Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle.
We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism. (+info)
Na,K-ATPase mRNA beta 1 expression in rat myocardium--effect of thyroid status.
The abundance of Na,K-ATPase and its alpha and beta subunit mRNAs is upregulated in cardiac and other target tissue by thyroid hormone (T3). Multiple Na,K-ATPase mRNA beta 1 species encoding an identical beta 1 polypeptide are expressed in the heart. The different mRNA beta 1 species result from utilization of two transcription start-sites in the first exon and multiple (five) poly(A) signals in the terminal exon of the beta 1 gene. In the present study we identify the mRNA beta 1 species that are expressed in rat ventricular myocardium under basal conditions, and determine whether they are differentially regulated by T3. mRNA beta 1 species were identified by 3'-RACE followed by DNA sequencing, and by Northern blotting using probes derived from different regions of rat cDNA beta 1. Five mRNA beta 1 species are expressed in rat heart: mRNA beta 1 species that are initiated at the first transcription start-site and end at the first, second and fifth poly(A) sites (resulting in mRNAs of 1630, 1810, and 2780 nucleotides), and mRNA beta 1 species initiated at the second transcription start-site and ending at the second and fifth poly(A) sites (resulting in mRNAs of 1500 and 2490 nucleotides); in order of increasing length, the five mRNAs constitute 0.04, 0.15, 0.38, 0.11 and 0.32 of total mRNA beta 1 content. In hypothyroid rats (induced by addition of propyl-thiouracil to the drinking water for 3 weeks), total mRNA beta 1 content decreased to 0.18 euthyroid levels, which was associated with a disproportionate 7.5-fold decrease in the abundance of the longest transcript (P < 0.05); transcripts initiating at the first transcription start-site and ending at the second poly(A) signal in hypothyroid hearts were 0.26 euthyroid levels (P < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism induced by injection of normal rats with three doses of 100 micrograms T3/100 g body weight every 48 h resulted in an overall approximately 2-fold increase in mRNA beta 1 content with no change in the fractional contribution of any of the mRNA beta 1 species. The results indicate a complex heterogeneity in the expression of mRNA beta 1 in myocardium. (+info)
Overexpression of c-Ras in hyperplasia and adenomas of the feline thyroid gland: an immunohistochemical analysis of 34 cases.
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid glands from 18 cats diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were evaluated immunohistochemically for overexpression of the products of oncogenes c-ras and bcl2 and the tumor suppressor gene p53. Fourteen thyroid glands from euthyroid cats without histologically detectable thyroid lesions were examined similarly as controls. Results from these investigations showed that all cases of nodular follicular hyperplasia/adenomas stained positively for overexpression of c-Ras protein using a mouse monoclonal anti-human pan-Ras antibody. The most intensely positively staining regions were in luminal cells surrounding abortive follicles. Subjacent thyroid and parathyroid glands from euthyroid cats did not stain immunohistochemically for pan-Ras. There was no detectable staining for either Bc12 or p53 in any of the cats. These results indicated that overexpression of c-ras was highly associated with areas of nodular follicular hyperplasia/adenomas of feline thyroid glands, and mutations in this oncogene may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of hyperthyroidism in cats. (+info)
Assessment of thyroid hormone assays.
Four techniques for estimating serum T4 and three for estimating serum T3 have been investigated and found to be satisfactory in routine use. Normal ranges for each techniques have been established. Estimation of serum T3 by the commerical kits tested appears to have a high discriminant value in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, although the diagnostic definition used inevitably enhances the apparent sensitivity of these techniques. Estimation of serum T4 will identify the majority of patients with symptomatic hypothyroidism. The low sensitivity of T3 in the diagnosis of thyroid failure is confirmed. (+info)
Thyroid hormones modulate zinc transport activity of rat intestinal and renal brush-border membrane.
