Salvia: A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).Salvia miltiorrhiza: A plant species which is known as an Oriental traditional medicinal plant.Salvia officinalis: A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.Diterpenes, Abietane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.Diterpenes, Clerodane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 2-rings with a side-chain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Depsides: Phenolic benzoic acid esters.PhenanthrenesLamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Lepidium: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Salvia africana-lutea: REVIEW The Pharmacological Effects of Salvia species on the Central Nervous SysteSalvia officinalis: Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, or common sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world.AbietaneSalvinorin B methoxymethyl etherMingmu Dihuang Wan: Mingmu Dihuang Pills () is a blackish-brown pill used in Traditional Chinese medicine to "nourish yin of the liver and the kidney, and to improve eyesight". State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the PRC (2005).Depside: A depside is a type of polyphenolic compound composed of two or more monocyclic aromatic units linked by an ester bond. Depsides are most often found in lichens, but have also been isolated from higher plants, including species of the Ericaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae and Myrtaceae.Benzo(c)phenanthreneElsholtzia rugulosaPhytomedicineMomilactone BEssential oil: An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove.Lepidium meyenii: Lepidium meyenii (maca) is an herbaceous biennial plant of the crucifer family native to the high Andes of Peru. It was found at the Meseta of BomBom close to Junin Lake in the Andes.College of Practitioners of Phytotherapy
(1/90) Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6"'-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. Enzyme purification, gene cloning, expression, and characterization.
The orange to blue coloration of flowers in nature is, in most cases, provided by anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoids, many of which are modified by malonyl group(s). However, the identity of the enzyme catalyzing the malonylation reaction remains to be established. Here, we describe for the first time the purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of an anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. The purified enzyme (termed Ss5MaT1) was a monomeric 50-kDa protein catalyzing the regiospecific transfer of the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the 6"'-hydroxyl group of the 5-glucosyl moiety of anthocyanins. Ss5MaT1 showed a k(cat) value of 7.8 s(-1) at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0 for the malonylation of bisdemalonylsalvianin (pelargonidin 3-(6"-O-caffeyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-5-beta-glucopyranoside) and K(m) values of 101 microm and 57 microm for bisdemalonylsalvianin and malonyl-CoA, respectively. p-Coumaric acid, which mimics an aromatic acyl group linked to the 3-glucosidic moiety of an anthocyanin substrate, was a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate. This strongly suggests that the presence of an aromatic acyl group at the 3-glucosidic moiety of anthocyanin is important for substrate recognition by the enzyme. On the basis of the partial amino acid sequences of the purified enzyme, we isolated a cDNA encoding Ss5MaT1. Ss5MaT1 consisted of 462 amino acids and shared motifs that are commonly found among members of a versatile plant acyltransferase family, which was recently shown to include numerous homologs of unknown biochemical functions. Northern blot analysis revealed that the transcripts of Ss5MaT1 were detected in petals, sepals, bracts, and red stems, in accordance with the pigment accumulation patterns. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the aliphatic and aromatic acylations of anthocyanins are generally catalyzed by subfamily members of the plant acyltransferase family. (+info)
(2/90) Effects of extract F of red-rooted Salvia on mucosal lesions of gastric corpus and antrum induced by hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion in rats.
