Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Salivary Gland DiseasesSubmandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Salivary Duct Calculi: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.

*  Efficacy and Safety of RAD001 in Patients Aged 18 and Over With Angiomyolipoma Associated With Either Tuberous Sclerosis...

Salivary gland calculus † 1 # participants affected / at risk 1/79 (1.27%) 0/33 (0.00%) 0/6 (0.00%) ...

*  adrenal glands

... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a ... Sweat Gland Neoplasms. 3. + + +. 34. Salivary Gland Calculi. 3. + + +. 35. Ganglioneuroblastoma. 3. + + +. ...

*  Parotitis - Wikipedia

Parotitis: Overview, Accessed 03/04/2009 Salivary Gland Stones (Salivary Calculi) Accessed March 20, 2008. John H. Stone; ... the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans. The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly ... Salivary stones (also called sialolithiasis, or salivary duct calculus) are mainly made of calcium, but do not indicate any ... involving any of the major salivary glands, i.e. parotid or submandibular glands. This is often symmetrical and is usually ...

*  Mokoia Radiology information on Contrast Medium Information

Sialography - to demonstrate the salivary glands - eg looking for calculus. *Dacrocystography - to demonstrate the tear ducts ...

*  Indian Journal of Dentistry : Table of Contents

Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. Most of the salivary calculi are small in ... They may occur in any of the salivary gland ducts but are most common in Wharton's duct and in the submandibular gland. This ... Some calculi that reach several centimeters are reported as megaliths or giant calculi in the literature. ... This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland duct sialolith, the subsequent ...

*  Board of Trustees

His main research foci are salivary gland disease, in which he completed an MD on the minimally invasive management of calculi ...

*  Sialolithiasis - Wikipedia

... and renal calculi (kidney stones). Sialolithiasis refers to the formation of calculi within a salivary gland. If a calculus ... of all disease occurring in major salivary glands, and for about 66% of all obstructive salivary gland diseases. Salivary gland ... Less commonly the parotid gland or rarely the sublingual gland or a minor salivary gland may develop salivary stones. The usual ... In about 0-5% of cases, the sublingual gland or a minor salivary gland is affected. When minor glands are rarely involved, ...

*  List of MeSH codes (C23) - Wikipedia

... salivary calculi MeSH C23.300.175.700.325 --- salivary duct calculi MeSH C23.300.175.700.500 --- salivary gland calculi MeSH ... bladder calculi MeSH C23.300.175.850.550 --- kidney calculi MeSH C23.300.175.850.750 --- ureteral calculi MeSH C23.300.306.500 ... salivary gland fistula MeSH C23.300.575.687 --- respiratory tract fistula MeSH C23.300.575.687.225 --- bronchial fistula MeSH ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C23.300.070.500 --- muscular atrophy MeSH C23.300.175.350 --- dental calculus MeSH C23.300. ...

*  Salivary Gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous - Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas

... and blockage of ducts by salivary calculi. Squamous metaplasia of the ductular epithelium may be a preneoplastic lesion ... Salivary gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). The ... Salivary gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 3). The ... Salivary gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 5). The ...

*  Salivary gland - Wikipedia

A salivary calculus may cause blockage of the ducts, causing pain and swelling of the gland. These are most commonly found in ... adult salivary glands. Less than 100 genes are more specifically expressed in the salivary gland. The salivary gland specific ... The salivary glands are detailed below: The two parotid glands are major salivary glands wrapped around the mandibular ramus in ... The sublingual glands are a pair of major salivary glands located inferior to the tongue, anterior to the submandibular glands ...

*  Calculus (medicine) - Wikipedia

Calculi in the stomach are called gastric calculi (gastroliths). Calculi in the salivary glands are called salivary calculi ( ... Calculi in the veins are called venous calculi (phleboliths). Calculi in the skin, such as in sweat glands, are not common but ... a possible explanation of the majority of salivary duct calculus occurring in the submandibular salivary gland. Enteroliths are ... Calculi are not to be confused with gastroliths. Calculi in the urinary system are called urinary calculi and include kidney ...

*  Salivary gland fistula - Wikipedia

... however salivary fistula can occur as a complication of surgery, or if the duct becomes obstructed with a calculus. Most ... involving a salivary gland or duct. Salivary gland fistulae are almost always related to the parotid gland or duct, although ... A salivary gland fistula (plural fistulae) is a fistula (i.e. an abnormal, epithelial-lined tract) ... van der Waal I (6 December 2012). Diseases of the Salivary Glands Including Dry Mouth and Sjögren's Syndrome: Diagnosis and ...

