A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana.
In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system. (+info)
Inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 induction from cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts by treatment with aurothioglucose.
Gold compounds have long been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their actions in RA have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effect of one of the monovalent gold compounds, aurothioglucose (AuTG), on the IL-1-induced production of IL-6, IL-8 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF) isolated from three RA patients. IL-6 and IL-8 induction but not GM-CSF induction was inhibited in most of the RSF after pretreatment with AuTG. Since gene expression of these cytokines is known to be under the control of a common transcription factor, NF-kappaB, the effect of AuTG on the cellular localization of NF-kappaB (p65 subunit) and on NF-kappaB-DNA binding was examined. Although AuTG treatment did not prevent NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, AuTG blocked the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB when examined in vitro. Morphologically, both metal-specific cell staining using p-dimethylaminobenzylidene rhodamine and transmission electron microscopic examinations demonstrated the accumulation of metal gold in the cytoplama and some organella (mitochondria and lysosomes) of the AuTG-treated RSF. These results indicate that one of the anti-rheumatic actions of AuTG might be through its inhibitory action on NF-kappaB. (+info)
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), which causes acute, latent, and persistent infection of the natural host, is used as an animal model of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Transcription of MCMV immediate-early (IE) genes is required for expression of the early and late genes and is dependent on host cell transcription factors. Cell-type-specific expression activity of the MCMV IE promoter was analyzed in transgenic mice generated with the major IE (MIE) enhancer/promoter involving nucleotides -1343 to -6 (1338 bp) connected to the reporter gene lacZ. Distinct expression was observed in the brain, kidneys, stomach, and skeletal muscles. Weak expression was observed in a portion of the parenchymal cells of the salivary glands and pancreas, and expression was hardly detected in the lungs, intestine, or immune and hematopoietic organs such as the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. The spectrum of organs positive for expression was narrower than that of the HCMV MIE promoter-lacZ transgenic mice reported previously and showed a greater degree of cell-type specificity. Interestingly, astrocyte-specific expression of the transgene was observed in the brain and primary glial cultures from the transgenic mice by combination of beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) expression and immunostaining for cell markers. However, the transgene was not expressed in neurons, oligodendroglia, microglia, or endothelial cells. Furthermore, the beta-Gal expression in glial cultures was stimulated significantly by MCMV infection or by addition of calcium ionophore. These observations indicated that expression activity of the MCMV IE promoter is strictly cell-type specific, especially astrocyte-specific in the brain. This specific pattern of activity is similar to that of natural HCMV infection in humans. (+info)
Tumor extension and cell proliferation in adenocarcinomas of the lung.
To elucidate the mechanism of tumor extension in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression of cell cycle regulator proteins in 54 small adenocarcinomas less than 3 cm in diameter. The Ki-67-labeling index was significantly higher in the periphery of the tumor nodule than in the center. This proliferative potential correlated well with coexpression of cdk2 and cyclin A. p27, one of the cdk inhibitors, was highly expressed in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Peripherally located tumor cells expressed p27 at an intermediate level, but at a higher frequency and level than those in the center. Expression of p21 was also predominant in the periphery. Furthermore, the expression patterns of p21 and p27 were reciprocal. In vitro kinase assays further demonstrated higher cdk2 kinase activity in the periphery. These results suggest that: (i) within an emerging extension made up of peripherally located tumor cells, their high proliferative potential gradually wanes as their relative topographical position becomes more central in the expanding tumor; (ii) peripherally located tumor cells maintain their proliferative potential by higher cyclin A-cdk2 complex activity; and (iii) intermediate expression of p21/p27 in the peripherally located cells promotes higher cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity, whereas high p21/p27 expression in nonneoplastic cells inhibits kinase activity. (+info)
Upregulation of connexin 26 is a feature of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperproliferative epidermis, vaginal epithelium, and buccal epithelium.
