Brine shrimp lethality test active constituents and new highly oxygenated seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes from Illicium merrillianum.
In the study of bioactive substances in Illicium plants, the methanol extract of I. merrillianum showed brine shrimp lethality test (BST) activity at 200 microg/ml. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the BST active fractions resulted in the isolation of 4-O-methyleudesm-11-en-4alpha-ol, eudesmol-11-en-4alpha-ol and (-)-hinokinin as potent BST active compounds. On the other hand, four new highly oxygenated seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes, merrilliortholactone (1), 2alpha-hydroxycycloparvifloralone (2), 2alpha-hydroxycycloparviflorolide (3), and 2alpha-hydroxyanisatin (4) were isolated from the BST-inactive polar fractions. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive analyses of spectral data. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of 3 was established by the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1--4 showed neither BST activity at 100 microg/ml nor neurite outgrowth-promoting activity. (+info)
Seven novel seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes from the pericarps of Illicium merrillianum.
Seven new seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes were isolated from the methanol extract of the pericarps of Illicium merrillianum. Their structures were elucidated as 3-deoxypseudoanisatin (1), 2beta-hydroxy-3,6-dedioxypseudoanisatin (2), 8alpha-hydroxy-10-deoxycyclomerrillianolide (3), 10beta-hydroxypseudoanisatin (4), 10beta-hydroxycyclopseudoanisatin (5), 1,6-dihydroxy-3-deoxyminwanensin (6), and 8-deoxymerrilliortholactone (7) by analyses of their spectroscopic data and chemical transformation. Compounds 4 and 5 as well as 6 and 7 coexist as a keto/acetal equilibrated mixture in methanol solution. (+info)
The Causes of self-sterility in natural populations of the relictual angiosperm, Illicium floridanum (Illiciaceae).
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Illicium floridanum, a species belonging to the basal extant angiosperm taxon Illiciaceae, reportedly exhibits self-incompatibility (SI). To date, the site and timing of SI within the carpel of this species remains unidentified. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the cellular and temporal aspects of SI in I. floridanum. METHODS: Following controlled application of cross- and self-pollen in natural populations of I. floridanum, embryo sac development and temporal aspects of stigma receptivity, as well as pollen tube growth, fertilization, and embryo and endosperm development, were investigated with the aid of light and fluorescence microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Flowers of I. floridanum exhibited complete dichogamy whereby stigmas only supported cross- and self-pollen tube growth prior to anther dehiscence. In contrast to earlier reports of SI in this species, a prezygotic SI resulting in rejection of self-pollen tube growth at the stigma was absent and there were no significant differences between cross- versus self-pollen germination and pollen tube growth within the style and ovary during the first 5 d after pollination. Structural development of the four-celled embryo sac was not differentially influenced by pollen type as noted to occur in other angiosperms with late-acting ovarian SI. The ovule micropyle and embryo sac were penetrated equally by cross- and self-pollen tubes. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in cross- versus self-fertilization. A resting zygote and multicellular endosperm at a variety of developmental stages was present by 30 d after application of cross- or self-pollen. CONCLUSIONS: In the clear absence of a prezygotic SI that was previously reported to result in differential self-pollen tube growth at the stigma, self- sterility in I. floridanum is likely due to early-acting inbreeding depression, although late-acting post-zygotic ovarian SI cannot be ruled out. (+info)
Fumigant activity of essential oils and components of Illicium verum and Schizonepeta tenuifolia against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
To develop a natural fungicide against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a total of 25 essential oils were tested for their fumigant activity against post-harvest pathogens. The vaporous phases of oils were treated to each fungus on potato dextrose agar medium in half-plate separated Petri plates at 10 microg per plate. The essential oil of Illicium verum strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of both B. cinerea and C. gloeosporioides by over 90%. On the other hand, the essential oil of Schizonepeta tenuifolia showed inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of only B. cinerea by over 90%. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and bioassay indicated trans-anethole in I. verum and menthone in S. tenuifolia as a major antifungal constituent. The essential oils of I. verum and S. tenuifolia and their major constituents could be used to manage post-harvest diseases caused by B. cinerea and C. gloeosporioides. (+info)
Two new sesquiterpenoids and two new prenylated phenylpropanoids from Illicium fargesii, and neuroprotective activity of macranthol.
Two new seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenoids 1, 2 and two new prenylated phenylpropanoids 4, 5 were isolated along with 15 known compounds from Illicium fargesii. The structures of 1, 2 were elucidated as 10-O-(E)- and 10-O-(Z)-cinnamoyl-2-oxo-6-deoxyneoanisatin by analysis of spectroscopic data and by comparison of their NMR data with those of previously reported 2-oxo-6-deoxyneoanisatin (3), respectively, whereas the structures of 4, 5 were identified as 4-allyl-2-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenol and 4-allyl-2-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl)phenol, respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, macranthol (7) was found to have neuroprotective activity at 5--10 microM in rat cortical neurons cultured in DMEM/N2 medium. (+info)
Histone H2A.Z regulates the expression of several classes of phosphate starvation response genes but not as a transcriptional activator.
Quantitative metabolome profiling of Illicium anisatum by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
We used capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) to characterize the metabolic profiles of the seed, pulp, stem and leaf of Illicium anisatum. CE-TOFMS detected more than 1000 polar metabolites within 40 min, of which 58 were annotated and quantified. Seed had higher levels of glycolytic metabolites than pulp, stem and leaf, while leaf had higher levels of TCA cycle and nucleoside metabolites. Among amino acid metabolites, levels of Gln, Glu, and Asp were higher in almost every organ. Levels of shikimic acid, the source compound for Tamiflu, were high in all organs, ranging from 6.84% to 28.82%. These results indicate that CETOFMS-based metabolomics offers an efficient, convenient method for comprehensive metabolite profiling, and may be a powerful tool for the screening of drug discovery. (+info)
Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Illicium verum fruit and its main component trans-anethole.