, the infection occurred in the visceral muscle tissues, covering the whole midgut and foregut, and was abolished in the midgut epithelium. The infection of the salivary glands was first observed 72 h post-acquisition, and simultaneously in the ligaments connecting the midgut with these glands. The salivary glands of transmitting individuals appeared heavily or completely infected, while no or only a low level of infection was found in the glands of non-transmitting individuals. Moreover, the development of an age-dependent midgut barrier against virus infection was observed in second instar larvae and adults. The results show that the establishment of TSWV infection in the various tissues and the potential of transmission seems to be regulated by different barriers and processes related to the metamorphosis of thrips. (+info)
A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus.
Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph. (+info)
Proteolytic processing of tomato ringspot nepovirus 3C-like protease precursors: definition of the domains for the VPg, protease and putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
Tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV) RNA-1 encodes a putative NTP-binding protein (NTB), a putative viral genome-linked protein (VPg), a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol) and a serine-like protease (Pro), which have been suggested to be involved in viral RNA replication. Proteolytic processing of protease precursors containing these proteins was studied in Escherichia coli and in vitro. The TomRSV protease could cleave the precursor proteins and release the predicted mature proteins or intermediate precursors. Although processing was detected at all three predicted cleavage sites (NTB-VPg, VPg-Pro and Pro-Pol), processing at the VPg-Pro cleavage site was inefficient, resulting in accumulation of the VPg-Pro intermediate precursor in E. coli and in vitro. In addition, the presence of the VPg sequence in the precursor resulted in increased cleavage at the Pro-Pol cleavage site in E. coli and in vitro. Direct N-terminal sequencing of the genomic RNA-linked VPg, of the mature protease purified from E. coli extracts and of radiolabelled mature polymerase purified from in vitro translation products revealed the sequences of the NTB-VPg, VPg-Pro and Pro-Pol dipeptide cleavage sites to be Q/S, Q/G and Q/S, respectively. In vitro processing at the NTB-VPg and Pro-Pol cleavage sites was not detected upon mutation or deletion of the conserved glutamine at the -1 position of the cleavage site. These results are discussed in light of the cleavage site specificity of the TomRSV protease. (+info)
Does tomato consumption effectively increase the resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage?
BACKGROUND: Lycopene, the main carotenoid in tomato, has been shown to be a potent antioxidant in vitro. However, there is no significant evidence of its antioxidant action in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of tomato intake on plasma carotenoid concentrations and lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress. DESIGN: Ten healthy women (divided into 2 groups of 5 subjects each) ate a diet containing tomato puree (providing 16.5 mg lycopene) and a tomato-free diet for 21 d each in a crossover design. Before and after each diet period, plasma carotenoid concentrations and primary lymphocyte resistance to oxidative stress (evaluated by means of single-cell gel electrophoresis) were analyzed. RESULTS: After the first 21-d experimental period, total plasma lycopene concentrations increased by 0.5 micromol/L (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87) in the group that consumed the tomato diet and decreased by 0.2 micromol/L (95% CI: -0.11, -0.30) in the group that consumed the tomato-free diet (P < 0.001). Tomato consumption also had an effect on cellular antioxidant capacity: lymphocyte DNA damage after ex vivo treatment with hydrogen peroxide decreased by 33% (95% CI: 0.8%, 61%; P < 0.05) and by 42% (95% CI: 5.1%, 78%; P < 0.05) in the 2 groups of subjects after consumption of the tomato diet. CONCLUSION: The consumption of tomato products may reduce the susceptibility of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. (+info)