Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsSweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Sebaceous Gland NeoplasmsAnal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Eccrine Glands: Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.Perianal GlandsSublingual Gland Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the sublingual glands.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Adenoma, Sweat Gland: A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Chloroprene: Toxic, possibly carcinogenic, monomer of neoprene, a synthetic rubber; causes damage to skin, lungs, CNS, kidneys, liver, blood cells and fetuses. Synonym: 2-chlorobutadiene.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Adenolymphoma: A benign tumor characterized histologically by tall columnar epithelium within a lymphoid tissue stroma. It is usually found in the salivary glands, especially the parotid.Sweat Gland Diseases: Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsSalivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Ectodysplasins: Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Ectodermal Dysplasia: A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Ectodysplasin: Members of the TNF receptor family that are specific for ECTODYSPLASIN. At least two subtypes of the ectodysplasin receptor exist, each being specific for a ectodysplasin isoform. Signaling through ectodysplasin receptors plays an essential role in the normal ectodermal development. Genetic defects that result in loss of ectodysplasin receptor function results ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Hypohidrosis: Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.Carcinoma, Skin Appendage: A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Hyperhidrosis: Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.Syringoma: A benign tumor of the sweat glands which is usually multiple and results from malformation of sweat ducts. It is uncommon and more common in females than in males. It is most likely to appear at adolescence, and further lesions may develop during adult life. It does not appear to be hereditary. (Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2407-8)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Re-Epithelialization: Reconstitution of eroded or injured EPITHELIUM by proliferation and migration of EPITHELIAL CELLS from below or adjacent to the damaged site.Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Dibenzylchlorethamine: An alpha adrenergic antagonist.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Edar Receptor: A ectodysplasin receptor subtype that is specific for ECTODYSPLASIN A1. It signals via the specific signaling adaptor EDAR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Loss of function of the edar receptor is associated with AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ANHIDROTIC ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA and ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 3, ANHIDROTIC.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Edar-Associated Death Domain Protein: A tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor that acts as a specific signaling adaptor protein for the EDAR RECEPTOR and plays an important role in ectodermal development. It binds to edar receptor via its C-terminal death domain region and to other specific TNF receptor-associated factors via its N-terminal domain. Loss of function of edar-associated death domain protein is associated with AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ANHIDROTIC ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA.Naphthylvinylpyridine: 4(1-Naphthylvinyl)pyridine hydrochloride. Cholinesterase inhibitor. Synonym: YuB 25.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Eccrine Porocarcinoma: A rare malignant neoplasm of the sweat glands. It most often develops as a form of degenerative progression from a benign ECCRINE POROMA.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Ectodermal Dysplasia 1, Anhidrotic: An X-linked form of ectodermal dysplasia which results from mutations of the gene encoding ECTODYSPLASIN.Cicatrix, Hypertrophic: An elevated scar, resembling a KELOID, but which does not spread into surrounding tissues. It is formed by enlargement and overgrowth of cicatricial tissue and regresses spontaneously.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Hematidrosis: Hematidrosis (also called hematohidrosis or hemidrosis or blood sweat. From Greek haima/haimatos αἷμα, αἵματος, blood; hidrōs ἱδρώς blood) is a very rare condition in which a human sweats blood.Hidradenocarcinoma: Hidradenocarcinoma (also known as malignant hidradenoma, malignant acrospiroma, clear cell eccrine carcinoma, or primary mucoepidermoid cutaneous carcinoma) is a malignant adnexal tumor of the sweat gland. It is the malignant variant of the benign hidradenoma.Sweat test: The sweat test measures the concentration of chloride that is excreted in sweat. It is used to screen for cystic fibrosis (CF).Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Sebaceous adenoma: Sebaceous adenoma is a cutaneous condition characterized by a slow-growing tumor usually presenting as a pink, flesh-coloured, or yellow papule or nodule.James et al.Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma usually appear as a solitary nodular lesion on the acral areas of the extremities, particularly the palms and soles.