*  Sialography - Wikipedia

... patients with thyroid function tests When calculi are located in anterior part of the salivary gland duct Contrast agents are ... A space occupying lesion that occurs within or adjacent to a salivary gland can displace the normal anatomy of the gland. This ... It usually involves the injection of a small amount of contrast medium into the salivary duct of a single gland, followed by ... A baseline radiograph (scout film) of the required salivary gland would be taken, the duct is dilated using graded lacrimal ...

*  Neuroradiology On the Net: novembre 2009

Often, the calculus obstructs a duct, resulting in secondary inflammation of the affected salivary gland which then becomes ... The affected submandibular gland is enlarged, hypervascular and there may be associated cellulitis/myositis. Calculi are easily ... On the other hand, chronic sialadenitis is usually a result of salivary stasis, ductal stenosis, calculi or other obstructive ... In cases of thymic tissue near the mandible, one can also differentiate thymus from salivary glands (including parotid and ...

*  Calculus (dental) - Wikipedia

These areas experience high salivary flow because of their proximity to the parotid and sublingual salivary glands. Subgingival ... This leads to calculus buildup, which compromises the health of the gingiva (gums). Calculus can form both along the gumline, ... Trace amounts of host, dietary, and environmental microdebris are also found within calculus, including salivary proteins, ... Dental calculus has been shown to contain well preserved DNA and protein in archaeological samples. Sub-gingival calculus is ...

*  A Guide to Dental Terms

Salivary Glands - The glands located under the tongue and in cheeks that produce saliva.. Scaling and Root Planning - The ... Calculus - Hard residue, commonly known as tarter that forms on teeth due to inadequate plaque control. Calculus teeth often ... Tartar - A common term for dental calculus, a hard deposit that adheres to teeth and produces a rough surface that attracts ... Cleaning - Removal of plaque and calculus (tartar) from teeth, generally above the gum line.. Composite Resin - Material ...

*  Xerostomia - Wikipedia

Salivary gland dysfunction is an umbrella term for the presence of either xerostomia or salivary gland hypofunction. True ... It may show blockage of a duct due to a calculus. Salivary scintiscanning using technetium is rarely used. Other medical ... Salivary gland hypofunction has been defined as any objectively demonstrable reduction in whole and/or individual gland flow ... Physiologic age-related changes in salivary gland tissues may lead to a modest reduction in salivary output and partially ...

*  Sialoendoscopy - Wikipedia

Salivary gland stones are one of the major causes of salivary gland infections (sialadenitis). These types of stones can be ... Endoscopic-controlled laser lithotripsy of salivary calculi. In vitro studies and initial clinical use]. Hno 1990;38:247 Katz P ... Endoscopy of the salivary glands]. Ann Radiol (Paris) 1991;34:110 Nahlieli O, Neder A, Baruchin AM: Salivary gland endoscopy: A ... During sialoendoscopy a small endoscope is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth ...

*  Downloadable Course Description - TechyLib

Disorders of the salivary glands. Retention cysts, salivary calculi, infections,. neoplasms, autoimmune phenemenon, Diseases of ... salivary glands and. oesophagus. Salivary glands: Surgical anatomy and relations of salivary glands and vital. relations, ... Salivary Gland Disorders.. Infections and inflammations. Tumours. Calculi. EYE SURGERY. Trauma. Common. infections. PAEDIATRIC ... nasopharyngeal pathologies, salivary gland surgery. Thyroid gland surgery.. Diseases of the nose and the paranasal sinuses. ...

*  Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis - Wikipedia

Formation of a hard salivary calculus or sialolith by accumulation of calcium salts in the duct of the salivary gland (a ... but is also known to occur in other major and minor salivary glands, including the parotid gland. Overall, salivary gland ... salivary gland malignancies account for 3-5% of all head and neck cancers. However, salivary tumors show a great deal of ... Abnormalities of the salivary gland ducts leading to excessive accumulation or retention of ductal secretions, which can excite ...

*  List of adverse effects of paroxetine - Wikipedia

Salivary gland enlargement Stomach ulcer Stomatitis Tongue oedema Tooth caries Tooth malformation Breast atrophy Female ... lactation Haematuria (blood in the urine) Kidney calculus (kidney stones) Abnormal kidney function Kidney pain Mastitis ... Sweat gland disorder Abdominal pain Fever Chest pain Trauma Back pain Malaise Pain Palpitations Vasodilatation Postural ...