AIM: To compare the effects of extract F of red-rooted Salvia (EFRRS) on mucosal lesions of gastric corpus and antrum induced by hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion in rats. METHODS: The rats were subject to hemorrhagic shock and followed by reperfusion, and were divided randomly into two groups. Group 1 received saline, and group 2 received EFRRS intravenously. The index of gastric mucosal lesions (IGML) was expressed as the percentage of lesional area in the corpus or antrum. The degree of gastric mucosal lesions (DGML) was catalogued grade 0,1,2 and 3. The concentrations of prostaglandins (PGs) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of MDA was measured according to the procedures of Asakawa. The activity of SOD was measured by the biochemical way. The growth rates or inhibitory rates of above-mentioned parameters were calculated. RESULTS: As compared with IGML (%), grade 3 damage (%) and MDA content (nmol/g tissue) of gastric antrum which were respectively 7.96 +/- 0.59, 34.86 +/- 4.96 and 156.98 +/- 16.12, those of gastric corpus which were respectively 23.18 +/- 6.82, 58.44 +/- 9.07 and 230.56 +/- 19.37 increased markedly (P <0.01), whereas the grade 0 damage, grade 1 damage, the concentrations of PGE(2) and PGI(2)(pg/mg tissue), the ratio of PGI(2)/TXA(2) and the activity of SOD (U/g tissue) of corpus which were respectively 3.01 +/- 1.01, 8.35 +/- 1.95, 540.48 +/- 182.78, 714.38 +/- 123.74, 17.38 +/- 5.93 and 134.29 +/- 13.35 were markedly lower than those of antrum which were respectively 13.92 +/- 2.25, 26.78 +/- 6.06, 2218.56 +/- 433.12, 2531.76 +/- 492.35, 43.46 +/- 8.51 and 187.45 +/- 17.67 (P<0.01) after hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. After intravenous EFRRS, the growth rates (%) of grade 0 damage, grade 1 damage, the concentrations of PGE(2) and PGI(2), the ratio of PGI(2)/TXA(2) and the activity of SOD of corpus which were respectively 632.56, 308.62, 40.75, 74.75, 92.29 and 122.25 were higher than those in antrum which were respectively 104.89, 58.40, 11.12, 56.58, 30.65 and 82.64, whereas the inhibitory rates (%) of IGML, grade 3 damage and MDA content of gastric corpus were 82.93, 65.32 and 59.09, being higher than those of gastric antrum which were 76.64, 53.18 and 42.37. CONCLUSION: After hemorrhagic shock reperfusion, the gastric mucosal lesions in the corpus were more severe than those in the antrum, which were related not only to the different distribution of endogenous PGs in the mucosa, but also to the different ability of anti-oxidation of the mucosa. The protective effect of EFRRS on the gastric mucosa in the corpus was more evident than that in the antrum, which was related to higher growth degree of PGs contents and anti-oxitative ability in gastric corpus after administration of EFRRS. (+info)
(3/90) Protective effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophic responses in neonatal rat cardiac cells.
The effect of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophic responses was examined in cultured neonatal rat cardiac cells (cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes). The methanol eluate fraction (SM2) of the water extract and the ethyl acetate-insoluble fraction (SM3) and its soluble fraction (SM4) partitioned from the methanol extract were prepared. Treatment with SM4 (5-80 microg/ml), not SM2 and SM3, for 24 h produced dose-dependent cytotoxicity against cardiac cells relative to the reduction in viability and the morphological injury of cardiomyocytes. SM2 or SM3 in the absence of Ang II affected neither hyperplastic nor hypertrophic growth of both cell types. However, SM3 (40 microg/ml) attenuated the positive chronotropic responsiveness of cardiomyocytes to Ang II (1 nM) stimulation, whereas Ang II-induced increase in non-cardiomyocyte number was decreased only by SM2 (40 microg/ml) treatment. Furthermore, SM3 suppressed Ang II-induced enlargement of cell size by preceding Ang II-induced induction of immediate early response gene (c-jun) expression in cardiomyocytes, while SM2 decreased Ang II-induced DNA synthesis in non-cardiomyocytes. Moreover, three phenolic compounds and tanshinone IIA that differed quantitatively among three SM fractions were identified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, the present findings indicate that the root of SM is an effective inhibitor of Ang II action and has a plural effective constituent, which possess different pharmacological activities on Ang II-induced hypertrophy and hyperplasia in cultured neonatal rat cardiac cells. (+info)
(4/90) Structural characterization and biological activities of SC4, an acidic polysaccharide from Salvia chinensis.
AIM: To study the chemical characterization and some biological activities of an acidic polysaccharide, named SC4 from Salvia chinensis. METHODS: Chemical and spectral methods were employed to identify the structural characterization of SC4. Effect of SC4 on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes both in vivo and in vitro was measured at various concentrations, and the protective effects of SC4 on PC12 cells against H2O2-induced injury was observed. RESULTS: SC4 was a highly branched polysaccharide with mean molecular weight of 4.5 10(5), composed of Rha, Xyl, Ser, Gal, and GalA in the molar ratio of 1.0 7.0 5.3 1.2 4.2. Methylation analysis and NMR identified the linkages of the residues of SC4. SC4 increased the B-lymphocyte proliferation and spleen weight remarkably while no obvious changes were examined in T-lymphocyte proliferation, thymus weight, and the level of IgG and C3 in blood of mice. Moreover, SC4 enhanced the PC12 cells viability after H2O2 treatment. CONCLUSION: SC4, the acidic polysaccharide with complicated structure, was a B-lymphocyte stimulator and protected PC12 cells at the concentration of 20 mg/L against H2O2-induced injury. (+info)
(5/90) Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.).
