Effect of number of home exercises on compliance and performance in adults over 65 years of age.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is limited research on the effects of the number of exercises a person is told to perform on compliance and performance, as defined by cueing requirements, correct alignment, and quality of movement. Some studies of medication suggest that compliance decreases as the number of medications increases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether older adults comply and perform better (ie, requiring less cueing, exhibiting correct alignment, and exhibiting controlled, coordinated, and continuous movements) when they are asked to do 2, 5, or 8 exercises. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 11 women and 4 men, aged 67 to 82 years (X=72.8), who were living independently in their communities. METHODS: Subjects were randomly prescribed 2, 5, or 8 general strengthening home exercises. They were instructed on their exercises at an initial session and asked to record the number of repetitions performed each day in a self-report exercise log. At a return session 7 to 10 days later, subjects were scored on their performance of the prescribed exercises using a newly designed assessment tool. RESULTS: The group that was prescribed 2 exercises performed better, as defined by their performance tool score, than the group that was prescribed 8 exercises. The group that was prescribed 5 exercises was not different from the groups that performed 2 or 8 exercises. No differences were found among groups regarding the self-report measurement of compliance. There was a moderate correlation between performance scores and the self-report percentage rates. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Subjects who were prescribed 2 exercises performed better than subjects who were prescribed 8 exercises. The question of an optimal number of exercises to prescribe to elderly people warrants further study. (+info)
Individualized prescription of peritoneal dialysis therapy?
Prescribing PD has become more challenging, but also more rewarding and stimulating in recent years. The number of technical aids and strategies has increased, and a potential exists to optimize clearances and ultrafiltration in a way that has not been seen before and that will, it is to be hoped, translate into better patient outcomes. It is crucial, however, that the technologies and strategies be applied with an awareness of the individual patient's particular lifestyle, aspirations, and social circumstances. A failure to consider these factors may lead to noncompliance and, ultimately, to "burnout" and technique failure. Patients must be educated about the importance of clearance targets so that they will accept the alterations in, or the onerous aspects of, the prescriptions they require. Successful prescribing of PD requires an awareness of both clearance and lifestyle factors so that the two can be integrated to give an effective and acceptable regimen. Finally, cost factors should also be considered. (+info)
Is there a rational basis for post-surgical lifting restrictions? 2. Possible scientific approach.
Lifting restrictions postoperatively are quite common but there appears to be little scientific basis for them. Lifting restricitions are inhibitory in terms of return to work and may be a factor in chronicity. The mean changes in functional spinal motion unit (FSU) stiffness with in vitro or computer-simulated discectomies, facetectomies and laminectomies were reviewed from the literature. We modified the NIOSH lifting equation to include another multiplier related to stiffness change post surgery. The new recommended lifts were computed for different lifting conditions seen in industry. The reduction of rotational stiffness ranged from 21% to 41% for a discectomy, 1% to 59% for a facetectomy and 4% to 16% for a partial laminectomy. The recommended lifts based on our modified equation were adjusted accordingly. There is no rational basis for current lifting resctrictions. The risk to the spine is a function of many other variables as well as weight (i.e., distance of weight from body). The adjusted NIOSH guidelines provide a reasonable way to estimate weight restrictions and accomodations such as lifting aids. Such resitrictions should be as liberal as possible so as to facilitate, not prevent, return to work. Patients need more advice regarding lifting activities and clinicians should be more knowledgeable about the working conditions and constraints of a given workplace to effectively match the solution to the patient's condition. (+info)
Are pharmaceuticals cost-effective? A review of the evidence.
The argument that prescription drugs are cost-effective has been made both by the pharmaceutical industry to support rising drug prices and expenditures, and by advocates of expanded drug coverage for elderly and low-income persons. A new database of 228 published cost-utility analyses sheds light on the issue. According to published data, some drugs do save money or are cost-effective, but the issue depends critically on the context in which the drug is used and the intervention with which it is compared. Cost-utility analyses funded by the drug industry tend to report more favorable results than do those funded by nonindustry sources. Cost-effectiveness analysis can help policymakers to determine whether drugs and other interventions offer value for money. (+info)
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation: a utilization review of use in a teaching hospital.
