Trypsin Inhibitor, Bowman-Birk Soybean: A low-molecular-weight protein (minimum molecular weight 8000) which has the ability to inhibit trypsin as well as chymotrypsin at independent binding sites. It is characterized by a high cystine content and the absence of glycine.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 220.127.116.11.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean: A high-molecular-weight protein (approximately 22,500) containing 198 amino acid residues. It is a strong inhibitor of trypsin and human plasmin.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kazal Pancreatic: A pancreatic trypsin inhibitor common to all mammals. It is secreted with the zymogens into the pancreatic juice. It is a protein composed of 56 amino acid residues and is different in amino acid composition and physiological activity from the Kunitz bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (APROTININ).Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Erythrina: A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.Dolichos: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains LECTINS. Many members have been reclassified into other genera of the FABACEAE family.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Bowman–Birk protease inhibitor: In molecular biology, Bowman–Birk protease inhibitor family of proteins consist of eukaryotic proteinase inhibitors, belonging to MEROPS inhibitor family I12, clan IF. They mainly inhibit serine peptidases of the S1 family, but also inhibit S3 peptidases.Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor domain: Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain.Kunitz domainChymotrypsinErythrina caffra: Erythrina caffra, the Coast Coral Tree or African coral tree, is a tree native to southeastern Africa, which is often cultivated and has introduced populations in India. It is the official tree of Los Angeles, California in the United States.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.
(1/92) The role of the P2' position of Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor in the inhibition of trypsin. Studies on P2' variation in cyclic peptides encompassing the reactive site loop.
The role of the P2' residue in proteinase inhibitors of the Bowman-Birk family was investigated using synthetic cyclic peptides based on the reactive site loop of the inhibitor. A series of 21 variants having different P2' residues was tested for inhibition of trypsin, and the rate at which they were hydrolysed by this enzyme was also measured. Variation at P2' was found to result in marked differences in inhibitory potency, with the best sequence (Ile) having a Ki value of 9 nM. Peptides with P2' Gly, Pro or Glu failed to demonstrate any measurable inhibition (Ki>1 mM). The peptides also displayed significant differences in the rates at which they were hydrolysed, which varied by over three orders of magnitude between the difference sequences. There was found to be overall correlation between the Ki value and the rate of hydrolysis, with peptides that inhibited best also being hydrolysed more slowly. The results are discussed in light of the sequence information for Bowman-Birk inhibitor proteins. (+info)
(2/92) Relationship between protease activity and neu oncogene expression in patients with oral leukoplakia treated with the Bowman Birk Inhibitor.
The protease catalyzing the hydrolysis of the tripeptide fluorescence substrate, butoxycarbonyl-valine-proline-arginine-(7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) (Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-MCA) and the neu oncogenic protein are potentially useful biomarkers for human cancer prevention studies. In the present study, we standardized a specific substrate hydrolysis method for measuring this protease activity in human oral mucosal cells and characterized the relationship between neu oncogene expression and protease activity in patients enrolled in an oral cancer prevention trial using Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC) as the cancer preventive agent. The results demonstrate that changes in the protease activity in oral mucosal cells after BBIC treatment correlated with the changes in the neu protein levels in oral mucosal cells (r = 0.726, P < 0.001) and serum (r = 0.675, P < 0.001), suggesting that the Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-MCA hydrolyzing activity can be as useful as neu oncogene expression as a cancer biomarker. In the 25 patients enrolled in the study, the level of neu protein in oral mucosal cells correlated with the serum neu protein concentration in the patients before BBIC treatment (r = 0.645, P < 0.001). However, such a correlation was not observed after the BBIC treatment, suggesting that BBI may inhibit serine protease(s) involved in the cleavage of neu protein on the cell surface, thereby preventing the release of the extracellular domain of neu protein into the circulation. By inhibiting the cleavage of neu protein on the cell surface, BBI could prevent malignant and premalignant cells expressing high levels of neu protein antigen from escaping host immunological surveillance control. (+info)
(3/92) Interaction between duodenase, a proteinase with dual specificity, and soybean inhibitors of Bowman-Birk and Kunitz type.
The interaction between duodenase, which belongs to a group of Janus-faced proteinases, and classical Bowman--Birk (BBI) and Kunitz (STI) type inhibitors from soybean was investigated. Duodenase was shown to interact only with the antichymotrypsin site (Leu-Ser) of BBI, whereas the antitrypsin site (Lys-Ser) of the inhibitor appeared to be vacant and capable of interaction with trypsin. The inhibition constants of duodenase by BBI, the BBI--trypsin complex, and STI were 4, 400, and 40 nM, respectively. (+info)
(4/92) Single-dose administration of Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate in patients with oral leukoplakia.