*  Paroex Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Postmarketing reports: Stomatitis, glossitis, ulcer, glossal edema, sialadenitis/inflammation of the salivary glands[Ref] ... parotid gland swelling, burning sensation of the tongue, increased dental calculus formation, aphthous ulcer, gingivitis/ ...

*  Parotidectomy - Wikipedia

Inflammation ailments of the parotid gland, such as parotid abscesses (collections of pus), deep salivary calculi (mineral ... There are two parotid glands in the human body. Each parotid gland is located high in the neck just below the ears. A salivary ... A parotidectomy is the surgical excision (removal) of the parotid gland, the major and largest of the salivary glands. The ... Parotid gland Salivary gland Otolaryngology Neoplasm Langerman, MD, Alexander. "Parotidectomy". WebMD LLC. Retrieved 14 ...

Sialoendoscopy: Sialoendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that allows for salivary gland surgery for the safe and effective treatment of sialadenitis and other conditions of the salivary glands. During sialoendoscopy a small camera is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth.Dredge turning gland: Dredge Turning Gland is a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger component.EnterolithCalculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Renal stone formation in space: Renal stone formation and passage during space flight can potentially pose a severe risk to crew member health and safety and could affect mission outcome. While the renal stones are routinely and successfully treated on Earth, the occurrence of these during space flight can prove to be problematic.Bladder stonePolymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Submandibular gland: The paired submandibular glands are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. They each weigh about 15 grams and contribute some 60–67% of unstimulated saliva secretion; on stimulation their contribution decreases in proportion as the parotid secretion rises to 50%.Gordon Hobday: Sir Gordon Ivan Hobday (1 February 1916 - 27 May 2015) was a British scientist who worked on penicillin with Alexander Fleming and is noted for his role as director of the Boots research team that developed ibuprofen. He later became chairman of Boots.Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

(1/18) Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy.

OBJECTIVE: Uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate in salivary glands reflects intact salivary gland parenchyma. However, no standardized protocol for an accurate quantification of parenchymal function has been established so far. METHODS: In this paper we report on a validated acquisition protocol supplying a normal database for standardized quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy. RESULTS: The major advantage of salivary gland scintigraphy, as compared to other imaging modalities, is that both parenchymal function and excretion fraction of all four major salivary glands (i.e., parotid and submandibular glands) can be simultaneously quantified with a single intravenous injection. CONCLUSION: Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is demonstrated to be a suitable imaging modality for research applications in evaluating the effects of radioprotective drugs on salivary glands. Salivary gland scintigraphy is easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.  (+info)

(2/18) The MR imaging assessment of submandibular gland sialoadenitis secondary to sialolithiasis: correlation with CT and histopathologic findings.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has been proved to be effective in depicting wide variety of pathologic changes of the salivary gland. Therefore, we evaluated clinical usefulness of MR imaging for sialolithiasis. METHODS: Sixteen patients with sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland underwent MR imaging. MR images of the glands were obtained with a conventional (T1-weighted), fast spin-echo (fat-suppressed T2-weighted) and short inversion time-inversion recovery sequences. Contrast enhancement was not used. MR imaging features then were compared with clinical symptoms, histopathologic features of excised glands, and CT imaging features. RESULTS: Submandibular glands with sialolithiasis could be classified into three types on the basis of clinical symptoms and MR imaging features of the glands. Type I glands were positive for clinical symptoms and MR imaging abnormalities, and were characterised histopathologically by active inflammation (9 [56%] of 16). Type II glands were negative for clinical symptoms and positive for MR imaging abnormalities (4 [25%] of 16), and the glands were replaced by fat. Type III glands were negative for clinical symptoms and MR imaging abnormalities (3 [19%] of 16). CT features of these glands correlated well with those of MR imaging. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MR imaging features may reflect chronic and acute obstruction, and a combination of CT and MR imaging may complement each other in examining glands with sialolithiasis.  (+info)

(3/18) Selected problems in fine needle aspiration of head and neck masses.

