No data available that match "Thyronines"
No data available that match "Thyronines"
(1/73) Mechanism of liver-selective thyromimetic activity of SK&F L-94901: evidence for the presence of a cell-type-specific nuclear iodothyronine transport process.
The thyromimetic compound SK&F L-94901 shows more potent thyromimetic activity in the liver than in the pituitary gland or heart when administered to rats. The mechanisms of liver-selectivity of SK&F L-94901 were examined using cultured rat hepatoma cells (dRLH-84) and rat pituitary tumor cells (GH3), both of which showed saturable cellular uptake of tri-iodothyronine (T(3)). When isolated nuclei with partial disruption of the outer nuclear membrane were used, SK&F L-94901 competed for [(125)I]T(3) binding to nuclear receptors almost equally in dRLH-84 and GH3 cells. SK&F L-94901 also did not discriminate thyroid hormone receptors (TR) alpha1 and beta1 in terms of binding affinity and activation of the thyroid hormone responsive element. In intact cells, however, SK&F L-94901 was a more potent inhibitor of nuclear [(125)I]T(3) binding in dRLH-84 cells than in GH3 cells at an early phase of the nuclear uptake process and after binding equilibrium. These data suggest that SK&F L-94901 is more effectively transported to nuclear TRs in hepatic cells than in pituitary cells and therefore shows liver-selective thyromimetic activity. In conclusion, SK&F L-94901 discriminates hepatic cells and pituitary cells at the nuclear transport process. The cellular transporters responsible for this discrimination were not evident. (+info)
(2/73) Albumin, fibrinogen and transferrin synthesis in isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions. A model for the study of plasma protein synthesis.
A system using hepatocyte suspensions in vitro was developed for studying the synthesis of albumin, fibrinogen and transferrin. Conditions for optimum survival of the hepatocyte and for synthesis of these plasma proteins were defined for this system. These conditions included the use of horse serum (17.5 percent, v/v, heat-inactivated), an enriched medium (Waymouth's MB 752/1), an O2 tension of between 18.7 times 10(3) and 26.7 times 10(3) Pa and constant stirring. Albumin, fibrinogen and transferrin synthesis rates were obtained of 0.32 p 0.094(10), 0.12 p 0.030(11) and 0.097 p 0.017(10) [mean p S.D. (n)]mg/h per g of hepatocytes respectively. These rates were maintained for the first 12h of study and synthesis continued at a diminished rate up to 48h. The synthesis of albumin was decreased in a medium containing less amino acids and glucose, but that of fibrinogen was substantially unaffected. ATP concentrations up to 12h and RNA/DNA ratios up to 24h were comparable with values in vivo. The ability to study cells up to 48h permitted us to find that the addition of a mixture of hormones consisting of glucagon, cortisol, tri-iodothyronine and growth hormone enhanced fibrinogen synthesis. Addition of insulin to the above mixture resulted in increased synthesis for albumin and transferrin but not for fibrinogen. (+info)
(3/73) Effect of suckling and adrenergic stimulation on peripheral deiodination in lactating rats: differential expression of type 1 deiodinase mRNA forms.
Previous works led us to propose that peripheral iodothyronine deiodination is mainly regulated by the reciprocal interaction between the thyroid and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). In this study, we analyzed the role suckling exerts, through SNS activation, upon deiodination of thyronines in liver, heart, brown adipose tissue and mammary gland during lactation. Our results showed that resuckling causes a concurrent stimulatory response on deiodinase type 1 (D1) in heart and mammary gland, but not in liver and brown adipose tissue. The stimulatory response was mimicked by norepinephrine and by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, through the overexpression of the large form of D1 mRNA. These results suggested that, during lactation, peripheral thyronine deiodination is co-ordinated by the SNS, and suckling is a major modulatory influence. (+info)
(4/73) PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF HIGH 10-MINUTE I-131 UPTAKE IN NON-TOXIC GOITRES.
