Enrichment of enzyme activity on deformylation of 1-NFK-lysozyme.
The formamide linkage of an inactive lysozyme derivative (1-NFK-lysozyme), formed by selective ozonization of tryptophan 62 in hen egg-white lysozyme [EC 18.104.22.168] was hydrolyzed with dilute acid faster in the frozen state at about --10 degrees than at 20 degrees. On hydrolysis of 1-NFK-lysozyme the low lytic activity increased to approximately 80% of that of native lysozyme. It is suggested that the binding ability associated with kynurenine 62 in the lysozyme derivative formed by this hydrolysis may be responsible for increase in enzymatic activity. (+info
Preferential acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the formamide linkage of N'-formylkynurenine in frozen solution.
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the formamide linkage of N-acetyl-N'-formyl-L-kynurenineamide in frozen dilute hydrochloric acid solution followed first-order kinetics, yielding N-acetyl-L-kynurenineamide as the sole reaction product. The maximum rate of reaction in the frozen solution was found at around -7.5 degrees and approximated that of the reaction in liquid solution at 40 degrees. By freezing the dilute acid solution at -8 degrees the reaction was accelerated by 60 times compared with that in super-cooled liquid solution at the same temperature. (+info
Excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes after formamide-induced detubulation.
Formamide-induced osmotic shock has been used to detubulate isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes (i.e., disrupt the surface membrane-T tubule junction). Cell volume, calculated from cell length and width, rapidly decreased and increased upon application and removal of formamide, respectively. After treatment with formamide, membrane capacitance decreased by 26.4% (from 199.4 +/- 18.7 pF in control cells to 146.7 +/- 6.4 pF in formamide-treated cells; n = 13, P < 0.05). However, the amplitude of the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) decreased by a greater extent (from 0.75 +/- 0.14 to 0.18 +/- 0.03 nA; n = 5, P < 0.05) so that the density of I(Ca) decreased by 74.5%. Simultaneous measurements of I(Ca) and Ca(2+) transients (monitored using fura 2) showed that both decreased rapidly upon removal of formamide. However, the Ca(2+) content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum showed little change. Cross-striations, visualized with the fluorescent dye di-8-aminonaphthylethenylpyridinium, were sparse or absent in cells that had been treated with formamide, suggesting that formamide can successfully detubulate cardiac cells and that I(Ca) is concentrated in the T tubules, which therefore play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling. (+info
Role of leaflet asymmetry in the permeability of model biological membranes to protons, solutes, and gases.
Bilayer asymmetry in the apical membrane may be important to the barrier function exhibited by epithelia in the stomach, kidney, and bladder. Previously, we showed that reduced fluidity of a single bilayer leaflet reduced water permeability of the bilayer, and in this study we examine the effect of bilayer asymmetry on permeation of nonelectrolytes, gases, and protons. Bilayer asymmetry was induced in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes by rigidifying the outer leaflet with the rare earth metal, praseodymium (Pr3+). Rigidification was demonstrated by fluorescence anisotropy over a range of temperatures from 24 to 50 degrees C. Pr3+-treatment reduced membrane fluidity at temperatures above 40 degrees C (the phase-transition temperature). Increased fluidity exhibited by dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes at 40 degrees C occurred at temperatures 1-3 degrees C higher in Pr3+-treated liposomes, and for both control and Pr3+-treated liposomes permeability coefficients were approximately two orders of magnitude higher at 48 degrees than at 24 degrees C. Reduced fluidity of one leaflet correlated with significantly reduced permeabilities to urea, glycerol, formamide, acetamide, and NH3. Proton permeability of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes was only fourfold higher at 48 degrees than at 24 degrees C, indicating a weak dependence on membrane fluidity, and this increase was abolished by Pr3+. CO2 permeability was unaffected by temperature. We conclude: (a) that decreasing membrane fluidity in a single leaflet is sufficient to reduce overall membrane permeability to solutes and NH3, suggesting that leaflets in a bilayer offer independent resistances to permeation, (b) bilayer asymmetry is a mechanism by which barrier epithelia can reduce permeability, and (c) CO(2) permeation through membranes occurs by a mechanism that is not dependent on fluidity. (+info
Variability in the interpretation of microsatellite patterns with different electrophoretic conditions.