A wide variety of masses in the head and neck, including those in the major salivary glands, can be approached by fine needle aspiration. In many instances, a correct definitive diagnosis con be rendered after examination of smears or cell block material. However, several significant but uncommon areas can lead to diagnostic difficulties, with the potential for clinically important diagnostic errors. Many of these occur in salivary gland lesions. The most frequent problems involve variations in the expected cytology of pleomorphic adenoma. Then, there are several benign-malignant "look-alike" pairs of lesions. The first of these is related to small-cell epithelial neoplasms of low nuclear grade; the most frequent problem is between basal cell adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinoma, particularly the solid (anaplastic) type. The next area contrasts mucoepidermoid carcinoma with its cytologic mimic, benign salivary gland duct obstruction. The final difficulty in salivary gland aspiration contrasts large-cell epithelial lesions of low nuclear grade: oncocytic proliferations and acinic cell carcinoma. The clinical implications of cytologically benign squamous cell-containing cyst aspirates from the lateral neck will be discussed. Finally, a brief consideration of methodological optimization for thyroid aspirations will be offered.  (+info)

(4/18) Sialolithiasis: an unusually large submandibular salivary stone.

Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. The majority of sialoliths occur in the submandibular gland or its duct and are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland sialolith, the subsequent patient management, the aetiology, diagnosis and various treatment modalities available for management of salivary gland calculi depending on their site and size.  (+info)

(5/18) Comparative study of MR sialography and digital subtraction sialography for benign salivary gland disorders.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR sialography has become an alternative imaging technique for ductal salivary gland diseases. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of MR sialography and digital subtraction sialography in patients with successful completion of both examinations and benign salivary gland disorders. METHODS: In a prospective study, we attempted to examine salivary glands in 80 patients with clinically suspected diagnoses of sialadenitis and/or sialolithiasis. Each patient underwent digital subtraction sialography and MR sialography. MR sialography was obtained with a T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2800/1100 msec, acquisition time 7 seconds), with use of a quadrature head coil. Final diagnoses were confirmed by clinical follow-up and results of biopsy (n = 9) or surgery (n = 19). RESULTS: Failure rate was 5% (four of 80) for MR sialography and 14% (11 of 80) for digital subtraction sialography. Eighty-one salivary glands (48 parotid, 33 submandibular) in 65 patients were successfully visualized with both modalities. MR sialography depicted the main ductal system and first- and second-order branches, whereas digital subtraction sialography was able to depict third-order branches. Sensitivity and specificity to diagnose chronic sialadenitis were 70% and 98% with MR and 96% and 100% with digital subtraction sialography. MR sialography enabled diagnosis of sialolithiasis with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 98% versus 90% and 98% for each with digital subtraction sialography. CONCLUSION: MR sialography with a heavily T2-weighted sequence is highly successful in the noninvasive visualization of the ductal system of major salivary glands. It is useful for diagnosing sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Digital subtraction sialography, an invasive technique, had a substantial procedural failure rate, particularly for the submandibular duct. However, because of its higher spatial resolution, successfully completed digital subtraction sialography achieved superior diagnostic information compared with that of MR sialography.  (+info)

(6/18) Extracellular matrix molecules in chronic obstructive sialadenitis: an immunocytochemical and Western blot investigation.

The exact pathomechanism of inflammation progress and fibrosis in chronic sialadenitis is unknown. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various fibrotic conditions. These factors are thought to be essential in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and the development of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, the expression of CTGF, MMP-2, -3, -9, -13 and TIMP-3 was examined in chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Tissue samples of 13 patients with chronic sialadenitis of the submandibular gland associated with sialolithiasis and 4 normal tissue samples of the submandibular gland were analyzed immunohistochemically and by Western blot analysis. An intense CTGF immunoreactivity was observed in the ductal system of inflamed salivary glands, whereas in normal glands no reactivity or a very low CTGF immunoreactivity was present. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a low to strong reactivity of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 in the ductal system, in acinar cells and in lymphomonocytic infiltrates in normal and inflamed tissues. The expression of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 was confirmed by Western blotting in all cases. Over-expression of CTGF in chronic obstructive sialadenitis suggests that this factor may play a role in glandular fibrosis. However, the physiological role of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 in normal glands, as well as their possible role in inflammation progress and fibrosis in chronic obstructive sialadenitis, remains to be elucidated.  (+info)

(7/18) Current opinions in sialolithiasis diagnosis and treatment.

The introduction, 15 years ago, of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of salivary gland calculi, has changed the therapeutic approach in these patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lithotripsy in sialolithiasis, after 10 years follow-up. A review has been made of the literature to establish current opinions in diagnosis and treatment of sialolithiasis. The role of ultrasonography, radiography and, in particular, of sialomagnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of salivary lithiasis has been evaluated. The greater efficiency of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment for parotid, compared to submandibular calculi, has been demonstrated (57% versus 33%). In 68% of our patients, lithotripsy was resolutive after 10 years. Ultrasonograpy should be considered first choice examination in diagnosis of salivary calculi. Sialo-magnetic resonance imaging is a recent, non-invasive diagnostic procedure with the advantage of no radiation exposure, and with better definition of anatomical and functional state of glandular parenchyma and duct, compared to other available techniques.  (+info)

(8/18) A case report of coexistence of a sialolith and an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the submandibular gland.

