Structure and inheritance of some heterozygous Robertsonian translocation in man.
Banding studies in 25 Robertsonian translocations showed that all could be interpreted as stable dicentrics. The mechanism for their stability is likely to be the proximity of their centromeres but centromeric suppression could also have a role. In many of these dicentric translocations, discontinuous centromeric suppression, as indicated by chromatid separation at one of the centromeric regions, was observed in C-banded preparations. A further observation of undefined relation to the first was that the ratio of the two constitutive centromeric heterochromatin (CCH) regions from the component chromosomes of the translocations was variable in the same translocation type, e.g. t(13;14). It is proposed that this ratio may influence the segregation ratio. Abnormal spermatogenesis is suggested as the likely mechanism for the difference in the proportion of aneuploid offspring in the progeny of maternal and paternal heterozygotes. Neither of the t dic(21;21)s could be interpreted as isochromosomes. It is proposed that Robertsonian fusion translocations be defined as stable, dicentric, whole-arm translocations, with both centromeres in a median position and resulting in the loss of a small acentric fragment during this formation. It is suggested that they occur at high frequency between telocentric or, as in man, certain acrocentric chromosomes because of some intrinsic property of those chromosomes not possessed by metacentric chromosomes and mediated by interphase association of centromeres. (+info)
Comparison of five methods of malaria detection in the outpatient setting.
In eastern Africa where 90% of the malaria is due to Plasmodium falciparum, the accuracy of malaria diagnosis at the outpatient level is becoming increasingly important due to problems of drug resistance and use of alternative, costly antimalarial drugs. The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique, acridine orange staining with an interference filter system, and the ParaSight-F test have been introduced as alternative methods to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria. Two hundred thirteen outpatients were tested using these alternative methods and conventional microscopy by five experienced technologists; two were randomly allocated to read the results of each test. Paired results showed the highest level of agreement with the ParaSight-F test (99%), followed by Field stain (92%). The results of the QBC technique showed the least agreement (73%). Using conventional microscopy as the reference standard, the ParaSight-F test had a sensitivity range of 90-92% and a specificity of 99%, staining with acridine orange had a sensitivity range of 77-96% and a specificity range of 81-98% and the QBC technique had a sensitivity range of 88-98% and a specificity range of 58-90%. All microscopic tests showed lower sensitivities (as low as 20% using staining with acridine orange) in detecting low parasitemias (< or = 320/microl) than the ParaSight-F test (70%). Due to the high cost of the ParaSight-F test, Field-stained blood films remain the most appropriate method for diagnosis of P. falciparum in eastern Africa. The ParaSight-F test may be used in situations where no trained microscopists are available, or where malaria is strongly suspected and the results of microscopy are negative. (+info)
Detection of "Candidatus Helicobacter suis" in gastric samples of pigs by PCR: comparison with other invasive diagnostic techniques.
Recently, a new 16S ribosomal DNA-based PCR assay was developed for the specific detection of "Candidatus Helicobacter suis" (former "Gastrospirillum suis") in porcine gastric samples. In the present study, this PCR assay was compared to three other invasive diagnostic methods (rapid urease test, immunohistochemistry, histologic analysis by Giemsa staining). Antral stomach samples from 200 slaughterhouse pigs from Belgium and The Netherlands were examined. Bacterial presence was determined in 77% (154 of 200) of the samples by PCR in combination with Southern blot hybridization, 56% (111 of 200) of the samples by immunohistochemistry, 61% (122 of 200) of the samples by urease testing (20 h postinoculation [p.i.]), 36% (71 of 200) of the samples by urease testing (3 h p.i.), and 33% (65 of 200) of the samples by Giemsa staining. The intrinsic specificity of the PCR assay was assessed by Southern blot analysis with an "Candidatus H. suis"-specific probe and sequencing of PCR products. Interassay sensitivity and specificity values were assessed for each test by pairwise comparisons between tests. Agreement between tests was evaluated by calculating Cohen's kappa coefficient. From that analysis, the PCR assay was considered the most reliable benchmark. Microscopic detection of immunohistochemically labeled or Giemsa-stained "Candidatus H. suis" cells in stomach sections proved to be highly specific (100%) but relatively insensitive (72 and 42%, respectively) compared to the PCR assay. A longer incubation time of the urease test improved its sensitivity considerably (74 versus 55%) but was accompanied by a loss of specificity (72 versus 93%). In conclusion, we found the "Candidatus H. suis"-specific PCR assay to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of "Candidatus H. suis" in the stomachs of pigs and could prove to be a valuable tool for further epidemiological studies both for "Candidatus H. suis"- and for "Helicobacter heilmannii" type 1-related research. (+info)
Permeability of boar and bull spermatozoa to the nucleic acid stains propidium iodide or Hoechst 33258, or to eosin: accuracy in the assessment of cell viability.
