Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Sapotaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
University of Hassan II CasablancaList of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.Chrysophyllum cainito: Chrysophyllum cainito is a tropical tree of the family Sapotaceae. It is native to the Greater Antilles and the West Indies.Natural Park of El FondoList of butterflies of Algeria: This is a list of butterflies of Algeria. About 121 species are known from Algeria.
(1/413) A locus for an axonal form of autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease maps to chromosome 1q21.2-q21.3.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the peripheral nervous system. Three loci are known for the autosomal dominant forms of axonal CMT (CMT2), but none have yet been identified for autosomal recessive axonal CMT (ARCMT2). We have studied a large consanguineous Moroccan ARCMT2 family with nine affected sibs. The onset of CMT was in the 2d decade in all affected individuals who presented with a severe motor and sensory neuropathy, with proximal muscle involvement occurring in some patients. After exclusion of known loci for CMT2 and for demyelinating ARCMT2, a genomewide search was performed. Evidence for linkage was found with markers on chromosome 1q. The maximum pairwise LOD score was above the threshold value of 3.00, for markers D1S514, D1S2715, D1S2777, and D1S2721, and it reached 6.10 at the loci D1S2777, D1S2721, and D1S2624, according to multipoint LOD-score analysis. These markers defined a region of homozygosity that placed the gene in a 4.4-cM interval. Moreover, a recombination event detected in an unaffected 48-year-old individual excludes the D1S506 marker, thereby reducing the interval to 1.7 cM. In addition, the P0 gene, an attractive candidate because of both its location on chromosome 1q and its role in myelin structure, was excluded by physical mapping and direct sequencing. (+info)
(2/413) Insulin autoimmune syndrome: a rare cause of hypoglycaemia not to be overlooked.
We report the case of a Caucasian patient with insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), defined as the association of hypoglycaemic attacks with insulin autoantibodies in individuals not previously treated with exogenous insulin. This rare syndrome (more than 200 published cases) has been reported mainly in Japan. Most affected patients present with other autoimmune disorders, most often Graves' disease. In most cases, insulin autoantibodies appear a few weeks after the beginning of treatment with a drug containing a sulphyldryl group. A significant increase in insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations and the presence of other antiorgan antibodies are observed. The susceptibility haplotype is present in the Japanese population, which may account for the high frequency of IAS. Spontaneous remission is observed in 80% of cases, with cessation of hypoglycaemic attacks and disappearance of insulin autoantibodies some months after withdrawal of the drug. This rare cause of hypoglycaemia in Caucasian subjects should be considered in aetiologic investigation of spontaneous hypoglycaemia. (+info)
(3/413) Scorpion envenomation and serotherapy in Morocco.
A clinical and biologic study was conducted in Morocco to assess the efficiency of antivenom therapy for treating victims of scorpion stings. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from 275 patients envenomed by Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus scorpions. Patients received antivenom or other drugs. Blood samples were collected at the time of hospital admission and 1 hr and 3 hr after treatment. Serum venom levels were quantified by using an ELISA. An association was found between clinical signs of envenoming and the level of venom in serum. Patients classified as grade II (moderate envenoming) had higher serum levels of venom level than patients classified as grade I (mild envenoming). At admission to the hospital, the mean venom concentration was not significantly different between the group not treated with antivenom, the group who received 2-5 ml of antivenom, and the group who received 10 ml of antivenom. A significant decrease in serum venom levels and an improvement in the clinical conditions were observed in patients administered 10 ml of antivenom. The lower decrease in serum venom levels in patients who received 2-5 ml of antivenom was due to lower doses of antivenom. No difference in the venom concentration was observed in patients who were not treated with antivenom. The absence of administration of antivenom increased the risk of developing clinical signs at the end of the hospitalization period. However, this risk was much higher when more than 1 hr elapsed between the time of the scorpion sting and the time of hospital admission. The results demonstrate that antivenom is effective in decreasing circulating venom and morbidity. Serotherapy is more efficient when given as soon as possible after envenomation and with adequate quantities of antivenom. (+info)
(4/413) Serological, clinical and histopathological changes in naturally infected dogs with Leishmania infantum in the Khemisset province, Morocco.
