Evaluation of the chronic toxicity and oncogenicity of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). (1/865)

Chronic toxicity and/or oncogenicity studies were conducted in rats, mice, and dogs with the insect repellent DEET. DEET was mixed in the diet and administered to CD rats for two years at concentrations that corresponded to dosage levels of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day for males and 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day for females; to CD-1 mice for 18 months at dosage levels of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day; and to dogs for one year, via gelatin capsules, at dosage levels of 30, 100, or 400 mg/kg/day. In the rodent studies, each group consisted of 60 animals of each sex, and two concurrent independent control groups, each containing 60 animals/sex were included in each study. Each group in the dog study consisted of four male and four female dogs and one control group was included in the study. Treatment-related effects were observed at the highest dose level in all three studies. For rats, the effects included decreases in body weight and food consumption and an increase in serum cholesterol in females only. In mice, the effects observed were decreases in body weight and food consumption in both sexes. The effects observed in dogs included increased incidences of emesis and ptyalism, and levels of transient reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit, increased alkaline phosphatase (males only), decreased cholesterol, and increased potassium. One male dog in the high-dose group also exhibited ataxia, tremors, abnormal head movements, and/or convulsions on several occasions during the study. The highest no-observed-effect levels (NO-ELs) for rats, mice and dogs were determined to be 100, 500, and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively. No specific target organ toxicity or oncogenicity was observed in any of the studies.  (+info)

Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. (2/865)

Intestinal carcinogenesis involves the successive accumulation of multiple genetic defects until cellular transformation to an invasive phenotype occurs. This process is modulated by many epigenetic factors. Unconjugated bile acids are tumor promoters whose presence in intestinal tissues is regulated by dietary factors. We studied the role of the unconjugated bile acid, chenodeoxycholate, in an animal model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice susceptible to intestinal tumors as a result of a germline mutation in Apc (Min/+ mice) were given a 10 week dietary treatment with 0.5% chenodeoxycholate. Following this, the mice were examined to determine tumor number, enterocyte proliferation, apoptosis and beta-catenin expression. Intestinal tissue prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were also assessed. Administration of chenodeoxycholate in the diet increased duodenal tumor number in Min/+ mice. Promotion of duodenal tumor formation was accompanied by increased beta-catenin expression in duodenal cells, as well as increased PGE2 in duodenal tissue. These data suggest that unconjugated bile acids contribute to periampullary tumor formation in the setting of an Apc mutation.  (+info)

Malignant transformation of p53-deficient astrocytes is modulated by environmental cues in vitro. (3/865)

The early incidence of p53 mutation in astrocytomas suggests that it plays an important role in astrocyte transformation. Astrocytes isolated from homozygous p53 knockout mice grow rapidly, lack contact inhibition, and are immortal. Here we tested whether the loss of p53 is sufficient for progression to tumorigenicity of astrocytes. We grew primary astrocytes under three conditions for over 120 population doublings and assessed their antigenic phenotype, chromosome number, and expression of glioma-associated genes as well as their ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors s.c. and intracranially in nude mice. Under two conditions (10% FCS and 0.5% FCS plus 20 ng/ml EGF), cells acquired the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors in nude mice, and this was accompanied by the expression of genes, including epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta, protein kinase Cdelta, and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are known to be aberrantly regulated in human astrocytomas. Under the third condition (0.5% FCS plus 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor), astrocytes gained the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and had abnormal chromosome numbers similar to cells in the first two conditions but did not form tumors in nude mice or overexpress glioma-associated genes. These data provide experimental evidence for the idea that the malignant progression initiated by the loss of p53 may be subject to modulation by extracellular environmental influences.  (+info)

Expression of AML1-d, a short human AML1 isoform, in embryonic stem cells suppresses in vivo tumor growth and differentiation. (4/865)

The human AML1 gene encodes a heterodimeric transcription factor which plays an important role in mammalian hematopoiesis. Several alternatively spliced AML1 mRNA species were identified, some of which encode short protein products that lack the transactivation domain. When transfected into cells these short isoforms dominantly suppress transactivation mediated by the full length AML1 protein. However, their biological function remains obscure. To investigate the role of these short species in cell proliferation and differentiation we generated embryonic stem (ES) cells overexpressing one of the short isoforms, AML1-d, as well as cells expressing the full length isoforms AML1-b and AML2. The in vitro growth rate and differentiation of the transfected ES cells were unchanged. However, overexpression of AML1-d significantly affected the ES cells' ability to form teratocarcinomas in vivo in syngeneic mice, while a similar overexpression of AML1-b and AML2 had no effect on tumor formation. Histological analysis revealed that the AML1-d derived tumors were poorly differentiated and contained numerous apoptotic cells. These data highlight the pleiotropic effects of AML1 gene products and demonstrate for the first time an in vivo growth regulation function for the short isoform AML1-d.  (+info)

Marriage of a medium-term liver model to surrogate markers--a practical approach for risk and benefit assessment. (5/865)