Thyroid hormone status influences the Zn2+ and metallothionein levels in intestine, liver, and kidney. To evaluate the impact of thyroid hormones on Zn2+ metabolism, Zn2+ uptake studies were carried out in intestinal and renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Steady-state Zn2+ transport in intestinal and renal cortical BBMV was increased in hyperthyroid (Hyper-T) rats and decreased in the hypothyroid (Hypo-T) rats relative to euthyroid (Eu-T) rats. In both the intestinal and renal BBMV, Hyper-T rats showed a significant increase in maximal velocity compared with Eu-T and Hypo-T rats. Apparent Michaelis constant was unaltered in intestinal and renal BBMV prepared from the three groups. Fluorescence anisotropy of diphenyl hexatriene was decreased significantly in intestinal and renal brush-border membrane (BBM) isolated from Hyper-T rats compared with Hypo-T and Eu-T rats. A significant reduction in the microviscosity and transition temperature for Zn2+ uptake in intestinal and renal BBM from Hyper-T rats is in accordance with the increased fluidity of these BBMs. These findings suggest that the increased rate of Zn2+ transport in response to thyroid hormone status could be associated with either an increase in the number of Zn2+ transporters or an increase in the active transporters due to alteration in the membrane fluidity. Thus the thyroid hormone-mediated change in membrane fluidity might play an important role in modulating Zn2+ transport activity of intestinal and renal BBM. (+info)
In vivo regulation of beta-MHC gene in rodent heart: role of T3 and evidence for an upstream enhancer.
Cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) gene expression is mainly regulated through transcriptional processes. Although these results are based primarily on in vitro cell culture models, relatively little information is available concerning the interaction of key regulatory factors thought to modulate MHC expression in the intact rodent heart. Using a direct gene transfer approach, we studied the in vivo transcriptional activity of different-length beta-MHC promoter fragments in normal control and in altered thyroid states. The test beta-MHC promoter was fused to a firefly luciferase reporter gene, whereas the control alpha-MHC promoter was fused to the Renilla luciferase reporter gene and was used to account for variations in transfection efficiency. Absolute reporter gene activities showed that beta- and alpha-MHC genes were individually and reciprocally regulated by thyroid hormone. The beta-to-alpha ratios of reporter gene expression demonstrated an almost threefold larger beta-MHC gene expression in the longest than in the shorter promoter fragments in normal control animals, implying the existence of an upstream enhancer. A mutation in the putative thyroid response element of the -408-bp beta-MHC promoter construct caused transcriptional activity to drop to null. When studied in the -3, 500-bp beta-MHC promoter, construct activity was reduced ( approximately 100-fold) while thyroid hormone responsiveness was retained. These findings suggest that, even though the bulk of the thyroid hormone responsiveness of the gene is contained within the first 215 bp of the beta-MHC promoter sequence, the exact mechanism of triiodothyronine (T3) action remains to be elucidated. (+info)
Thyroid vascularity and blood flow are not dependent on serum thyroid hormone levels: studies in vivo by color flow doppler sonography.
