No data available that match "Typhaceae"
No data available that match "Typhaceae"
(1/18) Epifluorescent and histochemical aspects of shoot anatomy of Typha latifolia L., Typha angustifolia L. and Typha glauca Godr.
Using epifluorescent and histochemical techniques, we examined anatomical differences in the shoot organs of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia and T. glauca. The leaf lamina of T. latifolia and T. glauca had enlarged epidermal cells and a thickened cuticle above the subepidermal vascular bundles; that of T. angustifolia lacked these characteristics. Leaf sheaths were similar among the species and all lacked the epidermal thickenings found in the lamina. The fertile stems had typical scattered vascular bundles with a band of fibres that was most prominent in T. glauca. The sterile stems were only 1 cm in length and contained a multiseriate hypodermis and a uniseriate endodermis over part of their length. The rhizomes were similar except for a pronounced band of fibres surrounding the central core in T. angustifolia. The rhizome was also characterized by an outer cortical region with a large multiseriate hypodermis/exodermis and a uniseriate endodermis with Casparian bands, suberin lamellae and secondarily thickened walls. (+info)
(2/18) Mortality of pollen grains may result from errors of meiosis: study of pollen tetrads in Typha latifolia L.
In the cattail Typha latifolia the four haploid products of meiosis remain attached and form the flat tetrad of pollen grains. Gametophytic lethals arisen de novo in diploid cells of sporophyte must manifest themselves as pollen tetrads with two dead grains. This could allow to estimate the rate of recessive lethals arresting pollen grain development. We studied pollen samples collected from 44 sprouts in two populations in the vicinity of Novosibirsk. The anomalous tetrads T1, T2, T3, and T4 carrying one, two, three, and four dead grains, respectively, were detected in each sampled individual. The mean frequency of all anomalous tetrads in the two populations was 3.4% and 8.7%. The frequencies of tetrad classes varied widely among the individuals with correlation coefficient up to 0.94, but their ratios remained nearly constant. The majority of anomalous tetrads were presented by T1 and T2 classes (their sum comprising 72.7 and 74.0% in two populations), T1 being a little more abundant. The observed pattern of frequencies of tetrads with dead grains can be explained by errors of male meiosis such as chromosome non-disjunction in both meiotic divisions. The tetrads with two dead pollen grains may result mostly from non-disjunction in anaphase I, and those with one pollen grain from non-disjunction in anaphase II, thus making tetrad analysis ineffective for estimating the rate of gametophytic lethals. (+info)
(3/18) Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.
The NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) uptake kinetics by Typha latifolia L. were studied after prolonged hydroponics growth at constant pH 3.5, 5.0, 6.5 or 7.0 and with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) as the sole N-source. In addition, the effects of pH and N source on H(+) extrusion and adenine nucleotide content were examined. Typha latifolia was able to grow with both N sources at near neutral pH levels, but the plants had higher relative growth rates, higher tissue concentrations of the major nutrients, higher contents of adenine nucleotides, and higher affinity for uptake of inorganic nitrogen when grown on NH(4)(+). Growth almost completely stopped at pH 3.5, irrespective of N source, probably as a consequence of pH effects on plasma membrane integrity and H(+) influx into the root cells. Tissue concentrations of the major nutrients and adenine nucleotides were severely reduced at low pH, and the uptake capacity for inorganic nitrogen was low, and more so for NO(3)(-)-fed than for NH(4)(+)-fed plants. The maximum uptake rate, V(max), was highest for NH(4)(+) at pH 6.5 (30.9 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight) and for NO(3)(-) at pH 5.0 (31.7 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight), and less than 10% of these values at pH 3.5. The affinity for uptake as estimated by the half saturation constant, K((1/2)), was lowest at low pH for NH(4)(+) and at high pH for NO(3)(-). The changes in V(max) and K((1/2)) were thus consistent with the theory of increasing competition between cations and H(+) at low pH and between anions and OH(-) at high pH. C(min) was independent of pH, but slightly higher for NO(3)(-) than for NH(4)(+) (C(min)(NH(4)(+)) approximately 0.8 mmol m(-3); C(min)(NO(3)(-)) approximately 2.8 mmol m(-3)). The growth inhibition at low pH was probably due to a reduced nutrient uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by nutrient stress. Typha latifolia seems to be well adapted to growth in wetland soils where NH(4)(+) is the prevailing nitrogen compound, but very low pH levels around the roots are very stressful for the plant. The common occurrence of T. latifolia in very acidic areas is probably only possible because of the plant's ability to modify pH-conditions in the rhizosphere. (+info)