In Salvia hispanica L., several changes in qualitative characters, including seed coat color, stem pigmentation, and shattering, have evolved with cultivation and domestication. Three F(2) segregating generations from crosses between wild and domesticated parents were scored for three qualitative traits. A single recessive gene, designated scc, was found to govern the white seed characteristic. A single dominant gene, designated SSP, was found to control striated stem pigmentation. A complete dominance of open calyx over closed calyx was observed in F(1) generations and small numbers of plants with closed calyxes were observed in F(2) generations, not conforming to Mendelian ratios. For this non-shattering trait, a complementation test was conducted between two lines representative of geographically and morphologically divergent domesticated varieties. Complementary gene action was not observed in any F(1) plants, and all F(2) plants were homogeneous with respect to the trait, suggesting the same genetic control for non-shattering among domesticated varieties. An analysis of limited data for linkage of SSP and scc indicated that the two loci segregate independently. (+info)
(6/90) Salvinorin A: a potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist.
Salvia divinorum, whose main active ingredient is the neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A, is a hallucinogenic plant in the mint family that has been used in traditional spiritual practices for its psychoactive properties by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico. More recently, S. divinorum extracts and Salvinorin A have become more widely used in the U.S. as legal hallucinogens. We discovered that Salvinorin A potently and selectively inhibited (3)H-bremazocine binding to cloned kappa opioid receptors. Salvinorin A had no significant activity against a battery of 50 receptors, transporters, and ion channels and showed a distinctive profile compared with the prototypic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide. Functional studies demonstrated that Salvinorin A is a potent kappa opioid agonist at cloned kappa opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells and at native kappa opioid receptors expressed in guinea pig brain. Importantly, Salvinorin A had no actions at the 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptor, the principal molecular target responsible for the actions of classical hallucinogens. Salvinorin A thus represents, to our knowledge, the first naturally occurring nonnitrogenous opioid-receptor subtype-selective agonist. Because Salvinorin A is a psychotomimetic selective for kappa opioid receptors, kappa opioid-selective antagonists may represent novel psychotherapeutic compounds for diseases manifested by perceptual distortions (e.g., schizophrenia, dementia, and bipolar disorders). Additionally, these results suggest that kappa opioid receptors play a prominent role in the modulation of human perception. (+info)
(7/90) Bornyl diphosphate synthase: structure and strategy for carbocation manipulation by a terpenoid cyclase.
The x-ray crystal structure of dimeric (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, a metal-requiring monoterpene cyclase from Salvia officinalis, is reported at 2.0-A resolution. Each monomer contains two alpha-helical domains: the C-terminal domain catalyzes the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate, orienting and stabilizing multiple reactive carbocation intermediates; the N-terminal domain has no clearly defined function, although its N terminus caps the active site in the C-terminal domain during catalysis. Structures of complexes with aza analogues of substrate and carbocation intermediates, as well as complexes with pyrophosphate and bornyl diphosphate, provide "snapshots" of the terpene cyclization cascade. (+info)
(8/90) Changes in diurnal rhythms of free cortisol secretion during different phases of menstrual cycle.
The effect of the menstrual cycle on the diurnal cortisol rhythm was investigated in 15 normally cyclic healthy women during reproductive life. Salivary cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay in samples collected every 2 h for 24 h during the four phases of the menstrual cycle: menstrual phase, late follicular/peri-ovulation phase, early to mid luteal phase and late luteal phase, respectively. Distinct diurnal rhythms of free cortisol were found throughout the menstrual cycle by using a nonlinear periodic regression model. The model was characterized by an asymmetrically peaked diurnal cycle and ultradian harmonics. There was a trend to higher troughs and significantly shorter peak-width in phase II and phase IV compared to phase I. The ultradian amplitude in phase IV was significantly lower compared with phase I and showed a trend of decrease compared with phase II. The results suggest that the daily cortisol secretion is modulated by the phase of the menstrual cycle. (+info)