The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a soybean-derived serine protease inhibitor and a potential cancer chemopreventive agent for humans. In this Phase I clinical trial, BBI concentrate was administered as a single oral dose to 24 subjects with oral leukoplakia. Pharmacokinetics of BBI was analyzed, and subjects were monitored clinically for toxic effects. Subjects received between 25 and 800 chymotrypsin inhibitor units (CIU) of the compound in a dose escalation trial. BBI was taken up rapidly, and a metabolic product of BBI was excreted in the urine within 24-48 h. No clinical or laboratory evidence of toxicity was observed in the study. Protease activity was also measured in buccal cells to evaluate usefulness as a biomarker. Single-dose BBI concentrate administered up to 800 CIU was well tolerated and appeared to be nontoxic. Further investigation in Phase II clinical trials is being done. (+info)
(5/92) Purification of collagenase and specificity of its related enzyme from Bacillus subtilis FS-2.
A collagenase in the culture supernatant of B. subtilis FS-2, isolated from traditional fish sauce, was purified. The enzyme had a molecular mass of about 125 kDa. It degraded gelatin with maximum activity at pH 9 and a temperature of 50 degrees C. The purified enzyme was stable over a wide range of pH (5-10) and lost only 15% and 35% activity after incubation at 60 degrees C and 65 degrees C for 30 min, respectively. Slightly inhibited by EDTA, soybean tripsin inhibitor, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetic acid, the enzyme was severely inhibited by 2-beta-mercaptoethanol and DFP. The protease from B. subtilis FS-2 culture digested acid casein into fragments with hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids as C-terminals, in particular Asn, Gly, Val, and Ile. (+info)
(6/92) Inhibition spectra of the human pancreatic endopeptidases.
The present work describes the effect of seven naturally occurring proteinase inhibitors on the human pancreatic endopeptidases cationic trypsin, anionic trypsin, chymotrypsin I, chymotrypsin II, and protease E (an elastase-like protease). The inhibitors tested in order of their decreasing effectiveness were alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha-1-antitrypsin), lima bean trypsin inhibitor, soybean trypsin inhibitor, Bowman-Birk (soybean) inhibitor, Kunitz pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, porcine Kazal inhibitor, and chicken ovomucoid. The human trypsins demonstrated a higher degree of susceptibility to these inhibitors than did the chymotrypsins while human protease E showed remarkably little inhibition by any of these naturally occurring proteinase inhibitors except for alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor. The contribution of each of these proteolytic enzymes to the total proteolytic activity of crude extracts was also investigated using specific active-site directed reagents. These studies revealed that the trypsins constituted approximately 35% of the proteolytic activity while the chymotrypsins represent approximately 32% of the total proteolytic activity. Human protease E and possibly human pancreatic elastase are responsible for approximately 21% of this activity as measured on crude pancreatic extracts. (+info)
(7/92) Urinary excretion of Bowman-Birk inhibitor in humans after soy consumption as determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay.
The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) found in soybeans is a serine protease inhibitor with anticarcinogenic activity. In the present study, an ELISA for BBI was developed with the use of a monoclonal antibody against a reduced form of BBI. This newly developed ELISA method was used to measure the urinary levels of BBI metabolites in nine human subjects after consumption of 36-oz or 60-oz soymilk (containing 105 or 175 mg of BBI) at two time points 36 h apart. The results demonstrate that urinary BBI excretion rates peaked within 6 h and decreased to baseline levels within 12-24 h after soymilk ingestion. The changes in BBI:creatinine ratios in urine closely paralleled the changes in urinary BBI excretion rates after soymilk consumption. These data suggest that BBI ingested p.o. is absorbed and could be bioavailable for cancer chemoprevention in other organs in addition to those in the gastrointestinal tract. (+info)
(8/92) Clinical modulation of oral leukoplakia and protease activity by Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate in a phase IIa chemoprevention trial.
Bowman-Birk inhibitor is a protease inhibitor derived from soybeans that has demonstrated chemopreventive activity in a number of in vitro and animal systems. We conducted a 1-month phase IIa clinical trial of Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate (BBIC) in patients with oral leukoplakia. BBIC was administered to 32 subjects with oral leukoplakia for 1 month. We assessed toxicity and clinical and histological response of the lesions, and oral mucosal cell protease activity (PA) and serum micronutrient levels were measured. Clinical response was determined by measurement of pre- and posttreatment individual and total lesion areas and analysis of blinded clinical judgments of photographs. On the basis of prespecified response criteria, 31% of patients achieved a clinical response (two with complete and eight with partial responses). BBIC was nontoxic in doses up to 1066 chymotrypsin inhibitory units. The mean pretreatment total lesion area decreased from 615 to 438 mm2 after BBIC treatment (P < 0.004). A linear fit of the dose-response relationship between dose of BBIC and decrease in total lesion area was suggested (P < 0.08), and analysis of blinded clinical impression from lesion photographs confirmed this relationship (P < 0.01). Overall, at all doses tested, a 24.2% decrease in total lesion area was observed following treatment (sign rank = -142; P < 0.004). High pretreatment PA was associated with greater decreases in PA after BBIC administration (P < 0.02). BBIC demonstrated clinical activity after oral administration to patients with oral leukoplakia. These results indicate that BBIC should be investigated for chemopreventive activity in a randomized clinical trial. (+info)