(4/18) The use of indices for evaluating the periphytic community in two kinds of substrate in Imboassica Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Biological indices based on the biomass (dry weight, ash content, and chlorophyll-a) of the periphyton in a natural (submersed leaves of Typha domingensis Pers) and in an artificial (plastic hoses) substrate were compared, in experiments performed in summer and winter, in two sampling stations of Imboassica Lagoon, Macae, Rio de Janeiro. The periphytic community exhibited low biomass at the beginning and end of the experiments, and moderate biomass in the intermediate period of the experiment, whatever the kind of substrate, sampling station, and season. In both seasons, there was a spatial variation regarding the degree of trophy of the periphyton, due to the difference of nutrient availability among the sampling stations. The alternation of inorganic and organic periphyton, as well as of their heterotrophic, heteroautotrophic, auto-heterotrophic and, autotrophic character was due to changes in the abiotic factors of the sampling periods. The Lakatos index proved more sensitive than the Autotrophic Index to variations in the composition of the periphytic community. (+info)
(5/18) Temperature dependency of molecular mobility in preserved seeds.
Although cryogenic storage is presumed to provide nearly infinite longevity to cells, the actual timescale for changes in viability has not been addressed theoretically or empirically. Molecular mobility within preserved biological materials provides a first approximation of the rate of deteriorative reactions that ultimately affect shelf-life. Here, temperature effects on molecular mobility in partially dried seeds are calculated from heat capacities, measured using differential scanning calorimetry, and models for relaxation of glasses based on configurational entropy. Based on these analyses, glassy behavior in seeds containing 0.07 g H(2)O/g dm followed strict Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior at temperatures above and just below the glass transition temperature (Tg) at 28 degrees C. Temperature dependency of relaxation times followed Arrhenius kinetics as temperatures decreased well below Tg. The transition from VTF to Arrhenius kinetics occurred between approximately 5 and -10 degrees C. Overall, relaxation times calculated for seeds containing 0.07 g H(2)O/g dm decreased by approximately eight orders of magnitude when seeds were cooled from 60 to -60 degrees C, comparable to the magnitude of change in aging kinetics reported for seeds and pollen stored at a similar temperature range. The Kauzmann temperature (T(K)), often considered the point at which molecular mobility of glasses is practically nil, was calculated as -42 degrees C. Calculated relaxation times, temperature coefficients lower than expected from VTF kinetics, and T(K) that is 70 degrees C below Tg suggest there is molecular mobility, albeit limited, at cryogenic temperatures. (+info)
(6/18) Latitudinal characteristics of below- and above-ground biomass of Typha: a modelling approach.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The latitudinal differences in the growth characteristics of Typha are largely unknown, although a number of studies have pointed out the effects of climate on the growth and productivity of Typha. Therefore, a dynamic growth model was developed for Typha to examine the effects of latitudinal changes in temperature and radiation on partitioning of the total biomass during the growing season into rhizomes, roots, flowering and vegetative shoots, and inflorescences. METHODS: After validating the model with data from growth studies of Typha found in past literature, it was used to investigate the dynamics of above- and below-ground biomasses at three latitudes: 30 degrees, 40 degrees and 50 degrees. KEY RESULTS: Regardless of the initial rhizome biomass, both above- and below-ground biomass values converged to a latitude-specific equilibrium produced by the balance between the total production and respiration and mortality losses. Above-ground biomass was high from 10 degrees to 35 degrees latitude with sufficient radiation, despite high metabolic losses; however, it decreased markedly at higher latitudes due to a low photosynthetic rate. Below-ground biomass, on the other hand, increased with latitude up to 40 degrees due to decreasing metabolic losses, and then markedly decreased at higher latitudes. Above-ground biomass was enhanced with an increasing number of cohorts regardless of latitude. However, although more cohorts resulted in a larger below-ground biomass at low latitudes, the largest below-ground biomass was provided by a smaller number of cohorts at high latitudes. This difference is due to low production rates of late-season cohorts in high latitudes, compared with consumption for shooting and establishing foliage. CONCLUSIONS: The model could be used to predict the potential growth of Typha in given conditions over a wide range of latitudes and is useful for practical applications such as wetland management or wastewater treatment systems using Typha. (+info)
(7/18) Application of the [3H]leucine incorporation technique for quantification of bacterial secondary production associated with decaying wetland plant litter.
