Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis associated with frontotemporal arachnoid cyst--case report.
A 17-year-old male presented with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC) associated with frontotemporal arachnoid cyst. Xenon-133 single photon emission computed tomography detected a slight but equivocal decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in the vicinity of basal ganglia associated with the PKC episodes. PKC continued after surgical removal of the cyst but was well controlled by oral administration of carbamazepine. Whether the pathogenesis of symptomatic PKC was associated with the cortical lesion could not be determined in the present case. (+info)
Heading injury precipitating subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cysts--two case reports.
A 14-year-old boy and a 11-year-old boy presented with subdural hematomas as complications of preexisting arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa, manifesting as symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Both had a history of heading the ball in a soccer game about 7 weeks and 2 days before the symptom occurred. There was no other head trauma, so these cases could be described as "heading injury." Arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa are often associated with subdural hematomas. We emphasize that mild trauma such as heading of the ball in a soccer game may cause subdural hematomas in patients with arachnoid cysts. (+info)
Lumbosacral extradural arachnoid cysts: diagnostic and indication for surgery.
No critical discussion of the indication for the surgical treatment of lumbosacral extradural arachnoid cysts is found in the literature. Therefore, we want to compare the results in patients with operative and conservative treatment to define standards for a good surgical result. Over a period of 9 years, we operated on eight patients with a lumbosacral extradural arachnoid cyst and treated eight others conservatively. Only three of the operated patients experienced a postoperative relief of pain, but none was symptom free. The only one with continuing success had a preoperative history of 1 year only. MRI scans without contrast agent were misinterpreted in one included and one excluded case. The results of conservative treatment were nearly the same as those of operative treatment. MRI is the best diagnostic tool, but a variety of sequences must be used. Patients with a short pain history and a clear neurological deficit profited most from surgery. Patients with slight and not clearly related uncharacteristic symptoms should be excluded from surgery. (+info)
A 46-year-old female presented with persistent bifrontal headache. Computed tomography revealed a large cystic tumor in the right temporoparietal area, which included a solid component. The tumor had no attachment to the dura. There was no peritumoral edema or mass effect usually found around cystic meningiomas. The solid component was totally removed. Histological examination indicated that the tumor was a fibrous meningioma. Intracerebral meningioma with a large cystic component without dural attachment should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic cerebral tumors. (+info)
Intracystic hemorrhage of the middle fossa arachnoid cyst and subdural hematoma caused by ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm.
We report a case of a cerebral aneurysm arising from the bifurcation of the left middle cerebral artery that ruptured into a left middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst, associated with acute subdural hematoma. We discuss the relationships of aneurysm, arachnoid cyst, and subdural hematoma. (+info)
The role of endoscopic fenestration procedures for cerebral arachnoid cysts.
Recently, endoscopic procedures have been recommended as the first surgical option for cerebral arachnoid cyst (AC). The author reports seven ACs treated endoscopically and discuss the role of endoscopic fenestration. The age of the patients ranged from two to 62 years. Three ACs were located in the posterior cranial fossa, two in the suprasellar area, one in the middle cranial fossa, and one in the convexity. All cases were examined by cine magnetic resonance (MR) flow study. The patient's symptoms included headache, vomiting, dizziness, problems in balance, visual disturbance, and seizure. The author performed a cysto-cisternostomy or cysto-ventriculostomy via a single burr hole. The follow-up periods ranged from six to 18 months. There was no mortality or morbidity except one case of intracisternal bleeding during endoscopic procedure. Symptoms were relieved in all seven patients. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a decrease in the size or disappearance of the cysts. The results support that the minimal fenestration procedure as possibly as preserving the internal environment is valuable for the management of ACs. (+info)
Neurodevelopmental outcome after antenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities.
Posterior fossa abnormalities are sonographically diagnosable in the fetus. Anomalies of this region include Dandy-Walker malformation, enlarged cisterna magna, and arachnoid cyst. Despite prenatal diagnosis, the uncertainties related to natural history and neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors make patient counseling difficult. The purposes of this study were to determine the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of these lesions and elucidate long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in survivors in prenatally diagnosed posterior fossa abnormalities. Fifteen cases of posterior fossa abnormalities were reviewed. Antenatal diagnoses of Dandy-Walker malformation was made in 13 of these cases, arachnoid cyst in one case, and enlarged cisterna magna in one case. Hydrocephalus was present in 66% of patients. The sonographic diagnosis was concordant with the pathologic or neonatal radiologic diagnosis in 13 of 15 cases. Seven fetuses (47%) exhibited additional cranial or extracranial anomalies. A karyotypic abnormality (trisomy 18) was found in one of 15 cases of posterior fossa abnormalities. Neurodevelopmental delay was present in 80% of survivors with follow-up study to 4 years of age. Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities is highly accurate, yet the differential diagnosis can be challenging. Cognitive and psychomotor developmental delays remain commonplace despite early diagnosis and treatment. The approach with families in cases of prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa abnormalities should include a search for additional central nervous system and extra-central nervous system anomalies in the fetus and counseling of parents regarding potential adverse outcome for survivors. (+info)
Dandy-Walker syndrome successfully treated with cystoperitoneal shunting--case report.
A neonate presented with Dandy-Walker syndrome manifesting as a large posterior cranial fossa cyst, aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis, and elevation of the confluence of the sinuses but without hydrocephalus. A cystoperitoneal shunt was placed at one month after birth. The cyst diminished in size, and marked development of the cerebellar hemispheres and descent of the confluence of sinuses were observed, but not vermis development. The primary pathology of Dandy-Walker syndrome is posterior cranial fossa cyst formation due to passage obstruction in the fourth ventricle exit area and aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis. The first choice of treatment in patients with Dandy-Walker syndrome in whom the cerebral aqueduct is open is cystoperitoneal shunt surgery, regardless of the presence or absence of hydrocephalus. (+info)