Identification of Atractylodes plants in Chinese herbs and formulations by random amplified polymorphic DNA.
AIM: An efficient, precise, and sensitive method for identifying Atractylodes plants has been established and will contribute significantly to quality control and scientific analysis in Chinese traditional medicine. METHODS: Twenty primers were applied for setting up the RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) markers of Atractylodes plants, Atractylodes lancea DC (A lancea DC), Atractylodes japonica Koidz (A japonica K), and Atractylodes ovata DC (A ovata DC). The primer OPF03, OPF05, and OPF14 could discriminate them successfully. The results were also able to apply on the Chinese formulations with Atractylodes purchased from local markets. RESULTS: RAPD was used to investigate phylogenetic relationships among and within closely related species. RAPD analysis reflects heritable changes in the nucleotides sequence in both the coding and noncoding regions, because it is conducted directly from the DNA level. This work first conducted RAPD analysis of Atractylodes plants to establish their RAPD makers. CONCLUSION: The RAPD markers could be applied extensively in the Chinese herbal formulations. (+info)
Glycosides of Atractylodes japonica.
From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of the fresh rhizome of Atractylodes japonica, five new sesquiterpenoid glycosides, including a compound having a secoguaiane skeleton, and a new aromatic compound glycoside were isolated together with ten known compounds. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation. (+info)
Glycosides of Atractylodes lancea.
Five sesquiterpenoid glycosides (two guaiane-type glycosides and three eudesmane-type glucosides) and a glucoside of an acetylene derivative were newly isolated from the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of Atractylodes lancea rhizome together with 26 known compounds. Their structures were characterized as atractyloside A 14-O-beta-D-fructofuranoside, (1S,4S,5S,7R,10S)-10,11,14-trihydroxyguai-3-one 11-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (5R,7R,10S)-isopterocarpolone beta-D-glucopyranoside, cis-atractyloside I, (2R,3R,5R,7R,10S)-atractyloside G 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and (2E,8E)-2,8-decadiene-4,6-diyne-1,10-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic investigation. The presence of six characteristic guaiane-type glucosides in both rhizomes of A. lancea and Atractylodes japonica suggested a close chemotaxonomic relationship between them. (+info)
Glycosides of Atractylodes ovata.
A new coumarin glycoside and a new glycoside of an acetylene derivative were isolated from the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of Atractylodes ovata rhizome together with eight known compounds. Their structures were characterized as scopoletin beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (2E)-2-decene-4,6-diyne-1,8-diol 8-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively, based on chemical and spectroscopic investigations. A comparison of the polar constituents among Atractylodes japonica, Atractylodes lancea, and A. ovata is led to the conclusion that A. ovata is distinguishable from A. lancea and A. japonica, as also shown by phylogenetic analysis. (+info)
Comparative pharmacokinetic behavior of glycyrrhetic acid after oral administration of glycyrrhizic acid and Gancao-Fuzi-Tang.
Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of glycyrrhetic acid (GA), glycyrrhizic acid (GL) and Gancao-Fuzi-Tang (KF) after oral administration of GL and KF were studied. Plasma samples taken from rats were acidified with acetic acid and GA was extracted with isopropanol-ethyl ether (1 : 1). Separation of GA was performed on a C(18) column with the detection wavelength set at 254 nm. The mobile phase was methanol-acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (58 : 18 : 24 : 1 v/v). The results showed that the mean residence time and area under the curve of GA in KF-administered rats were 27.6+/-1.5 h and 122.8+/-46.7 microg.h/ml respectively, which were significantly different from those in GL-administered rats (15.0+/-2.0 h and 40.9+/-9.6 microg.h/ml, respectively). The results suggest the increased effect of GA after oral administration of KF in comparison with GL. (+info)
Atractylodes japonica suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Atractylodes japonica has traditionally been used for the treatment of pain and arthritis. The effect of Atractylodes japonica against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nitric oxide detection, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) immunoassay in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. The aqueous extract of Atractylodes japonica suppressed nitric oxide production and PGE2 synthesis by inhibition of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated enhancement of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNAs expressions in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest that Atractylodes japonica exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects probably by suppression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions. (+info)
A new acetylenic compound from the rhizomes of Atractylodes chinensis and its absolute configuration.
A new acetylenic compound "atractyloyne", (3S,4E,6E,12E)-1-isovaleryloxy-tetradeca-4,6,12-triene-8,10-diyne-3,14-diol (1) was isolated from the rhizomes of Atractylodes chinensis (Compositae) together with a known compound (4E,6E,12E)-3-isovaleryloxy-tetradeca-4,6,12-triene-8,10-diyne-1,14-diol (2). These structures were determined on the basis of the spectroscopic data and chemical evidence, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by the modified 2-methoxy-2-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acid (MTPA) method. (+info)
Identification of medicinal Atractylodes based on ITS sequences of nrDNA.
Dried rhizomes of five species of Atractylodes (A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. lancea, A. chinensis, and A. koreana), Compositae, have been used as crude drugs mainly for the treatment of stomach disorders and for their diuretic properties in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines. The identification of the botanical origins of these crude drugs is generally difficult from their morphological and chemical features only. In this study, for identification with more reliable, nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of five species of medicinal Atractylodes were sequenced. As a result, specific ITS genotypes were recognized by each species. The four species (A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. lancea, and A. chinensis) prescribed in Chinese and Japanese Pharmacopoeias as botanical origins of crude Atractylodes drugs could be distinguished by their ITS sequences because they had difference genotypes on the ITS sequences. However, the genotype of A. koreana was the same as that of A. chinensis. Additionally, hybrids between A. lancea and A. chinensis were also recognized as nucleotide additives on their ITS sequences. In this study, several morphological characteristics were researched by their genotype, too. As this result, the hybrids recognized from the genetic analysis had intermediate morphological characteristics between A. lancea and A. chinensis. It was also recognized that A. lancea and A. chinensis except for their hybrids were significant differences. It is therefore suggested that ITS sequences of nrDNA would be useful for the identification of the crude drugs derived from Atractylodes species and their interspecific hybridizations. (+info)