Research and identification of tranquillizers - use of retention index.
At the request of the Service des Haras, our laboratory works on the toxicological problems of the sport-horse. These studies have resulted in the setting up of an anti-doping control for equestrian competitions of various types, not only flat racing. During events, horses, must be calm and docile to the riders' order. Frequently, the latter use tranquillizers to try and win events. The analytical method for the research and identification of these compounds is described. The technique involves successively: 1. alkalinisation of the sample - saliva, blood or urine after enzymatic hydrolysis. 2. extraction with diethyl ether - the recovery is 70% to 90% depending upon the drug. 3. determination by gas-liquid chromatography with use of a retention index for qualitative analysis. We can detect up to fifteen tranquillizers in any one sample, even when present at such low concentrations as found in saliva. The use of the retention index is a reliable method for qualitative analysis. For example, the method has been used for three years, during which period the rentention index of acetylpromazine remained at 3240 +/- 7. The chromatographic analysis was performed on 3% OV-17 at 290 degrees. The chromatographic analysis has been performed by three columns of different polarity (OV-1; OV-17; SP-2250). If on the three columns, the retention index of one peak is the same as that of the tranquilizer, a further confirmation is made with the use of a thermionic detector specific for nitrogenous drugs. In conclusion, this method which is sufficiently precise and specific has been used for anti-doping control. (+info)
Model ecosystem evaluation of the environmental impacts of the veterinary drugs phenothiazine, sulfamethazine, clopidol, and diethylstilbestrol.
Four veterinary drugs of dissimilar chemical structures were evaluated for environmental stability and penchant for bioaccumulation. The techniques used were (1) a model aquatic ecosystem (3 days) and (2) a model feedlot ecosystem (33 days) in which the drugs were introduced via the excreta of chicks or mice. The model feedlot ecosystem was supported by metabolism cage studies to determine the amount and the form of the drug excreted by the chicks or mice. Considerable quantities of all the drugs were excreted intact or as environmentally short-lived conjugates. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Clopidol were the most persistent molecules, but only DES bioaccumulated to any appreciable degree. Phenothiazine was very biodegradable; sulfamethazine was relatively biodegradable and only accumulated in the organisms to very low levels. Data from the aquatic model ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation between the partition coefficients of the drugs and their accumulation in the fish. (+info)
Risk of breast cancer according to use of antidepressants, phenothiazines, and antihistamines.
In laboratory studies, some antidepressants caused increased growth of mammary tumors. The relation of use of these drugs to the development of breast cancer was examined in a hospital-based case-control study. Information, including lifetime medication history, was collected by interview from 5,814 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed within the previous year, 5,095 women with primary malignancies of other sites, and 5,814 women with other conditions. Relative risks were estimated by using unconditional multiple logistic regression for regular use (> or =4 days per week for > or =4 weeks beginning > or =1 year before admission) of antidepressants and structurally similar drugs. With reference to never use of each drug, relative risks were statistically compatible with 1.0 for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), tricyclics, other antidepressants, phenothiazines, and antihistamines; results were very similar using both control groups. There were no significant increases in risk for any category of regular use, stratified according to cumulative duration of use or time interval since the most recent use or for any individual drug within the broader classes. However, the estimate for regular SSRI use in the previous year, 1.8, was of borderline statistical significance (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.3). The findings do not support an overall association between the use of antidepressants, phenothiazines, or antihistamines and breast cancer. However, the results for SSRIs are not entirely reassuring. (+info)
Permeabilization of fungal membranes by plant defensins inhibits fungal growth.
We used an assay based on the uptake of SYTOX Green, an organic compound that fluoresces upon interaction with nucleic acids and penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes, to investigate membrane permeabilization in fungi. Membrane permeabilization induced by plant defensins in Neurospora crassa was biphasic, depending on the plant defensin dose. At high defensin levels (10 to 40 microM), strong permeabilization was detected that could be strongly suppressed by cations in the medium. This permeabilization appears to rely on direct peptide-phospholipid interactions. At lower defensin levels (0.1 to 1 microM), a weaker, but more cation-resistant, permeabilization occurred at concentrations that correlated with the inhibition of fungal growth. Rs-AFP2(Y38G), an inactive variant of the plant defensin Rs-AFP2 from Raphanus sativus, failed to induce cation-resistant permeabilization in N. crassa. Dm-AMP1, a plant defensin from Dahlia merckii, induced cation-resistant membrane permeabilization in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) which correlated with its antifungal activity. However, Dm-AMP1 could not induce cation-resistant permeabilization in the Dm-AMP1-resistant S. cerevisiae mutant DM1, which has a drastically reduced capacity for binding Dm-AMP1. We think that cation-resistant permeabilization is binding site mediated and linked to the primary cause of fungal growth inhibition induced by plant defensins. (+info)
Dopamine receptor binding in the corpus striatum of mammalian brain.
