Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Salivary Gland DiseasesSubmandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Salivary Duct Calculi: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
Sialoendoscopy: Sialoendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that allows for salivary gland surgery for the safe and effective treatment of sialadenitis and other conditions of the salivary glands. During sialoendoscopy a small camera is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth.Dredge turning gland: Dredge Turning Gland is a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger component.EnterolithCalculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Renal stone formation in space: Renal stone formation and passage during space flight can potentially pose a severe risk to crew member health and safety and could affect mission outcome. While the renal stones are routinely and successfully treated on Earth, the occurrence of these during space flight can prove to be problematic.Bladder stonePolymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Submandibular gland: The paired submandibular glands are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. They each weigh about 15 grams and contribute some 60–67% of unstimulated saliva secretion; on stimulation their contribution decreases in proportion as the parotid secretion rises to 50%.Gordon Hobday: Sir Gordon Ivan Hobday (1 February 1916 - 27 May 2015) was a British scientist who worked on penicillin with Alexander Fleming and is noted for his role as director of the Boots research team that developed ibuprofen. He later became chairman of Boots.Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
(1/18) Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy.
OBJECTIVE: Uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate in salivary glands reflects intact salivary gland parenchyma. However, no standardized protocol for an accurate quantification of parenchymal function has been established so far. METHODS: In this paper we report on a validated acquisition protocol supplying a normal database for standardized quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy. RESULTS: The major advantage of salivary gland scintigraphy, as compared to other imaging modalities, is that both parenchymal function and excretion fraction of all four major salivary glands (i.e., parotid and submandibular glands) can be simultaneously quantified with a single intravenous injection. CONCLUSION: Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is demonstrated to be a suitable imaging modality for research applications in evaluating the effects of radioprotective drugs on salivary glands. Salivary gland scintigraphy is easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient. (+info)
(2/18) The MR imaging assessment of submandibular gland sialoadenitis secondary to sialolithiasis: correlation with CT and histopathologic findings.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has been proved to be effective in depicting wide variety of pathologic changes of the salivary gland. Therefore, we evaluated clinical usefulness of MR imaging for sialolithiasis. METHODS: Sixteen patients with sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland underwent MR imaging. MR images of the glands were obtained with a conventional (T1-weighted), fast spin-echo (fat-suppressed T2-weighted) and short inversion time-inversion recovery sequences. Contrast enhancement was not used. MR imaging features then were compared with clinical symptoms, histopathologic features of excised glands, and CT imaging features. RESULTS: Submandibular glands with sialolithiasis could be classified into three types on the basis of clinical symptoms and MR imaging features of the glands. Type I glands were positive for clinical symptoms and MR imaging abnormalities, and were characterised histopathologically by active inflammation (9 [56%] of 16). Type II glands were negative for clinical symptoms and positive for MR imaging abnormalities (4 [25%] of 16), and the glands were replaced by fat. Type III glands were negative for clinical symptoms and MR imaging abnormalities (3 [19%] of 16). CT features of these glands correlated well with those of MR imaging. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MR imaging features may reflect chronic and acute obstruction, and a combination of CT and MR imaging may complement each other in examining glands with sialolithiasis. (+info)
(3/18) Selected problems in fine needle aspiration of head and neck masses.
A wide variety of masses in the head and neck, including those in the major salivary glands, can be approached by fine needle aspiration. In many instances, a correct definitive diagnosis con be rendered after examination of smears or cell block material. However, several significant but uncommon areas can lead to diagnostic difficulties, with the potential for clinically important diagnostic errors. Many of these occur in salivary gland lesions. The most frequent problems involve variations in the expected cytology of pleomorphic adenoma. Then, there are several benign-malignant "look-alike" pairs of lesions. The first of these is related to small-cell epithelial neoplasms of low nuclear grade; the most frequent problem is between basal cell adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinoma, particularly the solid (anaplastic) type. The next area contrasts mucoepidermoid carcinoma with its cytologic mimic, benign salivary gland duct obstruction. The final difficulty in salivary gland aspiration contrasts large-cell epithelial lesions of low nuclear grade: oncocytic proliferations and acinic cell carcinoma. The clinical implications of cytologically benign squamous cell-containing cyst aspirates from the lateral neck will be discussed. Finally, a brief consideration of methodological optimization for thyroid aspirations will be offered. (+info)
(4/18) Sialolithiasis: an unusually large submandibular salivary stone.
Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. The majority of sialoliths occur in the submandibular gland or its duct and are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland sialolith, the subsequent patient management, the aetiology, diagnosis and various treatment modalities available for management of salivary gland calculi depending on their site and size. (+info)
(5/18) Comparative study of MR sialography and digital subtraction sialography for benign salivary gland disorders.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR sialography has become an alternative imaging technique for ductal salivary gland diseases. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of MR sialography and digital subtraction sialography in patients with successful completion of both examinations and benign salivary gland disorders. METHODS: In a prospective study, we attempted to examine salivary glands in 80 patients with clinically suspected diagnoses of sialadenitis and/or sialolithiasis. Each patient underwent digital subtraction sialography and MR sialography. MR sialography was obtained with a T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2800/1100 msec, acquisition time 7 seconds), with use of a quadrature head coil. Final diagnoses were confirmed by clinical follow-up and results of biopsy (n = 9) or surgery (n = 19). RESULTS: Failure rate was 5% (four of 80) for MR sialography and 14% (11 of 80) for digital subtraction sialography. Eighty-one salivary glands (48 parotid, 33 submandibular) in 65 patients were successfully visualized with both modalities. MR sialography depicted the main ductal system and first- and second-order branches, whereas digital subtraction sialography was able to depict third-order branches. Sensitivity and specificity to diagnose chronic sialadenitis were 70% and 98% with MR and 96% and 100% with digital subtraction sialography. MR sialography enabled diagnosis of sialolithiasis with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 98% versus 90% and 98% for each with digital subtraction sialography. CONCLUSION: MR sialography with a heavily T2-weighted sequence is highly successful in the noninvasive visualization of the ductal system of major salivary glands. It is useful for diagnosing sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Digital subtraction sialography, an invasive technique, had a substantial procedural failure rate, particularly for the submandibular duct. However, because of its higher spatial resolution, successfully completed digital subtraction sialography achieved superior diagnostic information compared with that of MR sialography. (+info)
(6/18) Extracellular matrix molecules in chronic obstructive sialadenitis: an immunocytochemical and Western blot investigation.
The exact pathomechanism of inflammation progress and fibrosis in chronic sialadenitis is unknown. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various fibrotic conditions. These factors are thought to be essential in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and the development of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, the expression of CTGF, MMP-2, -3, -9, -13 and TIMP-3 was examined in chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Tissue samples of 13 patients with chronic sialadenitis of the submandibular gland associated with sialolithiasis and 4 normal tissue samples of the submandibular gland were analyzed immunohistochemically and by Western blot analysis. An intense CTGF immunoreactivity was observed in the ductal system of inflamed salivary glands, whereas in normal glands no reactivity or a very low CTGF immunoreactivity was present. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a low to strong reactivity of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 in the ductal system, in acinar cells and in lymphomonocytic infiltrates in normal and inflamed tissues. The expression of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 was confirmed by Western blotting in all cases. Over-expression of CTGF in chronic obstructive sialadenitis suggests that this factor may play a role in glandular fibrosis. However, the physiological role of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 in normal glands, as well as their possible role in inflammation progress and fibrosis in chronic obstructive sialadenitis, remains to be elucidated. (+info)
(7/18) Current opinions in sialolithiasis diagnosis and treatment.
The introduction, 15 years ago, of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of salivary gland calculi, has changed the therapeutic approach in these patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lithotripsy in sialolithiasis, after 10 years follow-up. A review has been made of the literature to establish current opinions in diagnosis and treatment of sialolithiasis. The role of ultrasonography, radiography and, in particular, of sialomagnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of salivary lithiasis has been evaluated. The greater efficiency of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment for parotid, compared to submandibular calculi, has been demonstrated (57% versus 33%). In 68% of our patients, lithotripsy was resolutive after 10 years. Ultrasonograpy should be considered first choice examination in diagnosis of salivary calculi. Sialo-magnetic resonance imaging is a recent, non-invasive diagnostic procedure with the advantage of no radiation exposure, and with better definition of anatomical and functional state of glandular parenchyma and duct, compared to other available techniques. (+info)
(8/18) A case report of coexistence of a sialolith and an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the submandibular gland.
The occurrence of sialoliths in the submandibular gland is 80% due to the specific anatomy of both the gland and its duct. The diagnosis is rather easy because of the obvious clinical signs of the entity. Imaging studies are always necessary in order to treat the patient as effectively as possible. The stones do not tend to occur within the gland as frequently as in the respective duct. The coexistence of sialoliths and malignant tumors is extremely rare. A 70-year-old woman with intraparenchymal stone was operated in our ENT department. In addition to the sialolith the pathological examination revealed the existence of an adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), that extended to the neighboring skeletal muscle. This is the reason why we believe it would be useful to report this case of a large stone (14 mm in diameter) located in the submandibular gland coexisting with ACC. This case report is a very good example illustrating that all available means should be used prior to reaching a conclusion and making a health professional decision. (+info)