Randomised trial of two pharmacological methods of bowel preparation for day case colonoscopy.
AIMS: To undertake a prospective, single blind, randomised trial comparing the efficacy and tolerance of two outpatient colonoscopy bowel preparation regimens. METHODS: Patients aged between 18 months and 16 years being admitted for day case colonoscopy were allocated randomly to receive either Picolax (an oral, sugar free powder containing sodium picosulphate 10 mg/sachet with magnesium citrate) and clear fluids or bisacodyl tablets with an unrestricted diet and a phosphate enema just before colonoscopy. Patient compliance, bowel frequency, and associated symptoms were recorded, and the adequacy of the bowel preparation was assessed in a blinded manner. RESULTS: 63 of 66 patients completed the trial. Mean age, mean weight, extent of colonoscopy, and distribution of underlying pathology were similar in both groups. Bowel preparation was good or excellent in all of the patients in the Picolax group (n = 32) compared with 22 patients in the bisacodyl/phosphate enema group (n = 31). The latter group experienced more abdominal discomfort during bowel preparation but three of the Picolax group vomited and the lack of solid food distressed some children. CONCLUSIONS: All bowel preparation methods have limitations and unpleasant side effects but the use of Picolax and clear fluids proved superior to bisacodyl tablets and a phosphate enema in children undergoing day case colonoscopy. (+info)
Low-salt bowel cleansing preparation (LoSo Prep) as preparation for colonoscopy: a pilot study.
BACKGROUND: Currently available colon cleansing preparations are often poorly tolerated. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a low-volume, low-salt preparation for colonoscopy. METHODS: This was a pilot study in patients scheduled for colonoscopy. The preparation consisted of 34 g of magnesium citrate and four bisacodyl tablets the day before the procedure, and one bisacodyl suppository on the morning of the procedure. RESULTS: Twenty patients (age range, 49-81 years; all males) were entered into the study. There were no significant side-effects associated with the preparation. All rated the taste as 'tolerable or better'. The examination was considered to be adequate, with no limitations, in 17 patients (85%), and was scored as good to excellent (no solid stool) in 11 (55%), acceptable (small amounts of solid stool) in six (30%) and poor in three (15%: two in-patients and one out-patient). Importantly, two of the failures then received a standard polyethylene glycol preparation and again failed to show adequate colon preparation. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study showed that the low-salt colon cleansing preparation was an effective alternative preparation for colonoscopy. (+info)
Dietary potassium and laxatives as regulators of colonic potassium secretion in end-stage renal disease.
BACKGROUND: In end-stage renal disease (ESRD), colonic potassium (K+) secretion increases as renal K+ excretion declines. The nature of this adaptive process is poorly understood, but post-prandial increases in plasma K+ concentration may be a determining factor. In addition, even though colonic K+ secretion increases in ESRD, interdialytic hyperkalaemia is a serious problem in haemodialysis patients, which might be reduced by stimulating colonic K+ secretion still further using laxatives. METHODS: Plasma K+ concentrations were measured in the fasting state, and for 180 min after the oral administration of 30 mmol of K+ to nine control subjects and 16 normokalaemic patients with ESRD (eight "predialysis" patients and eight patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)). Plasma K+ concentrations were also monitored for 180 min in fasting controls and ESRD patients who were not given the oral K+ load. To study the effect of laxatives on interdialytic hyperkalaemia, plasma K+ concentrations were measured in eight control subjects and 13 haemodialysis patients before and during 2 weeks treatment with bisacodyl (a cAMP-mediated laxative) and in five haemodialysis patients before and during 2 weeks treatment with lactulose (an osmotic laxative). RESULTS: Oral K+ loading caused plasma K+ concentration to rise within the normal range (3.5-5.1 mmol/l) in control subjects, while significantly higher concentrations were achieved in the "predialysis" patients and sustained hyperkalaemia developed in the CAPD patients. Bisacodyl treatment had no effect on plasma K+ concentrations in control subjects, but significantly decreased the mean interdialytic plasma K+ concentration (from 5.9+/-0.2 to 5.5+/-0.2 mmol/l, P<0.0005) in haemodialysis patients, whereas plasma K+ concentration did not change during lactulose treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma K+ concentrations after food may help to maintain K+ homeostasis in ESRD by enhancing colonic K+ secretion. Bisacodyl may be useful for reducing interdialytic hyperkalaemia in patients undergoing haemodialysis. (+info)
The role of intestinal bacteria in the transformation of sodium picosulfate.
Sodium picosulfate, a laxative, was biotransformed to 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-(2 pyridyl)-methane by intestinal flora that produced a novel sulfotransferase (not sulfatase). The biotransformation was activated by adding phenolic compounds such as phenol, acetaminophen and flavonoids. The enzyme activity related to this biotransformation was the highest in the contents of the caecum region of the intestine. The enzyme activity was 3.0 mumole/hr/g wet feces in humans and 0.75 in rats (pH 8.0). The optimal pH was 9.0. (+info)
Efficacy of bowel preparation with the use of a prepackaged, low fibre diet with a low sodium, magnesium citrate cathartic vs. a clear liquid diet with a standard sodium phosphate cathartic.
