Gi protein modulation induced by a selective inverse agonist for the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2: implication for intracellular signalization cross-regulation. (1/168)

The peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is both positively and negatively coupled to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP pathways, respectively, through a Bordetella pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. CB2 receptor-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells exhibit high constitutive activity blocked by the CB2-selective ligand, SR 144528, working as an inverse agonist. We showed here that in addition to the inhibition of autoactivated CB2 in this model, we found that SR 144528 inhibited the MAPK activation induced by Gi-dependent receptors such as receptor-tyrosine kinase (insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1) or G protein-coupled receptors (lysophosphatidic acid), but not by Gi-independent receptors such as the fibroblast growth factor receptor. We showed that this SR 144528 inhibitory effect on Gi-dependent receptors was mediated by a direct Gi protein inhibition through CB2 receptors. Indeed, we found that through binding to the CB2 receptors, SR 144528 blocked the direct activation of the Gi protein by mastoparan analog in Chinese hamster ovary CB2 cell membranes. Furthermore, we described that sustained treatment with SR 144528 induced an up-regulation of the cellular Gi protein level as shown in Western blotting as well as in confocal microscopic experiments. This up-regulation occurred with a concomitant loss of SR 144528 ability to inhibit the insulin or lysophosphatidic acid-induced MAPK activation. This inverse agonist-induced modulation of the Gi strongly suggests that the modulated protein is functionally associated with the complex SR 144528/CB2 receptors, and that the Gi level may account for the heterologous desensitization phenomena.  (+info)

Agonist-inverse agonist characterization at CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors of L759633, L759656, and AM630. (2/168)

We have tested our prediction that AM630 is a CB2 cannabinoid receptor ligand and also investigated whether L759633 and L759656, are CB2 receptor agonists. Binding assays with membranes from CHO cells stably transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors using [3H]-CP55940, confirmed the CB2-selectivity of L759633 and L759656 (CB2/CB1 affinity ratios = 163 and 414 respectively) and showed AM630 to have a Ki at CB2 receptors of 31.2 nM and a CB2/CB1 affinity ratio of 165. In CB2-transfected cells, L759633 and L759656 were potent inhibitors of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production, with EC50 values of 8.1 and 3.1 nM respectively and CB1/CB2 EC50 ratios of > 1000 and > 3000 respectively. AM630 inhibited [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to CB2 receptor membranes (EC50 = 76.6 nM), enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in CB2-transfected cells (5.2 fold by 1 microM), and antagonized the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in this cell line induced by CP55940. In CB1-transfected cells, forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production was significantly inhibited by AM630 (22.6% at 1 microM and 45.9% at 10 microM) and by L759633 at 10 microM (48%) but not 1 microM. L759656 (10 microM) was not inhibitory. AM630 also produced a slight decrease in the mean inhibitory effect of CP55940 on cyclic AMP production which was not statistically significant. We conclude that AM630 is a CB2-selective ligand that behaves as an inverse agonist at CB2 receptors and as a weak partial agonist at CB1 receptors. L759633 and L759656 are both potent CB2-selective agonists.  (+info)

Stimulation of peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 induces MCP-1 and IL-8 gene expression in human promyelocytic cell line HL60. (3/168)

Using the recently developed methodology of nucleic acid microarrays spotted with specific cDNAs probes belonging to different gene families, we showed for the first time that nanomolar concentrations of the cannabinoid ligand CP-55940 upregulated the expression of two different members of the chemokine gene family: the alpha-chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the beta-chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), in the promyelocytic cell line HL60 transfected with peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB2). These genomic modulations observed on large-scale cDNA arrays were first confirmed by Northern blot studies. Furthermore, ELISA evaluations in culture supernatants indicated that the cannabinoid-induced activation of these two chemokine genes was followed by enhanced expression and secretion of the corresponding proteins. These upregulations initially observed in transfected HL60 cells overexpressing CB2 receptors, also occurred in normal non-transfected HL60 cells. The enhancement of IL-8 and MCP-1 gene transcription and protein production was shown to be pertussis toxin sensitive attesting that this phenomenon was a Gi protein-coupled receptor-mediated process as expected for cannabinoid receptors. More specifically, the abolition of the cannabinoid-induced effect by the specific CB2 antagonist SR 144528 indicated a strict peripheral cannabinoid-mediated process. Altogether, our data highlight a possible new function of peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of immune and inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Regulation of peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 phosphorylation by the inverse agonist SR 144528. Implications for receptor biological responses. (4/168)