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid blood flow is greatly enhanced in untreated Graves' disease, but it is not known whether it is due to thyroid hormone excess or to thyroid hyperstimulation by TSH-receptor antibody. To address this issue in vivo patients with different thyroid disorders were submitted to color flow doppler sonography (CFDS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated 24 normal subjects, and 78 patients with untreated hyperthyroidism (49 with Graves' hyperthyroidism, 24 with toxic adenoma, and 5 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma)), 19 patients with thyrotoxicosis (7 with thyrotoxicosis factitia, and 12 with subacute thyroiditis), 37 euthyroid patients with goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 21 untreated hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. RESULTS: Normal subjects had CFDS pattern 0 (absent or minimal intraparenchimal spots) and mean intraparenchimal peak systolic velocity (PSV) of 4.8+/-1.2cm/s. Patients with spontaneous hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, TSHoma, and toxic adenoma had significantly increased PSV (P<0.0001, P=0.0004, P<0.0001 respectively vs controls) and CFDS pattern. Patients with Graves' disease had CFDS pattern II (mild increase of color flow doppler signal) in 10 (20%) and pattern III (marked increase) in 39 cases (80%). Mean PSV was 15+/-3cm/s. Patients with toxic adenoma had CFDS pattern I (presence of parenchymal blood flow with patchy uneven distribution) in 2 (8%), pattern II in 16 (70%) and pattern III in 5 (22%). Mean PSV was 11+/-2.4cm/s. Patients with TSHoma showed CFDS pattern I in one case (20%) and pattern II in 4 (80%). Mean PSV was 14.8+/-4.2cm/s. Patients with thyrotoxicosis had normal PSV (4.2+/-1. 1cm/s in subacute thyroiditis, 4+/-0.8cm/s in thyrotoxicosis factitia, P=not significant vs controls) and CFDS pattern 0. Untreated euthyroid patients with goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis had CFDS pattern 0, and mean PSV (4.3+/-0.9cm/s; P=not significant vs controls). Untreated hypothyroid patients with goitrous Hashimoto's thyroiditis had CFDS pattern I in 14 cases (67%), pattern II in 4 (19%) and pattern 0 in 3 (14%) and mean PSV (5.6+/-1. 4cm/s) was higher than that of controls (P=0.026). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in both intrathyroidal vascularity and blood velocity was observed in patients with spontaneous hyperthyroidism but not in thyrotoxicosis due to either ingestion of thyroid hormones or to a thyroidal destructive process. The slightly increased vascularity and blood velocity observed in patients with hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis suggests that thyroid stimulation by either TSH-receptor antibody or TSH is responsible for the increased thyroid blood flow. (+info)
Clinical study on early changes in thyroid function of hyperthyroidism treated with propylthiouracil and a relatively small dose of iodide.
In order to compare the acute effects of three kinds of antithyroid agents of iodide (I-), propylthiouracil (PTU) and PTU combined with iodide (PTU+I-) on thyroid function in hyperthyroid patients with diffuse goiter, serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), T3-resin sponge uptake (T3-RU) and free thyroxine index (FT4I) were employed as thyroid function parameters. In the group given iodine (1 mg/day) as iodinated-lecithine, the initial values of T4, T3, T3-RU and FT4I were 20.9 +/- 1.6 microng/100 ml (T4), greater than 740 ng/100 ml (T3), 49.5 +/- 2.3% (T3-RU) and 14.7 +/- 1.8 (FT4I). At the end of one week of therapy, they decreased clearly to 15.6 +/- 2.2 microng/100 ml, 457 +/- 87 ng/100 ml, 42.2 +/- 4.0% and 9.7 +/- 2.4. The so-called "escape phenomenon" from iodide inhibition was observed in serum T4, T3-RU and FT4I values at the end of two weeks of iodide therapy, while serum T3 continued to decrease but the value of T3 was far outside of the normal range. In the PTU group (300 mg/day), thyroid function parameters were 22.5 +/- 0.8 microng/100 ml (T4), greater than 592 ng/100 ml (T3), 54.9 +/- 1.0% (T3-RU) and 18.7 +/- 1.0 (FT4I) before treatment. They decreased continually week by week. At the end of four-week treatment with PTU, the value of each thyroid function parameter was 11.1 +/- 1.9 microng/100 ml, 229 +/- 56 ng/100 ml, 36.6 +/- 4.4% and 5.7 +/- 1.7. In the group of hyperthyroidism simultaneously given both PTU and iodide (300 mg/PTU and 1 mg/iodine), these thyroid function parameters decreased as well as in the group treated with PTU alone for more than two weeks. More rapid or significant decrease of T4, T3, T3-RU and ft4i in PTU+I- group than in PTU group was observed in the present study. These results suggested strongly that iodide alone was not an adequate therapy for hyperthyroidism as well known and they were also compatible with the idea that the concomitant administration of PTU and iodide was more effective in the early phase of therapy of hyperthyroidism than PTU alone. (+info)