Specific binding of [3H]dopamine to membranes from the corpus striatum of rat and calf brain appears to involve the postsynaptic dopamine receptor. Specific [3H]dopamine binding is saturable, wnd with half-maximal binding in calf membranes at 7 nM. Apomorphine is about twice as potent as dopamine in competing for binding sites, whereas (-)norepinephrine is 5% as potent as dopamine and isoproterenol is virtually inactive. The relative potencies of phenothiazines as inhibitors of specific dopamine binding correlates with their clinical potencies and actions on the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase. (+info)
The specificity of protein-DNA crosslinking by formaldehyde: in vitro and in drosophila embryos.
Formaldehyde crosslinking has been widely used to study binding of specific proteins to DNA elements in intact cells. However, previous studies have not determined if this crosslinker preserves the bona fide pattern of DNA binding. Here we show that formaldehyde crosslinking of Drosophila embryos maps an interaction of the transcription factor Zeste to a known target element in the Ultrabithorax promoter. This data agrees broadly with previous mapping of the same Zeste binding sites by in vivo UV crosslinking, though the formaldehyde method does give a low, possibly artifactual signal on other DNA fragments that is not detected by the UV method. We also demonstrate, using an in vitro assay, that formaldehyde crosslinking accurately reflects the DNA binding specificities of both Zeste and a second transcription factor, Eve. The crosslinking reagent methylene blue is shown to preserve DNA binding specificity in vitro as well. Our results suggest that crosslinking by formaldehyde, and possibly also by methylene blue, provide an accurate guide to the interaction of proteins with their high affinity target sites in cells. (+info)
Hydroperoxide specificity of plant and human tissue lipoxygenase: an in vitro evaluation using N-demethylation of phenothiazines.
Since hydroperoxide specificity of lipoxygenase (LO) is poorly understood at present, we investigated the ability of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to support cooxidase activity of the enzyme toward the selected xenobiotics. Considering the fact that in the past, studies of xenobiotic N-demethylation have focused on heme-proteins such as P450 and peroxidases, in this study, we investigated the ability of non-heme iron proteins, namely soybean LO (SLO) and human term placental LO (HTPLO) to mediate N-demethylation of phenothiazines. In addition to being dependent on peroxide concentration, the reaction was dependent on enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, incubation time, and pH of the medium. Using Nash reagent to estimate formaldehyde production, the specific activity under optimal assay conditions for the SLO mediated N-demethylation of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a prototypic phenothiazine, in the presence of TBHP, was determined to be 117+/-12 nmol HCHO/min/mg protein, while that of HTPLO was 3.9+/-0.40 nmol HCHO/min/mg protein. Similar experiments in the presence of CHP yielded specific activities of 106+/-11 nmol HCHO/min/mg SLO, and 3.2+/-0.35 nmol HCHO/min/mg HTPLO. As expected, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and gossypol, the classical inhibitors of LOs, as well as antioxidants and free radical reducing agents, caused a marked reduction in the rate of formaldehyde production from CPZ by SLO in the reaction media fortified with either CHP or TBHP. Besides chlorpromazine, both SLO and HTPLO also mediated the N-demethylation of other phenothiazines in the presence of these organic hydroperoxides. (+info)
Associations between epidermal thionin-positive cells and skin parasitic infections in brown trout Salmo trutta.
The dynamics of the densities of epidermal thionin-positive cells (putative mast cells) in the skin of brown trout fry were investigated during experimental infections with the skin parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) and Gyrodactylus derjavini (Monogenea). It was shown that the metachromatic thionin-stained cells were extremely sensitive to parasite exposure, as the density of cells in the skin of trout decreased markedly after exposure to the pathogens. As early as 7 d post infection the cell counts were significantly reduced and almost totally depleted following 9 d infection, which suggests that degranulation of the cells occurs following parasite exposure. No recruitment of new cells was seen during the study period. Some reduction in uninfected control groups indicates that the putative mast cells are sensitive to stress as well. A notable variation in densities of thionin-stained cells between different fins was found and the corneal surface was devoid of these cells. The possible implications of these cells in host-parasite interactions are suggested and discussed. (+info)