We recently demonstrated that the selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR 144528 acts as an inverse agonist that blocks constitutive mitogen-activated protein kinase activity coupled to the spontaneous autoactivated peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2) in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line stably transfected with human CB2. In the present report, we studied the effect of SR 144528 on CB2 phosphorylation. The CB2 phosphorylation status was monitored by immunodetection using an antibody specific to the COOH-terminal CB2 which can discriminate between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated CB2 isoforms at serine 352. We first showed that CB2 is constitutively active, phosphorylated, and internalized at the basal level. By blocking autoactivated receptors, inverse agonist SR 144528 treatment completely inhibited this phosphorylation state, leading to an up-regulated CB2 receptor level at the cell surface, and enhanced cannabinoid agonist sensitivity for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation of Chinese hamster ovary-CB2 cells. After acute agonist treatment, serine 352 was extensively phosphorylated and maintained in this phosphorylated state for more than 8 h after agonist treatment. The cellular responses to CP-55,940 were concomitantly abolished. Surprisingly, CP-55,940-induced CB2 phosphorylation was reversed by SR 144528, paradoxically leading to a non-phosphorylated CB2 which could then be fully activated by CP-55,940. The process of CP-55,940-induced receptor phosphorylation followed by SR 144528-induced receptor dephosphorylation kept recurring many times on the same cells, indicating that the agonist switches the system off but the inverse agonist switches the system back on. Finally, we showed that autophosphorylation and CP-55, 940-induced serine 352 CB2 phosphorylation involve an acidotropic GRK kinase, which does not use Gibetagamma. In contrast, SR 144528-induced CB2 dephosphorylation was found to involve an okadaic acid and calyculin A-sensitive type 2A phosphatase.  (+info)

HU-308: a specific agonist for CB(2), a peripheral cannabinoid receptor. (5/168)

Two cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB(1), present in the central nervous system (CNS) and to a lesser extent in other tissues, and CB(2), present outside the CNS, in peripheral organs. There is evidence for the presence of CB(2)-like receptors in peripheral nerve terminals. We report now that we have synthesized a CB(2)-specific agonist, code-named HU-308. This cannabinoid does not bind to CB(1) (K(i) > 10 microM), but does so efficiently to CB(2) (K(i) = 22.7 +/- 3.9 nM); it inhibits forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production in CB(2)-transfected cells, but does so much less in CB(1)-transfected cells. HU-308 shows no activity in mice in a tetrad of behavioral tests, which together have been shown to be specific for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-type activity in the CNS mediated by CB(1). However, HU-308 reduces blood pressure, blocks defecation, and elicits anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic activity. The hypotension, the inhibition of defecation, the anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic effects produced by HU-308 are blocked (or partially blocked) by the CB(2) antagonist SR-144528, but not by the CB(1) antagonist SR-141716A. These results demonstrate the feasibility of discovering novel nonpsychotropic cannabinoids that may lead to new therapies for hypertension, inflammation, and pain.  (+info)

Evidence that 2-arachidonoylglycerol but not N-palmitoylethanolamine or anandamide is the physiological ligand for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. Comparison of the agonistic activities of various cannabinoid receptor ligands in HL-60 cells. (6/168)

We examined the effect of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, on the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations in HL-60 cells that express the cannabinoid CB2 receptor. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations in HL-60 cells. The response was affected by neither cyclooxygenase inhibitors nor lipoxygenase inhibitors, suggesting that arachidonic acid metabolites are not involved. Consistent with this notion, free arachidonic acid was devoid of any agonistic activity. Importantly, the Ca(2+) transient induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol was blocked by pretreatment of the cells with SR144528, a CB2 receptor-specific antagonist, but not with SR141716A, a CB1 receptor-specific antagonist, indicating the involvement of the CB2 receptor but not the CB1 receptor in this cellular response. G(i) or G(o) is also assumed to be involved, because pertussis toxin treatment of the cells abolished the response. We further examined the structure-activity relationship. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol is the most potent compound among a number of naturally occurring cannabimimetic molecules. Interestingly, anandamide and N-palmitoylethanolamine, other putative endogenous ligands, were found to be a weak partial agonist and an inactive ligand, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the CB2 receptor is originally a 2-arachidonoylglycerol receptor, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol is the intrinsic natural ligand for the CB2 receptor that is abundant in the immune system.  (+info)

