A technique for frameless stereotaxy and placement of transarticular screws for atlanto-axial instability in rheumatoid arthritis.
The aim of the present study was to outline a new surgical technique and describe how, in a clinical setting, computer-generated image-guidance can assist in the planning and accurate placement of transarticular C1/C2 screws inserted using a minimally invasive exposure. Forty-six patients with atlanto-axial instability due to rheumatoid arthritis underwent posterior stabilisation with transarticular screws. This was achieved with a minimal posterior exposure limited to C1 and C2 and percutaneous screw insertions via minor stab incisions. The Stealth Station (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, Tenn., USA) was used for image guidance to navigate safely through C2. Reconstructed computed tomographic (CT) scans of the atlanto-axial complex were used for image guidance. It was possible to perform preoperative planning of the screw trajectory taking into account the position of the intraosseous portion of the vertebral arteries, the size of the pars interarticularis and the quality of bone in C2. Screws could be inserted percutaneously over K-wires using a drill guide linked to the image-guidance system. Preoperative planning was performed in all 46 patients and accurate registration allowed proposed screw trajectories to be identified. Thirty-eight patients had bilateral screws inserted and eight had a unilateral screw. A total of 84 screws were inserted using the Stealth Station. There were no neurovascular injuries. This technique for placing transarticular screws is accurate and safe. It allows a minimally invasive approach to be followed. Image guidance is a useful adjunct for the surgeon undertaking complex spinal procedures. (+info)
The fourth dimension in simulation surgery for craniofacial surgical procedures.
The intracranial volume was measured in all 18 cases of craniosynostosis and craniofacial synostosis with 3DCT using a modification of Miyake's formula, with a 6 years' follow-up. 1: There were no cases where the intracranial volume was less than the modified Miyake's formula. 2: Total cranial reshaping, compared to the local forehead advancement, was effective in increasing the intracranial cavity and growth postoperatively. 3: In cases of craniofacial synostosis, there is a possibility that mental retardation will develop if the intracranial volume tends to increase rapidly and more than expected. (+info)
Role of transesophageal echocardiography-guided cardioversion of patients with atrial fibrillation.
Electrical cardioversion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently performed to relieve symptoms and improve cardiac performance. Patients undergoing cardioversion are treated conventionally with therapeutic anticoagulation for three weeks before and four weeks after cardioversion to decrease the risk of thromboembolism. A transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-guided strategy has been proposed as an alternative that may lower stroke and bleeding events. Patients without atrial cavity thrombus or atrial appendage thrombus by TEE are cardioverted on achievement of therapeutic anticoagulation, whereas cardioversion is delayed in higher risk patients with thrombus. The aim of this review is to discuss the issues and controversies associated with the management of patients with AF undergoing cardioversion. We provide an overview of the TEE-guided and conventional anticoagulation strategies in light of the recently completed Assessment of Cardioversion Using Transesophageal Echocardiography (ACUTE) clinical trial. The two management strategies comparably lower the patient's embolic risk when the guidelines are properly followed. The TEE-guided strategy with shorter term anticoagulation may lower the incidence of bleeding complications and safely expedite early cardioversion. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are presented. The TEE-guided approach with short-term anticoagulation is considered to be a safe and clinically effective alternative to the conventional approach, and it is advocated in patients in whom earlier cardioversion would be clinically beneficial. (+info)
Computer-assisted neurosurgical navigational system for transsphenoidal surgery--technical note.
Transsphenoidal surgery carries the risk of carotid artery injury even for very experienced neurosurgeons. The computer-assisted neurosurgical (CANS) navigational system was used to obtain more precise guidance, based on the axial and coronal images during the transsphenoidal approach for nine pituitary adenomas. The CANS navigator consists of a three-dimensional digitizer, a computer, and a graphic unit, which utilizes electromagnetic coupling technology to detect the spatial position of a suction tube attached to a magnetic sensor. Preoperatively, the magnetic resonance images are transferred and stored in the computer and the tip of the suction tube is shown on a real-time basis superimposed on the preoperative images. The CANS navigation system correctly displayed the surgical orientation and provided localization in all nine patients. No intraoperative complications were associated with the use of this system. However, outflow of cerebrospinal fluid during tumor removal may affect the accuracy, so the position of the probe when the tumor is removed must be accurately determined. The CANS navigator enables precise localization of the suction tube during the transsphenoidal approach and allows safer and less-invasive surgery. (+info)
Localisation of the sensorimotor cortex during surgery for brain tumours: feasibility and waveform patterns of somatosensory evoked potentials.
OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative localisation of the sensorimotor cortex using the phase reversal of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is an essential tool for surgery in and around the perirolandic gyri, but unsuccessful and perplexing results have been reported. This study examines the effect of tumour masses on the waveform characteristics and feasibility of SEP compared with functional neuronavigation and electrical motor cortex mapping. METHODS: In 230 patients with tumours of the sensorimotor region the SEP phase reversal of N20-P20 was recorded from the exposed cortex using a subdural grid or strip electrode. In one subgroup of 80 patients functional neuronavigation was performed with motor and sensory magnetic source imaging and in one subgroup of 40 patients the motor cortex hand area was localised by electrical stimulation mapping. RESULTS: The intraoperative SEP method was successful in 92% of all patients, it could be shown that the success rate rather depended on the location of the lesion than on preoperative neurological deficits. In 13% of the patients with postcentral tumours no N20-P20 phase reversal was recorded but characteristic polyphasic and high amplitude waves at 25 ms and later made the identification of the postcentral gyrus possible nevertheless. Electrical mapping of the motor cortex took up to 30 minutes until a clear result was obtained. It was successful in 37 patients, but failed in three patients with precentral and central lesions. Functional neuronavigation indicating the tumour margins and the motor and sensory evoked fields was possible in all patients. CONCLUSION: The SEP phase reversal of N20-P20 is a simple and reliable technique, but the success rate is much lower in large central and postcentral tumours. With the use of polyphasic late waveforms the sensorimotor cortex may be localised. By contrast with motor electrical mapping it is less time consuming. Functional neuronavigation is a desirable tool for both preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative use during surgery on perirolandic tumours, but compensation for brain shift, accuracy, and cost effectiveness are still a matter for discussion. (+info)
Image-guided prostate cryosurgery: state of the art.
BACKGROUND: Cryosurgery was first used to treat prostate cancer in the early 1970s but it was not until 1993, when the results from percutaneous ultrasound-guided cryosurgery were published, that the potential advantages of this treatment became apparent. Changes in equipment and techniques have improved the results of cryosurgery, in both tumor control and lower morbidity. METHODS: The author has reviewed data of his own and those of others concerning the changes in techniques employed and outcomes from prostate cryosurgery. RESULTS: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous transperineal placement of the cryoprobes allows monitoring of freezing in real time. Monitoring temperature at critical locations, separating the rectum and prostate by saline injection, and using argon gas rather than liquid nitrogen-based equipment have improved results and lowered complication rates. The technique produces outcomes similar to those obtained with brachytherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Advantages of cryosurgery include the ability to re-treat patients without added morbidity and to treat salvage postradiation patients with acceptable results and morbidity. The recent demonstration that "nerve-sparing" cryosurgery is possible suggests that cryosurgery may be used more often. (+info)
Surgical removal of brain stem cavernous malformations: surgical indications, technical considerations, and results.
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to review the indications for surgical treatment of brain stem cavernomas and to develop strategies to minimise the complications of surgery. PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Twelve patients underwent surgical resection of a brain stem cavernoma due to symptoms caused by one or more haemorrhages. Age ranged from 18 to 47 years (mean 29.2 years). Long term follow up (mean 3.7 years) included a complete neurological examination and annual MRI studies. The annual haemorrhage rate was 6.8 %/patient/year and a rate of 1.9 rehaemorrhages/patient/year was found. Surgery was performed under microsurgical conditions with endoscopic assistance, use of neuronavigation, and neurophysiological monitoring. Navigation proved to be reliable when applied in an early stage of operative procedure with minimal brain retraction. Endoscopy was a useful tool in some cases to confirm complete resection of the lesion and to ascertain haemostasis. Ten patients had a new neurological deficit in the early postoperative period, nine of these were transient. At the last follow up the neurological state was improved in five patients, unchanged in six, and worse in one compared with the preoperative conditions. The preoperative average Rankin score was 2.2 points and had improved at the last follow up by 0.6 points to 1.6 points. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic brain stem cavernomas should be considered for surgical treatment after the first bleeding. Careful selection of the optimal operative approach and a meticulous microsurgical technique are mandatory. The additional use of modern tools such as neuronavigation, endoscopic assistance, and monitoring can contribute to the safety of the procedure. (+info)
Use of neuronavigation and electrophysiology in surgery of subcortically located lesions in the sensorimotor strip.
OBJECTIVES: Subcortical lesions in the sensorimotor strip are often considered to be inoperable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a combined approach for surgery in this region, aided by a robotic neuronavigation system under electrophysiological control. METHODS: In a prospective study on 10 patients, space occupying lesions in the sensorimotor central area were removed using the Surgiscope robotic navigation system and the Nicolet Viking IV electrophysiological system. RESULTS: Precise tumour localisation with the neuronavigation system and the information on the patient's cortical motor distribution obtained by bipolar cortical stimulation led to postoperative improvement in motor function in all but one patient. Seven of the patients had focal, defined pathology (four metastases; two cavernoma; one aspergilloma). CONCLUSION: Due to the implementation of two recent technologies, surgery of lesions in the subcortical sensorimotor region can be performed with greater confidence. (+info)