The occurrence of sialoliths in the submandibular gland is 80% due to the specific anatomy of both the gland and its duct. The diagnosis is rather easy because of the obvious clinical signs of the entity. Imaging studies are always necessary in order to treat the patient as effectively as possible. The stones do not tend to occur within the gland as frequently as in the respective duct. The coexistence of sialoliths and malignant tumors is extremely rare. A 70-year-old woman with intraparenchymal stone was operated in our ENT department. In addition to the sialolith the pathological examination revealed the existence of an adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), that extended to the neighboring skeletal muscle. This is the reason why we believe it would be useful to report this case of a large stone (14 mm in diameter) located in the submandibular gland coexisting with ACC. This case report is a very good example illustrating that all available means should be used prior to reaching a conclusion and making a health professional decision.  (+info)



largest of the salivary glands

  • The largest of the salivary glands, they secrete saliva to facilitate mastication and swallowing, and amylase to begin the digestion of starches. (wikipedia.org)
  • A parotidectomy is the surgical excision (removal) of the parotid gland, the major and largest of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the largest of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)

ducts

  • Squamous metaplasia is usually the result of chronic irritation, but it can have other causes (e.g., hypovitamnosis A). In the salivary ducts, metaplasia of the normally cuboidal ductal epithelium to stratified squamous epithelium has been seen in response to chemicals, ionizing radiation, viral infections, vitamin A deficiency, and blockage of ducts by salivary calculi. (nih.gov)
  • The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva, which is composed of several components including amylase, a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch into maltose and glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the other two major glands, the ductal system of the sublingual glands does not have intercalated ducts and usually does not have striated ducts either, so saliva exits directly from 8-20 excretory ducts known as the Rivinus ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculi of the gallbladder and bile ducts are called gallstones and are primarily developed from bile salts and cholesterol derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is interpreted by evaluating the morphology of the salivary ducts for obstructions and chronic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During sialoendoscopy a small endoscope is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormalities of the salivary gland ducts leading to excessive accumulation or retention of ductal secretions, which can excite chronic inflammations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland has short, striated ducts and long, intercalated ducts. (wikipedia.org)

known as submaxillary glands

  • The submandibular glands (previously known as submaxillary glands) are a pair of major salivary glands located beneath the lower jaws, superior to the digastric muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. (wikipedia.org)

mucous

  • Further, because the secretory cells are of both serous and mucous types, the submandibular gland is a mixed gland, and though most of the cells are serous, the exudate is chiefly mucous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucous cells are the most active and therefore the major product of the submandibular glands is saliva which is mucoid in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased sympathetic activity reduces glandular bloodflow, thereby decreasing the volume of fluid in salivary secretions, producing an enzyme rich mucous saliva. (wikipedia.org)

minor salivary glands

  • Rarely, when stones form in the minor salivary glands, there is usually only slight local swelling in the form of a small nodule and tenderness. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 800 to 1,000 minor salivary glands located throughout the oral cavity within the submucosa of the oral mucosa in the tissue of the buccal, labial, and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral parts of the hard palate, and the floor of the mouth or between muscle fibers of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problems with dentures are sometimes associated with minor salivary glands if there is dry mouth present (see further discussion). (wikipedia.org)
  • The minor salivary glands are innervated by the seventh cranial or facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inflammatory lesions in Küttner's tumor may occur on one side (unilateral) or both sides (bilateral), predominantly involving the submandibular gland, but is also known to occur in other major and minor salivary glands, including the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)

sublingual glands

  • The sublingual glands are a pair of major salivary glands located inferior to the tongue, anterior to the submandibular glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid gland receives its parasympathetic input from the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) via the otic ganglion, while the submandibular and sublingual glands receive their parasympathetic input from the facial nerve (CN VII) via the submandibular ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid and sublingual glands account for the remaining. (wikipedia.org)