BACKGROUND: The use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for acute respiratory failure (ARF) has become more widespread over the past decade, but its prescription, use and outcomes in the clinical setting remain uncertain. The objective of this study was to review the use of NIPPV for ARF with respect to clinical indications, physician ordering, monitoring strategies and patient outcomes. METHODS: A total of 91 consecutive adult patients admitted between June 1997 and September 1998 to a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Hamilton, Ont., who received 95 trials of NIPPV for ARF were included in an observational cohort study. Data abstraction forms were completed in duplicate, then relevant clinical, physiologic, prescribing, monitoring and outcome data were abstracted from the NIPPV registry and hospital records. RESULTS: The most common indications for NIPPV were pulmonary edema (42 of 95 trials [44.2%]) and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (23 of 95 trials [24.2%]). NIPPV was started primarily in the emergency department (62.1% of trials), however, in terms of total hours of NIPPV the most frequent sites of administration were the intensive care unit (30.9% of total hours) and the clinical teaching unit (20.2% of total hours). NIPPV was stopped in 48.4% of patients because of improvement and in 25.6% because of deterioration necessitating endotracheal intubation. The median time to intubation was 3.0 hours (interquartile range 0.8-12.2 hours). The respirology service was consulted for 28.4% of the patients. Physician orders usually lacked details of NIPPV settings and monitoring methods. We found no significant predictors of the need for endotracheal intubation. The overall death rate was 28.6%. The only independent predictor of death was a decreased level of consciousness (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.0-8.4). INTERPRETATION: NIPPV was used for ARF of diverse causes in many hospital settings and was started and managed by physicians with various levels of training and experience. The use of this technique outside the critical care setting may be optimized by a multidisciplinary educational practice guideline. (+info)
Syringe prescription to prevent HIV infection in Rhode Island: a case study.
Injection drug users (IDUs) are a population at high risk for many diseases, including AIDS, and are clearly in need of medical and substance abuse treatment. Access to sterile syringes is critical for lowering the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne pathogens among IDUs. Previously tried strategies include needle exchange programs and changing laws to allow the legal purchase and possession of syringes. An alternative strategy is to have physicians prescribe syringes to IDUs. To the best of our knowledge, this has previously been tried by only a few physicians in rare situations and never on a programmatic basis. This report describes the genesis of physician's syringe prescription in Rhode Island and some of the lessons learned to date. Because of the illicit nature of drug use, a tremendous amount of mistrust and fear on the part of IDUs often leads to poor interaction with the medical establishment. Prescription of syringes by a physician can serve as a tool for reaching out to a high-risk and often out-of-treatment population of drug users. It is a way for the health care community to tap into drug-using networks and bring those populations into a medical care system. (+info)
Screening mammographies in Switzerland: what makes female and male physicians prescribe them?
QUESTION UNDER STUDY: Physicians play a key role in motivating women to undergo mammography screening. In 1998 we assessed Swiss physicians' attitudes to mammography screening and their prescription behaviour in this regard. METHODS: All female physicians and every second male physician aged 50-69 who were either not board-certified or board-certified in general practice, internal medicine, or obstetrics/gynaecology were sent a questionnaire. The response rate was 50% and thus 738 questionnaires were included in this study. Of the study population 39% were female and 61% male physicians. The distribution of professional backgrounds was: 27% board-certified general practitioners; 23% board-certified internists; 11% board-certified gynaecologists; 39% not board-certified. RESULTS: 55% of all study participants were in favour of a mammography screening programme for women aged over 50 in Switzerland, but breast self-examination and clinical breast examination were judged to have a more positive impact on breast cancer survival. Among clinically practising physicians, 22% reported generally prescribing biannual screening mammographies for women aged 50-69. Irrespective of other determinants, physicians from the Italian- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland prescribed screening mammographies more often than their colleagues from the German-speaking part (odds ratio [OR] 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-4.2). Clinical practice in obstetrics/gynaecology (OR 2.4; CI 1.3-4.2) and a self-reported high level of knowledge concerning mammography screening (OR 1.9; CI 1.1-3.2) were also positively associated with the prescription of screening mammography. CONCLUSIONS: Since mammography screening programmes exist in only three French-speaking cantons of Switzerland (VS; VD; GE), the gap in prescription of screening mammographies between French/Italian- and German-speaking regions must be narrowed to prevent a higher prevalence of side effects from opportunistic screening among German-speaking women. There is a need to educate physicians and the political community regarding the risks and benefits of mammography screening. (+info)
International approaches to the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy.
While there is broad agreement about who should receive long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), there is little information available on how clinicians should decide on the oxygen prescription itself, at rest, during sleep and during exercise. The authors describe the results of an international survey that was undertaken to compare how respirologists prescribed oxygen. A questionnaire was sent to 100 respirologists in each of seven countries. The questionnaire identified whether resting flow rates were derived in a standard manner or by individualized patient testing. Test targets were ascertained for rest, exercise and sleep, as was the percentage of time that each test target had to reach for the test to be accepted. The majority of respondents individualized the oxygen prescription at rest (81%). Resting arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,O2) was most commonly targeted at 90-91%. The approach to night prescription varied (p<0.001). Respirologists in Canada and the USA increased the resting Sa,O2 by 1-2 L x min(-1) during sleep, while those in Spain used the resting (awake) flow for the night prescription (62%). Respirologists in the Netherlands, France, and Italy individualized the night prescription more frequently. Although oxygen during exercise was individualized in most countries (74%), significant differences remained among countries (p<0.001). The majority of respirologists (62%) aimed to achieve an Sa,O2 of 90-91% during exercise, while 70% of all respirologists tried to achieve the desired Sa,O2 for 90% of the test. There were substantial differences among countries as to how the oxygen prescription was written. This survey highlights the need for multicentre studies that improve the effectiveness of long-term oxygen therapy utilization. (+info)