The radiolabeled leucine incorporation technique for quantifying rates of bacterial production has increased in popularity since its original description for bacterioplankton communities. Prior studies addressing incorporation conditions (e.g., substrate saturation) for bacterial communities in other habitats, such as decaying plant litter, have reported a wide range of final leucine concentrations (400 nM to 50 microM) required to achieve saturation-level uptake. We assessed the application of the [(3)H]leucine incorporation procedure for measuring bacterial production on decaying wetland plant litter. Substrate saturation experiments (nine concentrations, 10 nM to 50 microM final leucine concentration) were conducted on three dates for microbial communities colonizing the submerged litter of three emergent plant species (Typha angustifolia, Schoenoplectus validus, and Phragmites australis). A modified [(3)H]leucine protocol was developed by coupling previously described incubation and alkaline extraction protocols with microdialysis (500 molecular weight cutoff membrane) of the final radiolabeled protein extract. The incorporation of [(3)H]leucine into protein exhibited a biphasic saturation curve, with lower apparent K(m) values ranging from 400 nM to 4.2 microM depending on the plant species studied. Upper apparent K(m) values ranged from 1.3 to 59 microM. These results suggest differential uptake by litter-associated microbial assemblages, with the lower apparent K(m) values possibly representing bacterial uptake and higher apparent K(m) values representing a combination of both bacterial and nonbacterial (e.g., eukaryotic) uptake. (+info)
(8/18) Sewage input effects on the macroinvertebrate community associated to Typha domingensis Pers in a coastal lagoon in southeastern Brazil.
This study was carried out at Imboassica Lagoon, located in an urban zone in the municipality of Macae, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. This lagoon has been subject to anthropogenic impacts due to the increasing city population, such as the input of sewage. Areas of variable degree of anthropogenic influence in the lagoon were compared regarding the structure of the macroinvertebrate community associated to Typha domingensis leaves. For sampling, we used 35 x 20 cm net plastic bags, with 6.8 mm mesh containing T. domingensis leaves for colonization. Two different sampling stations were selected: station A, under direct input of sewage; and station B with lesser sewage influence. The bags were removed after 20, 40 and 75 days of colonization. For each sample the Shannon-Wiever Diversity, Pielou Evenness, Jaccard Similarity Indices, Correspondence Analysis and taxonomic richness were calculated. A total of 31,874 individuals were sampled, belonging to 34 taxa. The main taxonomical groups were: Oligochaeta (41%), Chironomidae (40%), Ancylidae (4.6%), Polymitarcyidae (4%) and Thiaridae (3%). At station A, the taxonomic richness, the Evenness and Diversity values were lower than in station B. On the other hand, the total density was three times higher in station A than in B. It was already possible to discriminate the community structure of each sampling station in the first sampling. Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera were the main exclusive groups of station B and are considered good water quality indicators due to their high sensibility to contamination. The major contribution to discriminate between the macroinvertebrate communities of the two sample stations came from Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Ephemeroptera. (+info)