Microsatellite markers permit the analysis of microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity. Frequently, the allelotypes of microsatellites are interpreted in the presence of numerous bands in gels. The importance of different gel electrophoresis conditions in the interpretation of microsatellite patterns was tested. Microsatellite markers were used to amplify DNA from gastric cancer samples and adjacent gastric mucosa. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were separated by electrophoresis through 7% polyacrylamide gels containing either 5.6 M urea and 32% formamide or 7 M urea. PCR reactions separated on urea/formamide gels resulted consistently in clear allele definition (one or two bands), whereas 7 M urea gels resulted in allele patterns that comprised multiple bands. Analysis of microsatellite abnormalities using nonformamide gels gave false negative results in just under a third of cases (four of 13). In conclusion, the interpretation of microsatellite alterations in cancer DNA is improved by using electrophoresis conditions that result in complete DNA denaturation, such as urea/formamide/acrylamide gel electrophoresis. (+info
Mapping of colicin E2 and colicin E3 plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid EcoR-1-sensitive sites.
Colicin plasmids E2 and E3 (Col E2 and Col E3) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been shown to contain, respectively, two and three EcoR1 restriction endonuclease-sensitive sites. This was determined by measuring the DNA fragments generated after EcoR1 endonuclease treatment by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The structure of heteroduplex Col E2-col E3 DNA molecules formed from EcoR1-generated fragments permitted a localization of the EcoR1-sensitive sites on the plasmid chromosomes. (+info
Histone H2A.Z has a conserved function that is distinct from that of the major H2A sequence variants.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains three genes that encode members of the histone H2A gene family. The last of these to be discovered, HTZ1 (also known as HTA3), encodes a member of the highly conserved H2A.Z class of histones. Little is known about how its in vivo function compares with that of the better studied genes (HTA1 and HTA2) encoding the two major H2As. We show here that, while the HTZ1 gene encoding H2A.Z is not essential in budding yeast, its disruption results in slow growth and formamide sensitivity. Using plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major H2A genes cannot provide the function of HTZ1 and the HTZ1 gene cannot provide the essential function of the genes encoding the major H2As. We also demonstrate for the first time that H2A.Z genes are functionally conserved by showing that the gene encoding the H2A.Z variant of the ciliated protozoan TETRAHYMENA: thermophila is able to rescue the phenotypes associated with disruption of the yeast HTZ1 gene. Thus, the functions of H2A.Z are distinct from those of the major H2As and are highly conserved. (+info
Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of formamide in Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats.
Timed-pregnant CD(R) outbred albino Sprague-Dawley rats received formamide (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (5 ml/kg deionized/distilled water, po) on gestational days (gd) 6 through 19. Maternal food and water consumption (absolute and relative), body weight, and clinical signs were monitored at regular intervals throughout gestation. At termination (gd 20), confirmed-pregnant females (21-23 per group) were evaluated for clinical status and gestational outcome; live fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations and variations. There were no maternal deaths and no dose-related clinical signs. At 200 mg/kg/day, maternal body weight on gd 20, weight gain, and gravid uterine weight were significantly decreased. Maternal weight gain, corrected for gravid uterine weight, liver weight (absolute or relative), and food and water consumption (absolute or relative), were not affected. Formamide did not affect prenatal viability or incidences of fetal malformations or variations. Average fetal body weight/litter was decreased at 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. Fetal body weight was affected at lower daily doses than in previously published studies, possibly due to the longer total exposure period and/or lack of a recovery period between cessation of exposure and termination. In summary, the maternal toxicity no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 100 mg/kg/day and the low observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 200 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. Similarly, the developmental toxicity NOAEL was 50 mg/kg/day and the LOAEL was 100 mg/kg/day. (+info