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Weaire–Phelan structure: In geometry, the Weaire–Phelan structure is a complex 3-dimensional structure representing an idealised foam of equal-sized bubbles. In 1993, Trinity College Dublin physicist Denis Weaire and his student Robert Phelan found that in computer simulations of foam, this structure was a better solution of the "Kelvin problem" than the previous best-known solution, the Kelvin structure..Sialoblastoma: A sialoblastoma is a low-grade salivary gland neoplasm that recapitulates primitive salivary gland anlage. It has previously been referred to as congenital basal cell adenoma, embryoma, or basaloid adenocarcinoma.ChloropreneAdenoid cystic carcinomaEpithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, abbreviated EMCa, is a rare malignant tumour that typically arises in a salivary gland and consists of both an epithelial and myoepithelial component. They are predominantly found in the parotid glandSebaceous lymphadenoma: Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a benign tumour of the salivary gland.Apocrine sweat glandDredge turning gland: Dredge Turning Gland is a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger component.Bombardier Challenger 300: The Bombardier BD-100 Challenger 300 is a super-mid-sized jet capable of traversing transcontinental distances. It is not developmentally related to the similarly named Challenger 600 series, or the 600-derived Challenger 800 series.Aplasia cutis congenita: (ILDS Q84.810)Amphiregulin: Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.Submandibular gland: The paired submandibular glands are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. They each weigh about 15 grams and contribute some 60–67% of unstimulated saliva secretion; on stimulation their contribution decreases in proportion as the parotid secretion rises to 50%.Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms: Adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms is a group of tumors.HypohidrosisMicrocystic adnexal carcinoma: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (also known as sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma) is a cutaneous condition characterized by a slow-growing plaque or nodule.HyperhidrosisSyringocystadenoma papilliferum: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (also known as "Syringadenoma papilliferum") is an apocrine tumor.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Dermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Vesicular acetylcholine transporter: The Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a neurotransmitter transporter which is responsible for loading acetylcholine (ACh) into secretory organelles in neurons making acetylcholine available for secretion. It is encoded by Solute carrier family 18, member 3 (SLC18A3) gene.Serous demilunePancreatoblastomaCystic fibrosis-related diabetes: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) develops with age, and the median age at diagnosis is 21 years.Injection site reaction: Injection site reactions are allergic reactions that result in cutaneous necrosis that may occur at sites of medication injection, typically presenting in one of two forms, (1) those associated with intravenous infusion or (2) those related to intramuscular injection.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Keratinocyte: A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.Harderian gland: The Harderian gland is a gland found within the eye's orbit which occurs in tetrapods (reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals) that possess a nictitating membrane.Absent adrenal glandNaphthylvinylpyridineHomeothermy: Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (Greek: homoios = "similar", thermē = "heat").Dorsalis pedis artery: In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. It arises at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery.Adrenal tumorHypertrophic scar: A hypertrophic scar is a cutaneous condition characterized by deposits of excessive amounts of collagen which gives rise to a raised scar, but not to the degree observed with keloids. Like keloids, they form most often at the sites of pimples, body piercings, cuts and burns.Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms: Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms is a group of tumors.Keratin 6A: Keratin 6A is one of the 27 different type II keratins expressed in humans. Keratin 6A was the first type II keratin sequence determined.
(1/131) Multiple eyelid cysts resembling apocrine hidrocystomas in three Persian cats and one Himalayan cat.
Multiple eyelid cysts were evaluated and treated in four cats. Surgical removal of the cysts was performed in two cats. Histopathologic examination revealed multilocular cystic structures of various size. The cysts were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells with papillary or cystic projections into the cyst lumen. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules were seen within the apical cytoplasm of many of the cells. The eyelid masses in these cats resembled apocrine hidrocystomas in human beings, both clinically and on histopathologic examination. (+info)
(2/131) Papillary hidradenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of steroid receptor profile with a focus on apocrine differentiation.
AIM: To make a quantitative evaluation by image analysis of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and androgen receptors in papillary hidradenomas and anogenital sweat glands. METHODS: 20 papillary hidradenomas and the anogenital sweat glands detected in surgical specimens selected from 10 vulvectomies for squamous carcinoma, eight haemorrhoidectomies, and one anal polypectomy, all from female patients, were investigated by the avidinstreptavidin peroxidase testing system. RESULTS: 90% of papillary hidradenomas and almost all the anogenital sweat glands showed immunoreactivity for oestrogen receptor and, more weakly, for progesterone receptor, with immunolabelled nuclear area ranging from 10% to 90%. Conversely conventional sweat glands did not show any nuclear staining. Overexpression of androgen receptors occurred in 20% of papillary hidradenomas, with nuclear staining strictly bordering papillary epithelium with apocrine differentiation. There was no immunoreactivity for androgen receptors in anogenital sweat glands. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrogen and progesterone receptors seem to represent reliable markers for differentiating between anogenital sweat glands and conventional sweat glands, and a further link to explain why papillary hidradenomas occur almost exclusively in the female anogenital region. Positivity for oestrogen/progesterone receptors suggests that epithelia either of anogenital sweat glands or of papillary hidradenomas are controlled by ovarian steroid hormones. Androgen receptor nuclear staining of the epithelium with apocrine differentiation in vulvar papillary hidradenoma strengthens its homology with breast duct papilloma. (+info)
(3/131) Androgen receptors: a marker to increase sensitivity for identifying breast cancer in skin metastasis of unknown primary site.