In epidermis, it has been suggested, intercellular communication through gap junctions is important in coordinating cell behavior. The connexins, may facilitate selective assembly or permeability of gap junctions, influencing the distribution of metabolites between cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we have compared the distribution of connexins 26 and 43 with that of proliferating cells (Ki67 labeling) in normal epidermis, hyperplastic epidermis (tape-stripped epidermis, psoriatic lesions, and viral warts), and vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 43 was abundant in spinous layers of all epidermal specimens and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. Connexin 26 was absent from the interfollicular and interductal epidermis of normal hair-bearing skin, and nonlesional psoriatic epidermis but present at very low levels in plantar epidermis. Connexin 26 was prominent in lesional psoriatic epidermis and viral warts and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. In three independent experiments connexin 26 appeared in a patchy intercellular distribution in the basal epidermis within 24 h of tape stripping, proceeding to more extensive distribution in basal and suprabasal layers by 48 h. The increase in connexin 26 preceded that in cell proliferation. In vaginal epithelium, buccal epithelium, and viral warts connexin 26 was restricted mainly to suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. In psoriatic lesional epidermis connexin 26 was also located mainly in suprabasal, nonproliferating cells. Connexin 26 was present in a patchy distribution in the basal layer of psoriatic lesional epidermis, but double labeling for connexin 26 and Ki67 showed that many connexin 26 positive basal cells were nonproliferative, suggesting that connexin 26 may be related to differentiation rather than to proliferation. These observations would be consistent with a role for connexin 26 containing gap junctions during both early and later stages of keratinocyte differentiation in hyperplastic epidermis and in vaginal and buccal epithelia. (+info)
Targeted disruption of fibronectin-integrin interactions in human gingival fibroblasts by the RI protease of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50.
Cell surface integrins mediate interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix and are frequently exploited by a range of bacterial pathogens to facilitate adherence and/or invasion. In this study we examined the effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteases on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) integrins and their fibronectin matrix. Culture supernatant from the virulent strain W50 caused considerably greater loss of the beta1 integrin subunit from HGF in vitro than did that of the beige-pigmented strain W50/BE1. Prior treatment of the W50 culture supernatant with the protease inhibitor Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) blocked its effects on cultured cells, indicating that this process is proteolytically mediated. Purified arginine-specific proteases from P. gingivalis W50 were able to mimic the effects of the whole-culture supernatant on loss of beta1 integrin expression. However purified RI, an alpha/beta heterodimer in which the catalytic chain is associated with an adhesin chain, was 12 times more active than RIA, the catalytic monomer, in causing loss of the alpha5beta1 integrin (fibronectin receptor) from HGF. No effect was observed on the alphaVbeta3 integrin (vitronectin receptor). The sites of action of RI and RIA were investigated in cells exposed to proteases pretreated with TLCK to inactivate the catalytic component. Use of both monoclonal antibody 1A1, which recognizes only the adhesin chain of RI, and a rabbit antibody against P. gingivalis whole cells indicated localization of RI on the fibroblasts in a clear, linear pattern typical of that seen with fibronectin and alpha5beta1 integrin. Exact colocalization of RI with fibronectin and its alpha5beta1 receptor was confirmed by double labeling and multiple-exposure photomicroscopy. In contrast, RIA bound to fibroblasts in a weak, patchy manner, showing only fine linear or granular staining. It is concluded that the adhesin component of RI targets the P. gingivalis arginine-protease to sites of fibronectin deposition on HGF, contributing to the rapid loss of both fibronectin and its main alpha5beta1 integrin receptor. Given the importance of integrin-ligand interactions in fibroblast function, their targeted disruption by RI may represent a novel mechanism of damage in periodontal disease. (+info)
Adaptive immune response to Shigella flexneri 2a cydC in immunocompetent mice and mice lacking immunoglobulin A.
Shigella flexneri cydC, which is deficient in cytochrome bd, was rapidly cleared from the lungs of intranasally inoculated mice and was Sereny negative, yet it induced 93% protection against challenge with wild-type S. flexneri. Mice that lack immunoglobulin A (IgA) were fully protected, suggesting that IgA may not be required for adaptive immunity in this model system. (+info)
CNS wound healing is severely depressed in metallothionein I- and II-deficient mice.
To characterize the physiological role of metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in the brain, we have examined the chronological effects of a freeze injury to the cortex in normal and MT-I+II null mice. In normal mice, microglia/macrophage activation and astrocytosis were observed in the areas surrounding the lesion site, peaking at approximately 1 and 3 d postlesion (dpl), respectively. At 20 dpl, the parenchyma had regenerated. Both brain macrophages and astrocytes surrounding the lesion increased the MT-I+II immunoreactivity, peaking at approximately 3 dpl, and at 20 dpl it was similar to that of unlesioned mice. In situ hybridization analysis indicates that MT-I+II immunoreactivity reflects changes in the messenger levels. In MT-I+II null mice, microglia/macrophages infiltrated the lesion heavily, and at 20 dpl they were still present. Reactive astrocytosis was delayed and persisted at 20 dpl. In contrast to normal mice, at 20 dpl no wound healing had occurred. The rate of apoptosis, as determined by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, was drastically increased in neurons of ipsilateral cortex of the MT-I+II null mice. Our results demonstrate that MT-I+II are essential for a normal wound repair in the CNS, and that their deficiency impairs neuronal survival. (+info)