Vascular remodeling in response to altered blood flow is mediated by fibroblast growth factor-2.
Vascular structures adapt to changes in blood flow by adjusting their diameter accordingly. The factors mediating this process are only beginning to be identified. We have recently established a mouse model of arterial remodeling in which flow in the common carotid artery is interrupted by ligation of the vessel near the carotid bifurcation, resulting in a dramatic reduction in vessel diameter as a consequence of inward remodeling and intimal lesion formation. In the present study, we used this model to determine the role of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the remodeling response by maintaining neutralizing serum levels of a mouse monoclonal antibody against FGF-2 for 4 weeks. Morphometric analysis revealed that intimal lesion formation was not affected by the antibody. However, lumen narrowing was significantly inhibited, resulting in a greater than 3-fold increase in lumen area in anti-FGF-2-treated animals compared with controls. Treatment with anti-FGF-2 antibody significantly inhibited the reduction in vessel diameter (inward remodeling) and shortening of the internal elastic lamina in the ligated vessel. In addition, anti-FGF-2 treatment also caused outward remodeling of the contralateral carotid artery. These findings identify FGF-2 as an important factor in vascular remodeling, and its effects are likely to be mediated by increasing vascular tone. The results are consistent with the recent observation of reduced vascular tone in the FGF-2-deficient mouse. (+info)
Contribution of natural killer cells to inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-12.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) inhibits angiogenesis in vivo by inducing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and other downstream mediators. Here, we report that neutralization of natural killer (NK) cell function with antibodies to either asialo GM1 or NK 1.1 reversed IL-12 inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis in athymic mice. By immunohistochemistry, those sites where bFGF-induced neovascularization was inhibited by IL-12 displayed accumulation of NK cells and the presence of IP-10-positive cells. Based on expression of the cytolytic mediators perforin and granzyme B, the NK cells were locally activated. Experimental Burkitt lymphomas treated locally with IL-12 displayed tumor tissue necrosis, vascular damage, and NK-cell infiltration surrounding small vessels. After activation in vitro with IL-12, NK cells from nude mice became strongly cytotoxic for primary cultures of syngeneic aortic endothelial cells. Cytotoxicity was neutralized by antibodies to IFN-gamma. These results document that NK cells are required mediators of angiogenesis inhibition by IL-12, and provide evidence that NK-cell cytotoxicity of endothelial cells is a potential mechanism by which IL-12 can suppress neovascularization. (+info)
Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody C225 inhibits angiogenesis in human transitional cell carcinoma growing orthotopically in nude mice.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We have shown that therapy targeting EGFR inhibited the growth of human TCC established orthotopically in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR-directed therapy affects angiogenesis associated with the growth and metastasis of human TCC. We determined the cytostatic effect and the effect on production of angiogenic factors after in vitro treatment of the human TCC cell line 253J B-V with MAb C225, a chimerized monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. The 253J B-V cells were implanted orthotopically into athymic nude mice, and established tumors (4 weeks) were treated with i.p. MAb C225. Expression of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ mRNA hybridization analyses and correlated with microvessel density evaluated after immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD31. In vitro treatment with MAb C225 inhibited mRNA and protein production of VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF by 253J B-V cells in a dose-dependent manner. MAb C225 therapy of nude mice with established TCCs growing orthotopically resulted in inhibition of growth and metastasis compared with controls (P <0.0005). VEGF, IL-8, and bFGF expression was significantly lower in treated tumors than in controls. The down-regulation of these angiogenic factors preceded the involution of blood vessels. These studies indicate that therapy with anti-EGFR MAb C225 has a significant antitumor effect mediated, in part, by inhibition of angiogenesis. (+info)
Heparin and heparan sulphate protect basic fibroblast growth factor from non-enzymic glycosylation.
