A case of canine salmonellosis due to Salmonella infantis.
A 7-year-old male dog kept outdoors manifested severe watery diarrhea with generalized weakness. Salmonella Infantis was isolated from a fecal sample and the dog recovered soon after medication with ampicillin, to which the isolate was highly sensitive. The present case was diagnosed as S. Infantis infection. Due to the importance of Salmonella in public health, soil samples were collected from the garden where the dog was kept and were examined for Salmonella, Some of them were positive for S. Infantis, however, no Salmonella was isolated from any soil samples collected after thorough disinfection of the surrounded environment. (+info)
High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan.
The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health. (+info)
In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves.
The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. (+info)
A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro.
Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea. (+info)
Cryptosporidium, enterocytozoon, and cyclospora infections in pediatric and adult patients with diarrhea in Tanzania.
Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and cyclosporiasis were studied in four groups of Tanzanian inpatients: adults with AIDS-associated diarrhea, children with chronic diarrhea (of whom 23 of 59 were positive [+] for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), children with acute diarrhea (of whom 15 of 55 were HIV+), and HIV control children without diarrhea. Cryptosporidium was identified in specimens from 6/86 adults, 5/59 children with chronic diarrhea (3/5, HIV+), 7/55 children with acute diarrhea (0/7, HIV+), and 0/20 control children. Among children with acute diarrhea, 7/7 with cryptosporidiosis were malnourished, compared with 10/48 without cryptosporidiosis (P < .01). Enterocytozoon was identified in specimens from 3/86 adults, 2/59 children with chronic diarrhea (1 HIV+), 0/55 children with acute diarrhea, and 4/20 control children. All four controls were underweight (P < .01). Cyclospora was identified in specimens from one adult and one child with acute diarrhea (HIV-). Thus, Cryptosporidium was the most frequent and Cyclospora the least frequent pathogen identified. Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon were associated with malnutrition. Asymptomatic fecal shedding of Enterocytozoon in otherwise healthy, HIV children has not been described previously. (+info)
Rotavirus G-type restriction, persistence, and herd type specificity in Swedish cattle herds.
G-typing of rotavirus strains enables the study of molecular epidemiology and gathering of information to promote disease prevention and control. Rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from neonatal calves in Swedish cattle herds were therefore characterized by using G1 to -4-, G6-, G8-, and G10-specific primers in reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Fecal samples were collected from one dairy herd (herd A) for 4 consecutive years and from 41 beef and dairy herds (herd B) experiencing calf diarrhea outbreaks. Altogether, 1, 700 samples were analyzed by group A rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 98 rotavirus-positive specimens were selected for G-typing by RT-PCR. The effect of herd type, time, geographic region, and clinical symptoms on the G-type distribution was evaluated. Altogether (herds A and B), G10 was found in 59 (60. 2%) fecal specimens, G6 was found in 30 (30.6%) specimens, G3 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen, and G8 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen. Seven (7.1%) fecal specimens were not typeable. Herd type specificity in the G-type distribution was demonstrated in the herds in herd B. In the 6 beef suckler herds, only G6 was detected, while rotavirus strains from the 35 dairy herds were predominantly (54%) G10. The G-type distribution was restricted in herds A and B. Twenty-nine of 30 strains from herd A were characterized as G10. In the vast majority of herds in herd B, a single G-type was identified. The serotype G10 and the electropherotype persisted over time in herd A. No characteristic G-type variation in the geographic distribution of cattle herds in herd B was obvious. There was no difference in the G-type distributions between the strains from clinically and subclinically rotavirus-infected calves in dairy herd A. The results from this study strongly indicate a pronounced stability in the rotavirus G-type distribution in Swedish cattle herds, which emphasizes the importance of continuous preventive measures for control of neonatal calf diarrhea. A future bovine rotavirus vaccine in Sweden should contain G10 and G6 strains. (+info)
Phase I study of a weekly schedule of irinotecan, high-dose leucovorin, and infusional fluorouracil as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of a weekly schedule of irinotecan (CPT-11), leucovorin (LV), and a 24-hour infusion of fluorouracil (5-FU24h) as first-line chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer and to assess preliminary data on the antitumor activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with measurable metastatic colorectal cancer were entered onto this phase I study. In the first six dose levels, fixed doses of CPT-11 (80 mg/m2) and LV (500 mg/m2) in combination with escalated doses of 5-FU24h ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 g/m2 were administered on a weekly-times-four (dose levels 1 to 4) or weekly-times-six (dose levels 5 to 6) schedule. The dose of CPT-11 was then increased to 100 mg/m2 (dose level 7). RESULTS: Seventy-nine cycles of 5-FU24h/LV with CPT-11 were administered in an outpatient setting. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed during the first cycle at dose levels 1 to 6, but diarrhea of grade 4 (National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria) was observed in three patients after multiple treatment cycles. Other nonhematologic and hematologic side effects, specifically alopecia and neutropenia, did not exceed grade 2. With the escalation of CPT-11 to 100 mg/m2 (dose level 7), diarrhea of grade 3 or higher was observed in four of six patients during the first cycle; thus, the MTD was achieved. Sixteen of 25 response-assessable patients (64%; 95% confidence interval, 45% to 83%) achieved an objective response. CONCLUSION: The recommended doses for further studies are CPT-11 80 mg/m2, LV 500 mg/m2, and 5-FU24h 2.6 g/m2 given on a weekly-times-six schedule followed by a 1-week rest period. The addition of CPT-11 to 5-FU24h/LV seems to improve the therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor response with manageable toxicity. (+info)
Organization of biogenesis genes for aggregative adherence fimbria II defines a virulence gene cluster in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.
Several virulence-related genes have been described for prototype enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 042, which has been shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers. Among these factors are the enterotoxins Pet and EAST and the fimbrial antigen aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II), all of which are encoded on the 65-MDa virulence plasmid pAA2. Using nucleotide sequence analysis and insertional mutagenesis, we have found that the genes required for the expression of each of these factors, as well as the transcriptional activator of fimbrial expression AggR, map to a distinct cluster on the pAA2 plasmid map. The cluster is 23 kb in length and includes two regions required for expression of the AAF/II fimbria. These fimbrial biogenesis genes feature a unique organization in which the chaperone, subunit, and transcriptional activator lie in one cluster, whereas the second, unlinked cluster comprises a silent chaperone gene, usher, and invasin reminiscent of Dr family fimbrial clusters. This plasmid-borne virulence locus may represent an important set of virulence determinants in EAEC strains. (+info)