Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.)
Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine. (+info)
Increased fecal bile acid excretion and changes in the circulating bile acid pool are involved in the hypocholesterolemic and gallstone-preventive actions of psyllium in hamsters.
The lipid-lowering effect of psyllium (PSY) is well established. Enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and a stimulation of hepatic bile acid synthesis are discussed as primary mechanisms of this action. To further examine the effect of bile acid excretion and specifically of compositional alterations in the bile acid pool on the cholesterol-lowering and gallstone-preventing action of PSY, male golden Syrian hamsters were fed lithogenic diets containing 5 g/100 g fat, 0.4 g/100 g cholesterol and 0 (control), 4 or 6% PSY or 1% cholestyramine (CHY). PSY significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol at a magnitude comparable to that induced by CHY. Although hepatic cholesteryl ester accumulation was completely inhibited by CHY, PSY did not prevent the hepatic storage of esterified cholesterol. PSY and CHY caused distinct alterations in the bile acid profile. PSY caused a selective reduction of taurine-conjugated bile acids, especially of taurochenodeoxycholate. As a result, the glycine:taurine conjugation and the cholate:chenodeoxycholate ratios were significantly higher in PSY-fed hamsters. PSY and CHY normalized the lithogenic index and prevented cholesterol gallstone formation compared with controls. Daily fecal bile acid excretion was approximately 400% greater in hamsters fed 6% PSY, whereas CHY caused an 11-fold increase. Daily neutral sterol excretion did not differ in PSY-fed hamsters but was >100% greater in those fed CHY than in controls. These data emphasize the potent lipid-lowering effect of PSY. Increased fecal bile acid excretion and alterations of the circulating bile acid pool by removal of dihydroxy bile acids (e.g., taurochenodeoxycholate) appear to be main modulators of the hypocholesterolemic action of PSY by leading to an up-regulation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. (+info)
Review article: anthranoid laxatives and their potential carcinogenic effects.
Anthranoid laxatives are widely used laxatives of natural origin. Because of their chemical structure they are carried unabsorbed to the large bowel, where metabolism to the active aglycones takes place. These aglycones exert their laxative effect by damaging epithelial cells, which leads directly and indirectly to changes in absorption, secretion and motility. Damaged epithelial cells can be found as apoptotic bodies in the pigmented colonic mucosa, characteristic for pseudomelanosis coli. Pseudomelanosis coli is a condition caused by chronic (ab)use of anthranoid laxatives and has recently been associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. In vitro and animal studies have shown a potential role of anthranoid laxatives in both the initiation and promotion of tumorigenesis. Studies in humans have also suggested tumour promoting activities for these laxatives. Although the short-term use of these substances is generally safe, long-term use cannot be recommended. (+info)
Randomised trial of two pharmacological methods of bowel preparation for day case colonoscopy.
AIMS: To undertake a prospective, single blind, randomised trial comparing the efficacy and tolerance of two outpatient colonoscopy bowel preparation regimens. METHODS: Patients aged between 18 months and 16 years being admitted for day case colonoscopy were allocated randomly to receive either Picolax (an oral, sugar free powder containing sodium picosulphate 10 mg/sachet with magnesium citrate) and clear fluids or bisacodyl tablets with an unrestricted diet and a phosphate enema just before colonoscopy. Patient compliance, bowel frequency, and associated symptoms were recorded, and the adequacy of the bowel preparation was assessed in a blinded manner. RESULTS: 63 of 66 patients completed the trial. Mean age, mean weight, extent of colonoscopy, and distribution of underlying pathology were similar in both groups. Bowel preparation was good or excellent in all of the patients in the Picolax group (n = 32) compared with 22 patients in the bisacodyl/phosphate enema group (n = 31). The latter group experienced more abdominal discomfort during bowel preparation but three of the Picolax group vomited and the lack of solid food distressed some children. CONCLUSIONS: All bowel preparation methods have limitations and unpleasant side effects but the use of Picolax and clear fluids proved superior to bisacodyl tablets and a phosphate enema in children undergoing day case colonoscopy. (+info)
Surgical treatment of oesophageal obstruction after ingestion of a granular laxative.