sialadenitis

  • IgG4-related sialadenitis: This term refers to IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) involving any of the major salivary glands, i.e. parotid or submandibular glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation of a salivary gland is termed sialadenitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstructive salivary gland disease, or obstructive sialadenitis, may also occur due to fibromucinous plugs, duct stenosis, foreign bodies, anatomic variations, or malformations of the duct system leading to a mechanical obstruction associated with stasis of saliva in the duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialadenitis is inflammation of the salivary glands, which may cause acinar atrophy and create an appearance known as "pruning of the tree" on a sialogram, where there are less branches visible from the duct system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascending (suppurative) sialadenitis - an infection of the major salivary glands (usually the parotid gland) that may be recurrent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salivary gland stones are one of the major causes of salivary gland infections (sialadenitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis is a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory condition affecting the salivary gland. (wikipedia.org)

inflammation

  • Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly affected by inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sjögren's syndrome: Chronic inflammation of the salivary glands may also be an autoimmune disease known as Sjögren's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation or infection of the gland may develop as a result. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may cause painful swelling and inflammation of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation ailments of the parotid gland, such as parotid abscesses (collections of pus), deep salivary calculi (mineral deposits), and chronic parotitis (long-term inflammation) may necessitate a total parotidectomy. (wikipedia.org)

reduced salivary flow

  • Initially, factors such as abnormalities in calcium metabolism, dehydration, reduced salivary flow rate, altered acidity (pH) of saliva caused by oropharyngeal infections, and altered solubility of crystalloids, leading to precipitation of mineral salts, are involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyposalivation is a clinical diagnosis that is made based on the history and examination, but reduced salivary flow rates have been given objective definitions. (wikipedia.org)

wrapped around the mandibular ramus

  • The salivary glands are detailed below: The two parotid glands are major salivary glands wrapped around the mandibular ramus in humans. (wikipedia.org)

Neoplasms

  • Indications include: In the evaluation of the functional integrity of the salivary glands In case of obstructions To evaluate the ductal pattern In case of facial swellings, to rule out salivary gland pathology In case of intra-glandular neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relatively rare in occurrence, this condition is benign, but presents as hard, indurated and enlarged masses that are clinically indistinguishable from salivary gland neoplasms or tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benign parotid gland neoplasms typically present after the age of 40 and have an equal presentation in both genders. (wikipedia.org)

duct calculus

  • Salivary stones (also called sialolithiasis, or salivary duct calculus) are mainly made of calcium, but do not indicate any kind of calcium disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local conditions at the site in question that promote their formation, e.g., local bacteria action (in kidney stones) or slower fluid flow rates, a possible explanation of the majority of salivary duct calculus occurring in the submandibular salivary gland. (wikipedia.org)

sialoliths

  • Calculi in the salivary glands are called salivary calculi (sialoliths). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialoendoscopy is an efficient yet simple mode of treatment for major salivary gland obstructions, strictures and sialoliths (salivary stones). (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been proposed as the most common cause for Küttner's tumor of the submandibular gland, with sialoliths observed in an appreciable proportion of cases. (wikipedia.org)

exocrine glands

  • Like other exocrine glands, the submandibular gland can be classified by the microscopic anatomy of its secretory cells and how they are arranged. (wikipedia.org)

saliva

  • If a calculus forms in the duct that drains the saliva from a salivary gland into the mouth, then saliva will be trapped in the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 65-70% of saliva in the oral cavity is produced by the submandibular glands, even though they are much smaller than the parotid glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 5% of saliva entering the oral cavity comes from these glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct sympathetic innervation of the salivary glands takes place via preganglionic nerves in the thoracic segments T1-T3 which synapse in the superior cervical ganglion with postganglionic neurons that release norepinephrine, which is then received by β-adrenergic receptors on the acinar and ductal cells of the salivary glands, leading to an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and the corresponding increase of saliva secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dehydration, radiotherapy involving the salivary glands, chemotherapy and several diseases can cause hyposalivation or a change in saliva consistency and hence a complaint of xerostomia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A stimulated saliva flow rate less than 0.5 ml per gland in 5 minutes or less than 1 ml per gland in 10 minutes is decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • A salivary duct by which saliva is secreted (produced and released), runs through the inside of each cheek from each gland. (wikipedia.org)

ductal

  • The cords of the submandibular gland later branch further and then become canalized to form the ductal part. (wikipedia.org)

renal calculi

  • They are usually made from mineral salts, and other types of calculi include tonsiloliths (tonsil stones) and renal calculi (kidney stones). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculi in the urinary system are called urinary calculi and include kidney stones (also called renal calculi or nephroliths) and bladder stones (also called vesical calculi or cystoliths). (wikipedia.org)