The need for a reliable medium-term alternative to traditional long-term rodent test protocols for carcinogen risk assessment is pressing given the immense variety of compounds being developed for introduction into the human environment. The established lack of a complete correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity means that recourse must be made to an in vivo model. Optimally, this model should be able to detect not only complete carcinogenic or promoting potential but also any ability to inhibit neoplasia. In order to be effective, it must take into account the available detailed knowledge on mechanisms of action of carcinogens and modulating agents. The Ito model, for which a uniquely comprehensive set of background data has already been accumulated, has a solid scientific basis; this model utilizes quantitative data for glutathione S transferase-positive foci as the preneoplasia-based surrogate end point (PSE). A very practical candidate for routine application, its predictive power, its flexibility, and its capacity to incorporate a range of mechanism-based surrogate end points (MSEs) provide a powerful tool for attainment of the twin goals of detecting carcinogenic agents and identifying promising chemopreventors.  (+info)

Comparison of the effectiveness of adenovirus vectors expressing cyclin kinase inhibitors p16INK4A, p18INK4C, p19INK4D, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27KIP1 in inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibition of tumorigenicity. (6/865)

Cell cycle regulatory proteins are important candidates for therapeutic tumour suppressors. Adenovirus vectors were constructed to overexpress cyclin kinase inhibitors p16INK4A, p18INK4C, p19INK4D, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27KIP1 under the control of the murine cytomegalovirus immediate early gene promoter. These vectors directed the efficient expression of each of the cyclin kinase inhibitors and induced growth arrest, inhibited DNA synthesis, and prevented phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in cell lines expressing functional pRb. In pRb-deficient cells, expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitors was not effective in inhibiting DNA replication or growth arrest. Interestingly, three of the cyclin kinase inhibitors, p16, p18 and p27 were found to induce apoptotic death in transduced HeLa and A549 cells. When the vectors were tested for their ability to inhibit tumorigenicity in a polyomavirus middle T antigen model of murine breast carcinoma, expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitors resulted in a delay in tumour formation that varied from several weeks for the p19 expressing vector to greater than 25 weeks for the p27 expressing vector. When tumours were injected directly with the adenovirus vectors expressing the cyclin kinase inhibitors, only treatment with the vector expressing p16 resulted in a delay in tumour growth.  (+info)

Tumorigenic conversion resulting from inhibition of apoptosis in a nontumorigenic HeLa-derived hybrid cell line. (7/865)

Although tumorigenicity in nude mice is one of the most important transformed phenotypes, its mechanism has been little analyzed. To understand the molecular basis of tumorigenicity, we characterized nontumorigenic CGL1 and tumorigenic CGL4 cell lines, both of which were originated from a common ancestral HeLa-human diploid fibroblast hybrid cell clone and retained a malignant state except tumorigenicity. When injected into nude mice, nontumorigenic CGL1 cells underwent apoptosis, but tumorigenic CGL4 cells did not. In vitro, CGL1 was also less resistant to various apoptotic stimuli than CGL4. These results suggested that inhibition of apoptosis may lead to tumorigenicity. To examine this hypothesis, we introduced antiapoptotic genes into the CGL1 cell line and injected the resulting clones into nude mice. The results showed that the ectopic expression of Bcl-2 or E1B19k, but not of crmA, converted CGL1 cells to tumorigenicity, suggesting strongly that this phenotype may be conferred by evasion of apoptosis.  (+info)

Increased oncogenicity of subclones of SV40 large T-induced neuroectodermal tumor cell lines after loss of large T expression and concomitant mutation in p53. (8/865)

A model for medulloblastoma-like primitive neuroectodermal tumors was established in rat using retrovirally transduced SV40 large T antigen (LT) as an inducing agent (O. D. Wiestler et al., Brain Pathol., 2: 47-59, 1992). A cell line isolated from such a tumor and clonal derivatives thereof were biologically and molecularly characterized. In the parental tumor cell line, TZ870, which had been selected for G418 resistance, virtually all cells expressed LT and wild-type p53, which were complexed to each other. When plated in soft agar, these cells grew relatively slowly and formed disperse colonies. However, when grown without selection pressure, these cells reproducibly gave rise to LT-negative and G418-sensitive derivatives, LT-0 cells. Surprisingly, these latter cells exhibited a higher degree of malignancy both in vitro, growing readily to large colonies in soft agar, and in vivo, where they gave rise to a rapidly growing malignant tumor. Clonal selection from TZ870 cells revealed two types of clones: in one type, LT expression was stably maintained, even without selection pressure, whereas the other type lost the LT coding sequences. All LT-negative clones exhibited the same phenotype as the LT-0 cells. Reexpression of LT had no effect. However, LT no longer formed complexes with p53, and p53 was metabolically stable, suggesting that it had been mutated. Sequence analyses and diagnostic restriction digests of the p53 gene revealed that (a) both the parental LT-transformed cells and their derivatives contained only one complete p53 allele and (b) all LT-positive clones expressed wild-type p53, whereas all LT-negative clones expressed a mutant allele with a common mutation at Cys-174-->Tyr, indicating their clonal origin. We assume that the loss of LT coding sequences is the consequence of the p53 mutation, perhaps by inducing genomic instability, and that both the p53 mutation and additional genetic alterations that accompany the loss of LT coding sequences might contribute to enhanced malignancy.  (+info)