Metastatic lesions to the skin may present a dilemma in the identification of the primary site. Breast carcinoma, metastatic to the skin, that is negative for estrogen receptors (ERs) and/or progesterone receptors (PRs) may be mimicked by a number of other metastatic lesions. In the present study, 16 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded infiltrating ductal carcinomas metastatic to the skin, which were ER-/PR-, ER-/PR+, or ER+/PR-; 5 metastatic lesions to the skin from primary lesions other than breast cancer; and 5 eccrine tumors were examined for immunoreactivity to the androgen receptor. The majority of the metastatic breast lesions (82%) exhibited immunopositivity for androgen receptor, whereas the metastatic skin lesions from primary lesions other than breast cancer and the eccrine tumors were immunonegative. Thus, androgen receptor immunohistochemistry could serve as a marker to increase sensitivity for identifying breast cancer in skin metastasis of unknown primary sites. (+info)
(4/131) Malignant hidradenoma: a rare sweat gland tumour.
Malignant hidradenoma is a rare sweat gland carcinoma, which can have an aggressive course with recurrence and/or metastasis. A case is reported, in an elderly male. The tumour had a histologic similarity to its benign counterpart, but exhibited additional features of infiltrative growth pattern and invasion of adjacent tissue. (+info)
(5/131) Eccrine adenocarcinoma of the footpads in 2 cats.
Adenocarcinoma of sweat glands of the footpads was diagnosed in 2 cats. Clinical signs included lameness and swelling of multiple digits. Pulmonary metastasis was detected in one case. Diagnosis was based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. Eccrine adenocarcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of footpads lesions in aged cats. (+info)
(6/131) Clear cell hidradenoma of the eyelid: a case report.
Sweat gland tumours are extremely rare in the eyelids. We report a case of a clear cell hidradenoma (nodular hidradenoma) in an elderly female, who had presented with a nodular swelling in a eyelid. Clear cell hidradenomas arise as intradermal nodules from eccrine sweat glands. Ultrastructural and enzyme histochemical studies have shown nodular hidradenomas to be intermediate between eccrine poroma and eccrine spiradenoma. No apocrine differentiation has ever been observed in these tumours. Malignant forms are distinctly unusual. This case is being documented for the extremely uncommon presentation of this tumour as an eyelid mass. Complete primary excision is advocated and local steroid preparations should bot be used. (+info)
(7/131) Molecular cytogenetic comparison of apocrine hyperplasia and apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
The relationship of apocrine metaplasia to invasive breast cancer is controversial. Different authors have reported that apocrine differentiation in proliferative lesions may be a risk factor, a precursor lesion, or have no association with malignancy. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic alterations in benign apocrine hyperplasia with apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive apocrine carcinomas of the breast using comparative genomic hybridization. The mean number of alterations in apocrine hyperplasia was 4.1 (n = 10) compared to 10.2 in apocrine DCIS (n = 10) and 14.8 (n = 4) in invasive carcinoma. The most common alterations in apocrine hyperplasia were gains of 2q, 13q, and 1p and losses of 1p, 17q, 22q, 2p, 10q, and 16q. Apocrine DCIS and invasive carcinomas showed gains of 1q, 2q, 1p, and losses of 1p, 22q, 17q, 12q, and 16q as their most common DNA copy number changes. Apocrine hyperplasia is considered to be a benign lesion and its relationship to invasive carcinoma remains unclear. Our data suggest that some apocrine hyperplasias may be clonal proliferations. The mean number of alterations are lower in apocrine hyperplasia, however the changes show considerable overlap with those identified in in situ and invasive apocrine carcinoma. These alterations are also commonly seen in nonapocrine breast cancer. The data are consistent with apocrine hyperplasia as a putative nonobligate precursor of apocrine carcinoma. (+info)
(8/131) Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy.
BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the intra-epidermal sweat gland duct. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a female renal transplant patient aged 45 years is described with a review of pertinent literature. RESULTS: The primary tumour was highly pleomorphic. In places large and small cells merged and focally the former component infiltrated the epidermis in a manner akin to Paget's disease of the breast. The majority of the tumour was high grade; using the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system, usually applied to mammary ductal carcinomas, the tumour graded as 3. Metastatic disease developed nine months following primary surgical treatment. The metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was resistant to epirubicin but responded to docetaxel chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: There are no data to support the use of adjuvant therapy in the management of eccrine porocarcinoma. The use of the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system may define cases at high risk of relapse in which adjuvant therapy might be considered. Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma has proven resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents. We report the first use of docetaxel in the management of this disease. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in marked symptomatic and radiological responses. Treatment with docetaxel should be considered in future cases of this rare tumour. (+info)