Forty-two patients with non-toxic goitre and with a high 10-minute uptake of I(131) were treated with 100 mug. of l-triiodothyronine per day for periods up to 36 months. All of the goitres were reduced in size and 10 showed marked regression within one week. Hashimoto's disease was considered an unlikely cause of these goitres because only four of 20 tested had positive antithyroglobulin tests, and these were of low titre (up to 1:81). Chromatographic studies suggested a defect in thyroxine metabolism in many of these patients. It is concluded that a high 10-minute uptake test is useful in predicting a response to therapy and in selecting patients likely to have a detectable defect in thyroxine metabolism. (+info)
(5/73) INTRATHYROIDAL IODINE METABOLISM IN THE RAT. THE INFLUENCE OF DIET AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
1. Ratios of mono[(131)I]iodotyrosine and di[(131)I]iodotyrosine (R values) and the incorporation of (131)I into iodothyronines have been estimated in rat thyroid glands from 30min. to 38hr. after the administration of [(131)I]iodide. 2. In rats receiving a powdered low-iodine diet the R values were close to unity and did not change with time after the administration of [(131)I]iodide. In rats receiving a commercial pellet diet the R values fell from a mean of 0.8 at 30min. after [(131)I]iodide administration to 0.49 at 38hr. 3. Administration of 0.5-2.0i.u. of thyroid-stimulating hormone before giving the injection of [(131)I]iodide caused a small diminution in the R value when the time between injecting [(131)I]iodide and killing the animal was 16hr. or more. 4. Iodothyronines represented a greater percentage of the total thyroid-gland radioactivity in the iodine-deficient animals than in animals fed on the pellet diet. Thyroid-stimulating hormone had little effect, if any, on the iodothyronine contents. (+info)
(6/73) Cardiac effects of 3-iodothyronamine: a new aminergic system modulating cardiac function.
3-Iodothyronamine T1AM is a novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative that activates the G protein-coupled receptor known as trace anime-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). In the isolated working rat heart and in rat cardiomyocytes, T1AM produced a reversible, dose-dependent negative inotropic effect (e.g., 27+/-5, 51+/-3, and 65+/-2% decrease in cardiac output at 19, 25, and 38 microM concentration, respectively). An independent negative chronotropic effect was also observed. The hemodynamic effects of T1AM were remarkably increased in the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, whereas they were attenuated in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. No effect was produced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calcium-calmodulin kinase II, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, or MAP kinases. Tissue cAMP levels were unchanged. In rat ventricular tissue, Western blot experiments with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies showed reduced phosphorylation of microsomal and cytosolic proteins after perfusion with synthetic T1AM; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed the presence of transcripts for at least 5 TAAR subtypes; specific and saturable binding of [125I]T1AM was observed, with a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range (5 microM); and endogenous T1AM was detectable by tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel aminergic system modulating cardiac function. (+info)
(7/73) Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8.
In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) lead to severe forms of psychomotor retardation combined with imbalanced thyroid hormone serum levels. The MCT8-null mice described here, however, developed without overt deficits but also exhibited distorted 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) serum levels, resulting in increased hepatic activity of type 1 deiodinase (D1). In the mutants' brains, entry of T4 was not affected, but uptake of T3 was diminished. Moreover, the T4 and T3 content in the brain of MCT8-null mice was decreased, the activity of D2 was increased, and D3 activity was decreased, indicating the hypothyroid state of this tissue. In the CNS, analysis of T3 target genes revealed that in the mutants, the neuronal T3 uptake was impaired in an area-specific manner, with strongly elevated thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcript levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and slightly decreased RC3 mRNA expression in striatal neurons; however, cerebellar Purkinje cells appeared unaffected, since they did not exhibit dendritic outgrowth defects and responded normally to T3 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the circulating thyroid hormone levels of MCT8-null mice closely resemble those of humans with MCT8 mutations, yet in the mice, CNS development is only partially affected. (+info)
(8/73) Novel thyroxine derivatives, thyronamine and 3-iodothyronamine, induce transient hypothermia and marked neuroprotection against stroke injury.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild hypothermia confers profound neuroprotection in ischemia. We recently discovered 2 natural derivatives of thyroxine, 3-iodothyronamine (T(1)AM) and thyronamine (T(0)AM), that when administered to rodents lower body temperature for several hours without induction of a compensatory homeostatic response. We tested whether T(1)AM- and T(0)AM-induced hypothermia protects against brain injury from experimental stroke. METHODS: We tested T(1)AM and T(0)AM 1 hour after and 2 days before stroke in a mouse model of focal ischemia. To determine whether T(1)AM and T(0)AM require hypothermia to protect against stroke injury, the induction of hypothermia was prevented. RESULTS: T(1)AM and T(0)AM administration reduced body temperature from 37 degrees C to 31 degrees C. Mice given T(1)AM or T(0)AM after the ischemic period had significantly smaller infarcts compared with controls. Mice preconditioned with T(1)AM before ischemia displayed significantly smaller infarcts compared with controls. Pre- and postischemia treatments required the induction of hypothermia. T(1)AM and T(0)AM treatment in vitro failed to confer neuroprotection against ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: T(1)AM and T(0)AM, are potent neuroprotectants in acute stroke and T(1)AM can be used as antecedent treatment to induce neuroprotection against subsequent ischemia. Hypothermia induced by T(1)AM and T(0)AM may underlie neuroprotection. T(1)AM and T(0)AM offer promise as treatments for brain injury. (+info)