A case of oesophageal obstruction after ingestion of a granular laxative in a 91-year-old man is presented. There was no predisposing oesophageal disease. The severity of obstruction prevented endoscopic clearance and the patient required gastrotomy and manual disimpaction of the lower oesophagus. (+info)
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between digoxin and macrogol 4000, a laxative polymer, in healthy volunteers.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the bioequivalence between a single oral dose of digoxin administered alone and with a coadministration of macrogol 4000 (a laxative polymer) in 18 healthy volunteers. METHODS: This was an open, randomised, two-way cross-over study, with a single dose oral administration of 0.5 mg digoxin administered alone or in combination with macrogol 4000, 20 g day-1 during 8 days. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin, heart rate and PR ECG interval at rest were assessed. RESULTS: Macrogol 4000 coadministration was associated with a 30% decrease of digoxin AUC and a 40% decrease in its Cmax (P<0.05). Digoxin tmax and t1/2,z were not significantly altered. Heart rate and PR interval did not differ during the two therapeutic sequences, digoxin alone and digoxin in combination. CONCLUSIONS: Macrogol 4000 coadministration interacts with single-dose digoxin pharmacokinetics. This is most likely due to a reduction of the intestinal absorption of digoxin. However, there was no consequence of this interaction on heart rate and AV conduction. (+info)
Psyllium shifts the fermentation site of high-amylose cornstarch toward the distal colon and increases fecal butyrate concentration in rats.
We examined the combination effects of psyllium (PS) and resistant starch on large bowel short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Rats were fed one of the following four diets: low amylose (LAS) or high amylose cornstarch diets (HAS, 50 g/kg diet) with or without 15 g PS/kg diet (LAS/PS and HAS/PS diets). HAS and/or PS were substituted for the same amounts of LAS in diets. Cecal butyrate concentrations were significantly higher in rats fed the HAS and HAS/PS diets than in those fed the LAS and LAS/PS diets. However, butyrate and total SCFA concentrations in rats fed the HAS diet decreased along the length of the colon and fecal butyrate concentration was reduced to one-third of that in the cecum. In contrast, the HAS/PS diet maintained higher butyrate concentrations throughout the large bowel. Fecal butyrate concentration in the HAS/PS diet-fed group significantly exceeded the sum of the concentrations in rats fed the LAS/PS and HAS diets. PS supplementation to the HAS diet significantly increased fecal starch excretion by 10 fold compared with that of rats fed the HAS diet. There was a positive correlation between fecal butyrate concentration and fecal starch excretion (r = 0.709, P < 0.0001). In a further experiment, ileorectostomized rats were fed the HAS and HAS/PS diets. From the difference in fecal starch excretion between normal and ileorectostomized rats, starch degradation by large bowel microflora in rats fed the HAS and HAS/PS diets was deduced to be 96% and 63%, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that PS may delay the fermentation rate of HAS in the cecum and shift the fermentation site of HAS toward the distal colon, leading to the higher butyrate concentration in the distal colon and feces. (+info)
Urothelial cancer at different tumour sites: role of smoking and habitual intake of analgesics and laxatives. Results of the Berlin Urothelial Cancer Study.
BACKGROUND: In Germany about 20000 new cases of urothelial cancer (UC) and about 7500 deaths from bladder cancer alone occur each year. Among the manifold risk factors, little research has been done on the role of smoking and the habitual intake of analgesics and laxatives-practices that are common in parts of the German population. The aim of this study is to define the proportion of risk derived from these preventable habits for the development of UC at its different sites. Subjects and methods. A case-control study in the area of the former West Berlin was performed from 1990 to 1995 including all newly diagnosed incident cases of UC from the eight hospitals of the study area. Study subjects and population-based controls individually matched by age (+/-2 years) and sex were evaluated by a standardized face-to-face interview about the lifelong exposure to cigarette smoking, analgesics, and laxatives. Adjusted risk analysis was carried out for the main exposure variables in relation to the different sites of UC in the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis. RESULTS: Six hundred and forty-seven cases of UC (571 bladder, 25 ureter, and 51 renal pelvis) and an identical number of controls were included in the analysis (response rate in cases, 84.6%; in controls, 70.2%). Smoking increased the risk of bladder cancer (BC) by an odds ratio (OR) of 3.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.29-4.52), that of ureter (URC) or renal pelvis cancer (RPC) together by OR 6.20 (95% CI 2.04-18.81), and that of RPC alone by OR 5.91 (95% CI 1.47-23.66). Ex-smoking was associated with an increased risk for BC (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.10-2.19). Intake of more than 1 kg of phenacetin in analgesic mixtures was associated with an OR of 5.28 for RPC (intake of > or = 1 kg paracetamol, OR 3.27; > or = 1 kg pyrazolones, 1.12) and 0.75 for BC (not significant). Laxatives significantly increased the risk of BC (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.26-3.63) and RPC/URC (OR 9.62, 95% CI 1. 01-91.24) in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Habitual risks from smoking and intake of laxatives significantly contribute to the development of UC, especially of the renal pelvis and ureter cancer. Intake of at least 1 kg of analgesic substances (anilides, pyrazolones) as calculated from this study base is associated with increased but not significant risks for RPC. These data underline that restrictive and educational measurements focusing on common habits would have a strong impact on preventing UC in Germany. (+info)