This study was designed to assess whether nucleic acid stains such as propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and the cytosolic stain eosin identified equivalent proportions of non-viable cells. Sub-samples of boar spermatozoa stored for up to 72 h, and frozen bull spermatozoa stored in straws and thawed before staining, were exposed to either propidium iodide or Hoechst 33258 alone or in combination. Additional sub-samples were stained with eosin-nigrosin and subsequently with Giemsa. The proportion of non-viable cells identified by propidium iodide alone was equivalent to that observed when it was used in combination with the other fluorescent probe. Similar results were observed for Hoechst 33258. However, direct microscopic examination of sub-samples exposed to both stains revealed that a proportion of spermatozoa stained with propidium iodide did not incorporate Hoechst 33258. This was found consistently in boar and bull spermatozoa under the different experimental conditions used. Quantification showed that the proportion of propidium iodide-positive cells was significantly higher than Hoechst 33258-positive cells. Furthermore, the proportion of propidium iodide-positive cells was higher than cells stained with eosin, but no differences were found between the number of cells stained with Hoechst 33258 or eosin. The proportion of cells stained with propidium iodide was positively correlated with the proportion stained with either Hoechst 33258 or eosin, despite the observation that more cells incorporated propidium iodide. Taken together, these results indicate that there are differences in the ability of fluorescent probes to identify non-viable sperm cells and that this should be considered when staining protocols are used to analyse sperm viability, or when viability is used as a discriminating factor in functional studies, such as those related to acrosomal exocytosis. (+info)
Histological identification of Helicobacter pylori: comparison of staining methods.
AIM: To determine whether two recently described staining methods (the modified McMullen's and the Helicobacter pylori silver stain HpSS methods) used for the histological identification of H pylori organisms are superior to two established techniques (the modified Giemsa and anti-H pylori antibody immunostain) in terms of availability, reproducibility, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost. METHODS: Histological sections from 63 paired gastric biopsies from adult patients previously investigated for dyspepsia were stained with the four methods and these were assessed blindly and independently by two observers. Of the 63 patients, 30 were originally negative in all tests for H pylori infection, 30 were positive, and the remaining three cases had discordant results using a combination of five tests (rapid biopsy urease test, urea breath test, culture, serology, and histology). RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was best with the antibody method (98%), followed by the McMullen's (90%), Giemsa (87%), and HpSS (85%). Of the 60 "gold standard" positive and negative cases, 30 were positive by the modified Giemsa stain, 29 by the McMullen's method, 29 by HpSS, and 30 by the antibody stain. However, there were two false positives with the HpSS method. The modified Giemsa is the cheapest and easiest to perform technically. CONCLUSIONS: When H pylori are present, careful examination will almost always reveal them, whichever of these stains is used. However, the modified Giemsa stain is the method of choice because it is sensitive, cheap, easy to perform, and reproducible. (+info)
Morphologic aspects of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata.
Tetratrichomonas didelphidis (Hegner & Ratcliffe, 1927) Andersen & Reilly, 1965 is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum, and colon of Didelphis marsupialis. The parasitic protozoa used in this study was found and isolated in the intestine of opossums in Pavlova starch-containing medium in Florianopolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from D. marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strains were cultivated in Diamond medium without maltose and with starch solution, pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The specimens were stained by the Giemsa method and Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin. The light microscopy study of the trophozoites revealed the same morphologic characteristics as specimens previously described. (+info)
Atypical Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) presenting as a perforated corneal ulcer with a large infiltrate in a contact lens wearer: multinucleated giant cells in the Giemsa smear offered a clue to the diagnosis.
PURPOSE: To report a case of atypical herpes simplex keratitis initially diagnosed as bacterial keratitis, in a contact lens wearer. RESULTS: Case report of an 18-year-old woman using contact lenses who presented with pain, redness and gradual decrease in vision in the right eye. Examination revealed a paracentral large stromal infiltrate with a central 2-mm perforation. Corneal and conjunctival scrapings were collected for microbiological investigations. Corneal tissue was obtained following penetrating keratoplasty. Corneal scraping revealed no microorganisms. Giemsa stained smear showed multinucleated giant cells. Conjunctival, corneal scrapings and tissue were positive for herpes simplex virus - 1 (HSV) antigen. Corneal tissue was positive for HSV DNA by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical HSV keratitis can occur in contact lens wearers. A simple investigation like Giemsa stain may offer a clue to the diagnosis. (+info)
Newly recognized cellular abnormalities in the gray platelet syndrome.
The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare congenital bleeding disorder in which thrombocytopenia is associated with increased platelet size and decreased alpha-granule content. This report describes 3 new pediatric cases presenting with the classical platelet abnormalities of GPS within one family with normal parents. Examination of blood smears of the 3 patients demonstrated not only gray platelets, but also gray polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) with decreased or abnormally distributed components of secretory compartments (alkaline phosphatase, CD35, CD11b/CD18). Secondary granules were also decreased in number as assayed by immunoelectron microscopy. These data confirm that the secretory compartments in neutrophils were also deficient in this family. Megakaryocytes (MKs) were cultured from the peripheral blood CD34+ cells of the 3 patients for 14 days, in the presence of thrombopoietin and processed for immunoelectron microscopy. Although von Willebrand factor (vWF) was virtually undetectable in platelets, vWF immunolabeling was conspicuous in cultured maturing MKs, particularly within Golgi saccules, but instead of being packaged in alpha-granules, it was released into the demarcation membrane system. In contrast, P-selectin followed a more classical pathway. Double-labeling experiments confirmed that vWF was following an intracellular pathway distinct from the one of P-selectin. In these 3 new cases of GPS, the MKs appeared to abnormally process vWF, with secretion into the extracellular space instead of normal alpha-granule packaging. Furthermore, the secretory compartment of another blood cell line, the neutrophil, was also affected in this family of GPS. (+info)