serous

  • It is the serous type of gland which secretes the ptyalin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid glands are a pair of mainly serous salivary glands located below and in front of each ear canal, draining their secretions into the vestibule of the mouth through the parotid duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the serous cells produce salivary amylase, which aids in the breakdown of starches in the mouth. (wikipedia.org)

innervation

  • Parasympathetic innervation to the salivary glands is carried via cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid gland receives both sensory and autonomic innervation. (wikipedia.org)
  • General Sensory innervation to the parotid gland, its sheath, and the overlying skin is provided by the great auricular nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular glands is provided by the superior salivatory nucleus via the chorda tympani, a branch of the facial nerve, that becomes part of the trigeminal nerve's lingual nerve prior to synapsing on the submandibular ganglion. (wikipedia.org)

Pathology

  • St. Louis: Mosby, 1970:997 Nahlieli O, Nakar LH, Nazarian Y, Turner MD: Sialoendoscopy: A new approach to salivary gland obstructive pathology. (wikipedia.org)

calcium

  • Sialolithiasis may also develop because of the presence of existing chronic infection of the glands, dehydration (e.g. use of phenothiazines), Sjögren's syndrome and/or increased local levels of calcium, but in many instances the cause is idiopathic (unknown). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several factors have been postulated: Formation of a hard salivary calculus or sialolith by accumulation of calcium salts in the duct of the salivary gland (a process known as Sialolithiasis). (wikipedia.org)

sialolithiasis

  • Sialolithiasis is common, accounting for about 50% of all disease occurring in the major salivary glands and causing symptoms in about 0.45% of the general population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialolithiasis refers to the formation of calculi within a salivary gland. (wikipedia.org)

benign

  • However, salivary tumors show a great deal of morphological diversity, as well as variations in the nature of the lesion (malignant vs. benign): approximately 20% to 25% of parotid tumors, 35% to 40% of submandibular tumors, and more than 90% of sublingual gland tumors are malignant. (wikipedia.org)
  • despite being benign, this condition mimics the clinical appearance of malignancy in the salivary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of parotid gland tumors are benign, however 20% of parotid tumors are found to be malignant. (wikipedia.org)

Diseases

  • Diseases of the Salivary Glands Including Dry Mouth and Sjögren's Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rauch S GR: Diseases of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are really only two main distinctions to be made in parotidectomies: The specific nerve(s) to be dissected or not dissected The amount of gland excised It is important to note that the specific surgery chosen is based on preservation of the facial nerve in order to avoid significant morbidities (diseases). (wikipedia.org)

Subgingival

  • Subgingival calculus forms below the gumline and is typically darkened in color by the presence of black-pigmented bacteria, whose cells are coated in a layer of iron obtained from heme during gingival bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not known if chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse use results in an increase in subgingival calculus. (drugs.com)

parasympathetic and sympathetic

  • Salivary glands are innervated, either directly or indirectly, by the parasympathetic and sympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)

Chronic

  • Salivary gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)

malignancies

  • however, salivary gland malignancies account for 3-5% of all head and neck cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to other cancers, it is believed that smoking and drinking do not influence salivary gland malignancies. (wikipedia.org)

cranial

  • Posteromedial relations: The gland is situated anterolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone with its attached sternocleidomastoid and digastric muscles, styloid process of temporal bone with its three attached muscles (stylohyoid, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus) and carotid sheath with its contained neurovasculature (internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th cranial nerves). (wikipedia.org)

secretory cells

  • Atrophy and loss of acini (groups of secretory cells found in the salivary glands). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the glands are branched, and because the tubules forming the branches contain secretory cells, submandibular glands are classified as branched tubuloacinar glands. (wikipedia.org)

dental calculus

  • Dental calculus typically forms in incremental layers that are easily visible using both electron microscopy and light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)

recurrent

  • Rarely, removal of the submandibular gland may become necessary in cases of recurrent stone formation. (wikipedia.org)