BACKGROUND: A colon free of faecal residue is required for accurate diagnostic colonoscopy. Patient tolerance of his/her colonoscopy cathartic regimen affects patient compliance and willingness to undergo repeated examinations. AIM: To determine whether a meal could be consumed during standard bowel preparation. METHODS: This was a randomized, endoscopists' blinded comparison of the tolerability and efficacy of a prepackaged, low-residue diet (NutraPrep) combined with the LoSo Prep bowel cleansing system, which contains magnesium citrate, bisocodyl tablets and a bisocodyl suppository (NP-LS regimen), compared with a clear liquid diet and a double-dose sodium phosphate (Fleet Phospho-soda) regimen (2F regimen). Outcome measures included efficacy of bowel preparation, patient preparation tolerability, side-effects and patient safety. RESULTS: A total of 506 patients completed the study, 222 randomized to 2F and 284 to NP-LS. The NP-LS regimen resulted in significantly better colon cleansing in terms of the proportion with good or excellent results (P = 0.025) and in significantly better patient tolerance and willingness to repeat the cathartic preparation (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The NP-LS regimen proved superior to the 2F regimen. (+info)
Phenolphthalein and bisacodyl: assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic responses in heterozygous p53 (+/-) mice and syrian hamster embryo (SHE) assay.
Phenolphthalein (800 and 2400 mg/kg/day by gavage and 2400 mg/kg/day by diet) and bisacodyl (800-500, 4000-2000, and 8000 mg/kg/day by gavage) were administered to 15 male and 15 female and 20 male and 20 female p53(+/-) mice respectively for 26 weeks to investigate the potential carcinogenicity of each compound. Toxicokinetic analyses confirmed systemic exposure. p-Cresidine was administered by gavage (400 mg/kg/day) and served as the positive control agent in each study. Dietary phenolphthalein reduced survival in both sexes and early deaths were attributed to thymic lymphoma. No bisacodyl-related neoplasms were observed. Regardless of route of administration to p53(+/-) mice, phenolphthalein but not bisacodyl was unequivocally genotoxic, causing increased micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. In the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay, phenolphthalein caused increases in morphologically transformed colonies, thereby corroborating NTP's earlier reports, showing phenolophthalein has potential carcinogenic activity. Bisacodyl was negative in the SHE assay. Results of these experiments confirm an earlier demonstration that dietary phenolphthalein causes thymic lymphoma in p53(+/-) mice and show that (1) phenolphthalein causes qualitatively identical results in this transgenic model regardless of route of oral administration, (2) phenolphthalein shows evidence of micronucleus induction in p53(+/-) mice for up to 26 weeks, (3) phenolphthalein induced transformations in the in vitro SHE assay, and (4) bisacodyl in p53(+/-) mice induces neither drug-related neoplasm, nor micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes, and did not induce transformations in the in vitro SHE assay. (+info)
Efficacy and safety of bisacodyl in the acute treatment of constipation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
BACKGROUND: Although laxatives are a first-line treatment for constipation, there are few randomized placebo-controlled trials assessing their efficacy. AIM: To determine the effect and safety of oral bisacodyl on stool frequency and consistency in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: 55 patients (age 19-89 years) with idiopathic constipation were recruited from eight primary care practices and randomized to receive bisacodyl, 10 mg once daily, or placebo, on three successive days following a 3-day run-in period. Patients recorded stool frequency and consistency and adverse events. RESULTS; In each treatment group, 27 patients were evaluable for efficacy. The mean number of stools per day was significantly greater in the bisacodyl-treated group (1.8/day) compared with placebo (0.95/day) over the treatment phase (P=0.0061). Mean stool consistency score improved from 'hard' (run-in) to between 'soft' and 'well-formed' during bisacodyl treatment, remaining between 'moderately hard' and 'hard' for placebo treatment (P<0.0001). The investigator's global efficacy score was superior for the bisacodyl group compared with placebo. Both treatments were well tolerated. Serum electrolyte levels and incidence of adverse events were comparable between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Bisacodyl is effective and safe in improving stool frequency and consistency in acute treatment of idiopathic constipation. (+info)
Factitious diarrhea induced by stimulant laxatives: accuracy of diagnosis by a clinical reference laboratory using thin layer chromatography.
BACKGROUND: Surreptitious ingestion of laxatives can lead to serious factitious diseases that are difficult to diagnose. Most cases involve ingestion of bisacodyl or senna. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) of urine or stool is the only commercially available test for these laxatives. Such testing is considered highly reliable, but its accuracy in clinical practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the reliability of TLC laxative testing by a clinical reference laboratory in the United States. METHODS: Diarrhea was induced in healthy volunteers by ingestion of bisacodyl, senna, or a control laxative (n = 11 for each laxative group). Samples of urine and diarrheal stool were sent in blinded fashion to the clinical reference laboratory for bisacodyl and senna analysis. RESULTS: TLC testing for bisacodyl-induced diarrhea revealed a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 91% when urine was tested and sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 96%, respectively, when stool was analyzed. When diarrhea was induced by senna, the TLC assay for senna failed to identify even a single urine or stool specimen as positive (zero% sensitivity). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the expected prevalence of surreptitious laxative abuse in patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (2.4%-25%, depending on the clinical setting), TLC of urine or stool for bisacodyl by this reference laboratory would often produce misleading results, and testing for senna would have no clinical value. The major problems are false-positive tests for bisacodyl and false-negative tests for senna. (+info)