Canine leishmaniasis (canL) is widespread in the north of Morocco and the Leishmania infantum local strains are highly virulent. An epidemiological survey was carried out in 1993-1995 in the Khemisset province. In this region, the severity of the disease was assessed during regular visits to the identified foci by clinical examination of 323 dogs. Clinical signs were protean and occurred in various combinations. Biopsies were made on available sick dogs; the main histological changes were severe infiltration of the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow by mononuclear cells and hyperplasia of macrophage cells with amastigotes in their cytoplasm. The seroprevalence among 323 dog sera tested by ELISA showed a rate of 16.71%. The highest prevalence of the disease was 23.6% in the Sid El Ghandour hamlet. A comparison of the results of this study with those from the year following the first examination on the same site (Sid El Ghandour) of 67 dogs showed that the disease prevalence had not increased significantly (23.6% to 25.33%). (+info)
(5/413) Evaluation of environmental methods to control snails in an irrigation system in Central Morocco.
The Moroccan Ministry of Public Health has launched a programme to eliminate schistosomiasis. One of the components in this process is the control of Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma haematobium. We evaluated three environmentally safe measures to control B. truncatus in siphon boxes, the main breeding sites for these snails in the Tessaout Amont irrigation system. The first method involved covering the siphon boxes to exclude light and reduce algal growth, the second consisted of increasing the frequency of emptying and cleaning the siphon boxes, and the third method increased water velocity to hinder the establishment of the intermediate hosts. The results showed that covering had a pronounced effect on snail and egg mass density, was accepted by the local community and prevented water contact. Cleaning the siphons three times during the irrigation season led to a reduction in snail density although it was not statistically significant and recolonization was rapid. Increasing water velocity by reducing the dimensions of siphon boxes delayed recolonization, but such a control measure can be applied only in specific situations where it does not pose hydraulic problems. The three interventions were selectively effective against B. truncatus, whereas other snails such as Physa acuta and Lymnaea peregra were hardly affected. Covering, the most promising control measure, could be useful in the Moroccan schistosomiasis eradication programme. However, further investigations are needed to assess its impact on water quality. (+info)
(6/413) Molecular characterization of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency--a neurometabolic disorder associated with reduced L-serine biosynthesis.
3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) deficiency is a disorder of L-serine biosynthesis that is characterized by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and seizures. To investigate the molecular basis for this disorder, the PHGDH mRNA sequence was characterized, and six patients from four families were analyzed for sequence variations. Five patients from three different families were homozygous for a single nucleotide substitution predicted to change valine at position 490 to methionine. The sixth patient was homozygous for a valine to methionine substitution at position 425; both mutations are located in the carboxyterminal part of PHGDH. In vitro expression of these mutant proteins resulted in significant reduction of PHGDH enzyme activities. RNA-blot analysis indicated abundant expression of PHGDH in adult and fetal brain tissue. Taken together with the severe neurological impairment in our patients, the data presented in this paper suggest an important role for PHGDH activity and L-serine biosynthesis in the metabolism, development, and function of the central nervous system. (+info)
(7/413) Screening for genetic disorders among Jews: how should the Tay-Sachs screening program be continued?
The screening program in Israel for Tay-Sachs disease has proven very successful, giving Jewish couples a choice not to have affected children. The technology of carrier detection is now possible in several other severe genetic diseases that are relatively frequent among Jews. Due to the current confusion, a policy is needed to determine how the TSD screening program should be continued in the Israeli Jewish population. We propose that such a screening program include only mutations agreed by consensus as causing a disease severe enough to warrant the possibility of therapeutic abortion. We also propose that general screening include only mutations that are relatively frequent, taking into account the carrier frequencies in the Israeli Jewish population. (+info)
(8/413) The phylogeography of Brazilian Y-chromosome lineages.
We examined DNA polymorphisms in the nonrecombining portion of the Y-chromosome to investigate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to the present-day white Brazilian population. Twelve unique-event polymorphisms were typed in 200 unrelated males from four geographical regions of Brazil and in 93 Portuguese males. In our Brazilian sample, the vast majority of Y-chromosomes proved to be of European origin. Indeed, there were no significant differences when the haplogroup frequencies in Brazil and Portugal were compared by means of an exact test of population differentiation. Y-chromosome typing was quite sensitive in the detection of regional immigration events. Distinct footprints of Italian immigration to southern Brazil, migration of Moroccan Jews to the Amazon region, and possible relics of the 17th-century Dutch invasion of northeast Brazil could be seen in the data. In sharp contrast with our mtDNA data in white Brazilians, which showed that > or =60% of the matrilineages were Amerindian or African, only 2.5% of the Y-chromosome lineages were from sub-Saharan Africa, and none were Amerindian. Together, these results configure a picture of strong directional mating between European males and Amerindian and African females, which agrees with the known history of the peopling of Brazil since 1500. (+info)