Non-enzymic glycosylation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) has recently been demonstrated to decrease the mitogenic activity of intracellular bFGF. Loss of this bioactivity has been implicated in impaired wound healing and microangiopathies of diabetes mellitus. In addition to intracellular localization, bFGF is also widely distributed in the extracellular matrix, primarily bound to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Nonetheless, it is not clear if non-enzymic glycosylation similarly inactivates matrix-bound bFGF. To investigate this, we measured the effect of non-enzymic glycosylation on bFGF bound to heparin, heparan sulphate and related compounds. Incubation of bFGF with the glycosylating agents glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P; 25 mM) or fructose (250 mM) resulted in loss of 90% and 40% of the mitogenic activity of bFGF respectively. Treatment with G3P and fructose also decreased the binding of bFGF to a heparin column. If heparin was added to bFGF prior to non-enzymic glycosylation, the mitogenic activity and heparin affinity of bFGF were nearly completely preserved. A similar protective effect was demonstrated by heparan sulphate, low-molecular-mass heparin and the polysaccharide dextran sulphate, but not by chondroitin sulphate. Whereas non-enzymic glycosylation of bFGF with G3P impaired its ability to stimulate c-myc mRNA expression in fibroblasts, no such impairment was noticeable when bFGF was glycosylated in the presence of heparin. Taken together, these results suggest that HSPG-bound bFGF is resistant to non-enzymic glycosylation-induced loss of activity. Therefore, alteration of this pool probably does not contribute to impaired wound healing seen in diabetes mellitus. (+info)
Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 are distinct in oligomerization in the presence of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF-2 are prototypic members of the FGF family, which to date comprises at least 18 members. Surprisingly, even though FGF-1 and FGF-2 share more than 80% sequence similarity and an identical structural fold, these two growth factors are biologically very different. FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in their ability to bind isoforms of the FGF receptor family as well as the heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) component of proteoglycans on the cell surface to initiate signaling in different cell types. Herein, we provide evidence for one mechanism by which these two proteins could differ biologically. Previously, it has been noted that FGF-1 and FGF-2 can oligomerize in the presence of HLGAGs. Therefore, we investigated whether FGF-1 and FGF-2 oligomerize by the same mechanism or by a different one. Through a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking, we show here that, under identical conditions, FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in the degree and kind of oligomerization. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of FGF-1 and FGF-2 uncomplexed and HLGAG complexed crystal structures enables us to readily explain why FGF-2 forms sequential oligomers whereas FGF-1 forms only dimers. FGF-2, which possesses an interface capable of protein association, forms a translationally related oligomer, whereas FGF-1, which does not have this interface, forms only a symmetrically related dimer. Taken together, these data show that FGF-1 and FGF-2, despite their sequence homology, differ in their mechanism of oligomerization. (+info)
Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) transduce signals to regulate neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. However, the nature of their activators and molecular mechanisms underlying these neural processes are unknown. Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and platelet-derived growth factor enhance expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor 1 and 2/3 proteins in rodent neocortical neurons via the Src-family PTK(s). The increase in AMPA receptor levels was blocked in cultured neocortical neurons by addition of a Src-family-selective PTK inhibitor. Accordingly, neocortical cultures from Fyn-knockout mice failed to respond to BDNF whereas those from wild-type mice responded. Moreover, the neocortex of young Fyn mutants exhibited a significant in vivo reduction in these AMPA receptor proteins but not in their mRNA levels. In vitro kinase assay revealed that BDNF can indeed activate the Fyn kinase: It enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of Fyn as well as that of enolase supplemented exogenously. All of these results suggest that the Src-family kinase Fyn, activated by the growth factors, plays a crucial role in modulating AMPA receptor expression during brain development. (+info)
Expression of vitreous cytokines in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a prospective study.
PURPOSE: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a major cause of failure of retinal detachment surgery. It is believed to be a wound-healing process in the retina. Many of the cellular functions are influenced by cytokines and growth factors such as interleukins (ILs). The present study was conducted to investigate the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), IL-1beta, IL-6, and protein in the vitreous of patients with retinal detachment and to determine the value of these mediators in predicting the future development of PVR. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 140 consecutive patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in whom vitrectomy was considered necessary. Vitreous samples were analyzed for the presence of TGF-beta2, bFGF, IL-1beta, IL-6, and protein. Patients were then followed up for 3 months for the development of postoperative PVR. RESULTS: The mean levels of TGF-beta2, bFGF, IL-1beta, and protein in the vitreous were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with preoperative PVR compared with those without. The mean levels of TGF-beta2, bFGF, IL-6, and protein in the vitreous were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients who had postoperative PVR compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed IL-6 and protein to be significant (P < 0.05), independent, predictive risk factors for the development of PVR. CONCLUSIONS: The various cytokines may play a role in the pathobiology of PVR. High vitreous levels of IL-6 and protein were identified as significant risk factors for PVR. A model was developed to predict the probability of development of postoperative PVR in these patients, and it may be used to indicate intravitreal pharmacologic treatment for those at risk. (+info)
CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters.
PURPOSE: To investigate the in vivo effects of trophic factors on the axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. METHODS: The left optic nerve was transected intracranially or intraorbitally, and a peripheral nerve graft was apposed or sutured to the axotomized optic nerve to enhance regeneration. Trophic factors were applied intravitreally every 5 days. Animals were allowed to survive for 3 or 4 weeks. Regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were labeled by applying the dye Fluoro-Gold to the distal end of the peripheral nerve graft 3 days before the animals were killed. RESULTS: Intravitreal application of ciliary neurotrophic factor substantially enhanced the regeneration of damaged axons into a sciatic nerve graft in both experimental conditions (intracranial and intraorbital optic nerve transections) but did not increase the survival of distally axotomized RGCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4/5 failed to enhance axonal regeneration of distally axotomized RGCs. CONCLUSIONS: Neurons of the adult central nervous system can regenerate in response to trophic supply after injury, and ciliary neurotrophic factor is at least one of the trophic factors that can promote axonal regeneration of axotomized RGCs. (+info)