The binding of human lactoferrin to mouse peritoneal cells.
Human iron-saturated Lf (FeLf), which was labeled with 125I or 50Fe, was found to combine with the membrane of mouse peritoneal cells (MPC) which consisted of 70% macrophages. The following experimental data suggested the involvement of a specific receptor. (a) The binding of FeLf to MPC reached a saturation point. (b) The binding of radioactive FeLf was inhibited by preincubating the cells with cold FeLf but not with human Tf, human aggregated and nonaggregated IgG, or beef heart cytochrome c (c) Succinylation and carbamylation of FeLf resulted in a loss of its inhibiting activity on the binding of radioactive FeLf. Removal of neuraminic acid from FeLf increased its inhibitory activity. (d) The ability of apoLf to inhibit the binding of FeLf to MPC was significantly lower than that of FeLf. The existence of a Lf receptor capable of concentrating Lf released from neutrophils on the membrane of macrophages could explain the apparent blockade of the release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, which accounts for the hyposideremia of inflammation. A receptor for FeLf was also found on mouse peritoneal lymphocytes. The affinity constant of FeLf for both lymphocytes and macrophages was 0.9 X 12(6) liter/mol. Howerver, macrophages bound three times more FeLf molecules (20 X 10(6)) per cell than did lymphocytes (7 X 10(6)). (+info)
Involvement of tachykinin receptors in sensitisation to cow's milk proteins in guinea pigs.
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence for a pivotal role for tachykinins in gut neuroimmune interactions. AIMS: To determine whether NK1, NK2, and NK3 tachykinin receptors are involved in milk protein induced allergic sensitisation. METHODS: Eight groups of 12 Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs (250-300 g) were used. Four groups were sensitised to milk proteins for three weeks. During this period, these animals were injected intraperitoneally each day with NK1 (SR 140333; 0.3 mg/kg), NK2 (SR 48968; 5 mg/kg), or NK3 (SR 142801; 5 mg/kg) receptor antagonist or vehicle. The fifth group had water available instead of milk and was used as a non-sensitised control. The three other groups received the NK receptor antagonists for three weeks but were not sensitised to milk proteins. RESULTS: Sensitised animals treated with NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists had both lower IgE and IgG serum titres, evaluated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and lower specific IgG serum titres, determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), than vehicle treated animals. Sensitisation induced an increase in intestinal mast cell number which was abolished by treatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist. Antigenic challenge-induced jejunal hypersecretion was also blocked by treatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist. CONCLUSION: In guinea pigs, NK1 and NK3 but not NK2 receptors are involved in sensitisation to cow's milk. However, NK1 but not NK3 receptor antagonists abolish both the hypermastocytosis induced by food allergy and the hypersecretion induced by antigenic challenge, suggesting different roles for NK1 and NK3 receptors in the mechanisms of sensitisation to beta-lactoglobulin. (+info)
The modified anaphylaxis hypothesis for cot death. Anaphylactic sensitization in guinea-pigs fed cow's milk.
Guinea-pigs on a normal diet, but given cow's milk to drink instead of water, very soon became anaphylactically sensitive to cow's milk and may be fatally shocked following either i.v. injection or intratracheal inhalation of cow's milk. (+info)
Effect of 3-hydroxyphthaloyl-beta-lactoglobulin on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys.
Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of the ongoing AIDS epidemic. Application of chemical barrier methods is expected to contribute to the worldwide control of this epidemic. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin modified by 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (3-hydroxyphthalovyl-beta-lactoglobulin [3HP-beta-LG]) was shown to inhibit HIV-1, HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro. Here, we show that 3HP-beta-LG not formulated into any vehicle protected three of six rhesus monkeys against vaginal infection by SIV. Incorporation of the compound into an appropriate vehicle is expected to increase the degree of protection. 3HP-beta-LG may be effective as a vaginal inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in humans. (+info)
Neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Distinguishing the roles of ubiquitylation and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.
Nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth from rat PC12 cells was coincident with elevated (>/=2-fold) levels of endogenous ubiquitin (Ub) protein conjugates, elevated rates of formation of 125I-labeled Ub approximately E1 (Ub-activating enzyme) thiol esters and 125I-labeled Ub approximately E2 (Ub carrier protein) thiol esters in vitro, and enhanced capacity to synthesize 125I-labeled Ub-protein conjugates de novo. Activities of at least four E2s were increased in NGF-treated cells, including E2(14K), a component of the N-end rule pathway. Ubiquitylation of 125 I-labeled beta-lactoglobulin was up to 4-fold greater in supernatants from NGF-treated cells versus untreated cells and was selectively inhibited by the dipeptide Leu-Ala, an inhibitor of Ub isopeptide ligase (E3). However, Ub-dependent proteolysis of 125I-labeled beta-lactoglobulin was not increased in supernatants from NGF-treated cells, suggesting that neurite outgrowth is promoted by enhanced rates of synthesis (rather than degradation) of Ub-protein conjugates. Consistent with this observation, neurite outgrowth was induced by proteasome inhibitors (lactacystin and clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone) and was associated with elevated levels of ubiquitylated protein and stabilization of the Ub-dependent substrate, p53. Lactacystin-induced neurite outgrowth was blocked by the dipeptide Leu-Ala (2 mM) but not by His-Ala. These data 1) demonstrate that the enhanced pool of ubiquitylated protein observed during neuritogenesis in PC12 cells reflects coordinated up-regulation of Ub-conjugating activity, 2) suggest that Ub-dependent proteolysis is a negative regulator of neurite outgrowth in vitro, and 3) support a role for E2(14K)/E3-mediated protein ubiquitylation in PC12 cell neurite outgrowth. (+info)
Functional implications of structural differences between variants A and B of bovine beta-lactoglobulin.
The structure of the trigonal crystal form of bovine beta-lactoglobulin variant B at pH 7.1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods at a resolution of 2.22 A and refined to values for R and Rfree of 0.239 and 0.286, respectively. By comparison with the structure of the trigonal crystal form of bovine beta-lactoglobulin variant A at pH 7.1, which was determined previously [Qin BY et al., 1998, Biochemistry 37:14014-14023], the structural consequences of the sequence differences D64G and V118A of variants A and B, respectively, have been investigated. Only minor differences in the core calyx structure occur. In the vicinity of the mutation site D64G on loop CD (residues 61-67), there are small changes in main-chain conformation, whereas the substitution V118A on beta-strand H is unaccompanied by changes in the surrounding structure, thereby creating a void volume and weakened hydrophobic interactions with a consequent loss of thermal stability relative to variant A. A conformational difference is found for the loop EF, implicated in the pH-dependent conformational change known as the Tanford transition, but it is not clear whether this reflects differences intrinsic to the variants in solution or differences in crystallization. (+info)
The compact and expanded denatured conformations of apomyoglobin in the methanol-water solvent.
We have performed a detailed study of methanol-induced conformational transitions of horse heart apomyoglobin (apoMb) to investigate the existence of the compact and expanded denatured states. A combination of far- and near-ultraviolet circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used, allowing a phase diagram to be constructed as a function of pH and the methanol concentration. The phase diagram contains four conformational states, the native (N), acid-denatured (U(A)), compact denatured (I(M)), and expanded helical denatured (H) states, and indicates that the compact denatured state (I(M)) is stable under relatively mild denaturing conditions, whereas the expanded denatured states (U(A) and H) are realized under extreme conditions of pH (strong electric repulsion) or alcohol concentration (weak hydrophobic interaction). The results of this study, together with many previous studies in the literature, indicate the general existence of the compact denatured states not only in the salt-pH plane but also in the alcohol-pH plane. Furthermore, to determine the general feature of the H conformation we used several proteins including ubiquitin, ribonuclease A, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) in addition to apoMb. SAXS studies of these proteins in 60% methanol showed that the H states of these all proteins have expanded and nonglobular conformations. The qualitative agreement of the experimental data with computer-simulated Kratky profiles also supports this structural feature of the H state. (+info)
Strain dependency of the immunopotentiating activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.
To obtain strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with high immunopotentiating activity, we screened 90 strains of this bacterial species for the proliferative response of murine spleen and beta-lactoglobulin-primed lymph node cells. In this screening, certain strains showed strong immunopotentiating activity. Among them, strain 1023 had the strongest mitogenic activity for murine Peyer's patch (PP) cells. Furthermore, strain 1023 induced IgA antibody production by PP cells as strongly as Bifidobacterium longum 6001, which had adjuvant activity when orally administered. Also in the assays using immune cells from human-flora-associated mice a few strains including 1023 showed strong immunopotentiating activity comparable to B. longum 6001. These results suggest that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains such as 1023 may be useful for the production of fermented milk with a more beneficial effect on the systemic and mucosal immune system. (+info)