Serine/threonine protein phosphatases: multi-purpose enzymes in control of defense mechanisms. (49/89)

Depending on the threat to a plant, different pattern recognition receptors, such as receptor-like kinases, identify the stress and trigger action by appropriate defense response development. The plant immunity system primary response to these challenges is rapid accumulation of phytohormones, such as ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives. These phytohormones induce further signal transduction and appropriate defenses against biotic threats. Phytohormones play crucial roles not only in the initiation of diverse downstream signaling events in plant defense but also in the activation of effective defenses through an essential process called signaling pathway crosstalk, a mechanism involved in transduction signals between two or more distinct, "linear signal transduction pathways simultaneously activated in the same cell."  (+info)

Synemin promotes AKT-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation by antagonizing PP2A. (50/89)


Scutellaria baicalensis alleviates cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression. (51/89)


Matrix stiffness reverses the effect of actomyosin tension on cell proliferation. (52/89)


Apoptosis of colorectal cancer UTC116 cells induced by Cantharidinate. (53/89)

Effects of Cantharidinate on apoptosis of human colorectal cancer UTC-116 cells were investigated by means of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, H and E staining, flow cytometry, and Raman Spectra analysis. The results showed Cantharidinate to exert inhibitory action on proliferation of human colorectal cancer UTC-116 cells, inducing apoptosis, arresting cells in G1 phase, with decline of S and G2 phases. In addition, the results of Raman spectrum showed significant changes in the UTC-116 cells chemical structure with stretching after the application of Cantharidinate. Taken together, these results suggest that the treatment of human colorectal cancer with Cantharidinate may be associated with multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis. Furthermore, similar to fluorouracil, Cantharidinate should be considered as novel assistant drug for controlling the growth of human colorectal cancer UTC-116 cells.  (+info)

A simple procedure for preparation of N-thiazol, thiadiazol, pyridyl and sulfanylamidocantharidinimines analogues and evaluation of their cytotoxicities against human HL-60, MCF7, Neuro-2a and A549 carcinoma cell. (54/89)

The lab made an effort to prepare some biological active cantharidinimines by heating the reactant 1 and 2a-g, 5h-i and 7j-r amines to suitable temperature with ethanol to provide 18 N-thiazolyl-, sulfanyl-, aminopyridyl-, bromopyridyl-, alkylpyridyl- and hydroxypyridylcantharidinimines 3a-g, 4a-c, 6h-i and 8j-r in yield of 4-77% (Chart 1). These cantharidinimine derivatives were tested for their capabilities to suppress growth of the human carcinoma cell lines, HL-60, MCF7, Neuro-2a and A549, because the incidence rate is more prominent in Asian countries than western countries. Compounds 3c-d and 6h-i were found to have some antitumor activity in HL-60 but less activity in MCF cell and compounds 8j-l displayed some inhibition effects to A549 cell line, but less effect to Neuro-2a cell line. Compounds 8m-r had no cytotoxic effect against both cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of these cantharidinimine compounds seemed to be better than the cantharidinimide compounds which we had mentioned several years ago.  (+info)

Clinical study on safety and efficacy of Qinin(R) (cantharidin sodium) injection combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with gastric cancer. (55/89)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, side effects, and the impact on quality of life with Qinin(R) (Cantharidin sodium) injection combined with chemotherapy for gastric cancer patients. METHOD: A consecutive cohort of 70 patients were divided into two groups: experimental group with cantharidin sodium injection combined with chemotherapy, while the control group received chemotherapy alone. After more than two courses of treatment, efficacy, quality of life and side effects were evaluated. RESULTS: The response rate of experimental group was not significantly different from that of the control group (P>0.05), but differences were significant in clinical benefit response and KPS score. In addition, gastrointestinal reactions and the incidence of leukopenia were lower than in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Qinin(R) (Cantharidin sodium) injection combined with chemotherapy enhances clinical benefit response, improving quality of life of gastric cancer patients and reducing side effects of chemotherapy. Thus Qinin(R) (Cantharidin sodium) injection deserves to be further investigated in randomized control clinical trails.  (+info)

Development of a gene therapy strategy to target hepatocellular carcinoma based inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A using the alpha-fetoprotein promoter enhancer and pgk promoter: an in vitro and in vivo study. (56/89)