Cardiovascular effects of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol in anesthetized mice. (7/168)

Cannabinoids, including the endogenous ligand anandamide, elicit pronounced hypotension and bradycardia through the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. A second endogenous cannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), has been proposed to be the natural ligand of CB1 receptors. In the present study, we examined the effects of 2-AG on mean arterial pressure and heart rate in anesthetized mice and assessed the role of CB1 receptors through the use of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists and CB1 receptor knockout (CB1(-/-)) mice. In control ICR mice, intravenous injections of 2-AG or its isomer 1-AG elicit dose-dependent hypotension and moderate tachycardia that are unaffected by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A. The same dose of SR141716A (6 nmol/g IV) completely blocks the hypotensive effect and attenuates the bradycardic effect of anandamide. 2-AG elicits a similar hypotensive effect, resistant to blockade by either SR141716A or the CB2 antagonist SR144528, in both CB1(-/-) mice and their homozygous (CB1(+/+)) control littermates. In ICR mice, arachidonic acid (AA, 15 nmol/g IV) elicits hypotension and tachycardia, and indomethacin (14 nmol/g IV) inhibits the hypotensive effect of both AA and 2-AG. Synthetic 2-AG incubated with mouse blood is rapidly (<2 minutes) and completely degraded with the parallel appearance of AA, whereas anandamide is stable under the same conditions. A metabolically stable ether analogue of 2-AG causes prolonged hypotension and bradycardia in ICR mice, and both effects are completely blocked by SR141716A, whereas the same dose of 2-AG-ether does not influence blood pressure and heart rate in CB1(-/-) mice. These findings are interpreted to indicate that exogenous 2-AG is rapidly degraded in mouse blood, probably by a lipase, which masks its ability to interact with CB1 receptors. Although the observed cardiovascular effects of 2-AG probably are produced by an arachidonate metabolite through a noncannabinoid mechanism, the CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of a stable analogue of 2-AG leaves open the possibility that endogenous 2-AG may elicit cardiovascular effects through CB1 receptors.  (+info)

Modulation of peristalsis by cannabinoid CB(1) ligands in the isolated guinea-pig ileum. (8/168)

The effect of cannabinoid drugs on peristalsis in the guinea-pig ileum was studied. Peristalsis was induced by delivering fluid into the oral end of an isolated intestinal segment. Longitudinal muscle reflex contraction, threshold pressure and threshold volume to trigger peristalsis, compliance of the intestinal wall during the preparatory phase (a reflection of the resistance of the wall to distension) and maximal ejection pressure during the emptying phase of peristalsis were measured. The cannabinoid agonists WIN 55,212-2 (0.3 - 300 nM) and CP55,940 (0.3 - 300 nM) significantly decreased longitudinal muscle reflex contraction, compliance and maximal ejection pressure, while increased threshold pressure and volume to elicit peristalsis. These effects were not modified by the opioid antagonist naloxone (1 microM) and by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (1 microM). The inhibitory effect of both WIN 55,212-2 and CP55,940 on intestinal peristalsis was antagonized by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (0.1 microM), but not by the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528 (0.1 microM). In absence of other drugs, the CB(1) receptor antagonists SR141716A (0.01 - 1 microM) and AM281 (0.01 - 1 microM) slightly (approximatively 20%) but significantly increased maximal ejection pressure during the empty phase of peristalsis without modifying longitudinal muscle reflex contraction, threshold pressure, threshold volume to trigger peristalsis and compliance. It is concluded that activation of CB(1) receptors reduces peristalsis efficiency in the isolated guinea-pig, and that the emptying phase of peristalsis could be tonically inhibited by the endogenous cannabinoid system.  (+info)