Fistula

  • A salivary gland fistula (plural fistulae) is a fistula (i.e. an abnormal, epithelial-lined tract) involving a salivary gland or duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The usual cause is trauma, however salivary fistula can occur as a complication of surgery, or if the duct becomes obstructed with a calculus. (wikipedia.org)

obstructive

  • Sialoendoscopy (commonly referred to as Sialendoscopy) is a minimally invasive technique that allows for salivary gland surgery for the safe and effective treatment of obstructive salivary gland disorders and other conditions of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)

obstructions

  • A series of radiographs would then be taken to determine the flow of the fluid, identify any obstructions and its location, the rate of fluid excretion from the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994, Nahlieli used a rigid miniendoscope to diagnose and treat major salivary gland obstructions. (wikipedia.org)

acinar

  • The secretory acinar cells of the submandibular gland have distinct functions. (wikipedia.org)

plural

  • A calculus (plural calculi) is a hard, stone-like concretion that forms within an organ or duct inside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body. (wikipedia.org)

obstruction

  • Signs and symptoms are variable and depend largely upon whether the obstruction of the duct is complete or partial, and how much resultant pressure is created within the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swelling of the gland, also usually intermittent, often suddenly appearing or increasing before mealtimes, and then slowly going down (partial obstruction). (wikipedia.org)
  • The second leading cause of salivary obstruction is from strictures and adhesions, which can happen from prior salivary gland infections, including childhood infections like mumps. (wikipedia.org)

mucosa

  • When minor glands are rarely involved, caliculi are more likely in the minor glands of the buccal mucosa and the maxillary labial mucosa. (wikipedia.org)

secretions

  • Conversely a person who reports experiencing xerostomia may not show signs of reduced salivary secretions (subjective xerostomia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Their secretions, like the secretions of other salivary glands, are regulated directly by the parasympathetic nervous system and indirectly by the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, direct stimulation of sympathetic nerves will cause an increase in salivary enzymatic secretions. (wikipedia.org)

stones

  • Lithotripsy can now be used on salivary stones as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound waves break up the stones, and the fragments flush out of the salivary duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less commonly the parotid gland or rarely the sublingual gland or a minor salivary gland may develop salivary stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salivary stones may be divided according to which gland they form in. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 85% of stones occur in the submandibular gland, and between 5-10% occur in the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stones may be radiopaque, i.e. they will show up on conventional radiographs, or radiolucent, where they not be visible on radiographs (although some of their effects on the gland may still be visible). (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment varies by stone type, but, in general: Medication Surgery (lithotomy) Antibiotics and/or surgery for infections Medication Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for removal of calculi The earliest operation for curing stones is given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculus was a term used for various kinds of stones. (wikipedia.org)
  • This spun off many modern words, including "calculate" (use stones for mathematical purposes), and "calculus", which came to be used, in the 18th century, for accidental or incidental mineral buildups in human and animal bodies, like kidney stones and minerals on teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four common techniques used to remove the salivary gland stones are: The grasping technique Using a small wire basket retrieval system Mechanical Fragmentation Laser fragmentation When the diameter is larger than 5 mm, a twofold (endoscopic assisted) approach can be utilized. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991, Katz introduced a 0.8-millimeter flexible endoscope to diagnose and treat salivary gland stones. (wikipedia.org)

mouth

  • A baseline radiograph (scout film) of the required salivary gland would be taken, the duct is dilated using graded lacrimal probes, a cannula then is inserted in this salivary gland duct's opening in the mouth, then a Radio-opaque fluid (Contrast medium) is injected in the duct through a small tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of calculus varies widely among individuals and at different locations within the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth, which is often (but not always) associated with hypofunction of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoscope is introduced into the gland through its natural orifice in the mouth or by a making a small incision in the duct opening. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of the mouth and in front of both ears. (wikipedia.org)

Supragingival

  • Supragingival calculus formation is most abundant on the buccal (cheek) surfaces of the maxillary (upper jaw) molars and on the lingual (tongue) surfaces of the mandibular (lower jaw) incisors. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in supragingival calculus was noted in clinical testing in chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse users compared with control users. (drugs.com)

posterior

  • The glands are located posterior to the mandibular ramus and anterior to the mastoid process of the temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anterior triangle and contents ( thyroid and parathyroid glands, larynx and trachea, pharynx and oesophagus, carotid sheath), posterior triangle and its contents ( spinal accessory nerve, cervical plexus), root of neck and thoracic duct. (techylib.com)
  • The gland has three borders - anterior, medial, and posterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external carotid artery and its terminal branches within the gland, namely, the superficial temporal and the posterior auricular arteries, supply the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland can be bilaterally palpated (felt) inferior and posterior to the body of the mandible, moving inward from the inferior border of the mandible near its angle with the head tilted forwards. (wikipedia.org)

swollen

  • There may be swollen salivary glands even without acute infection, possibly caused by autoimmune involvement. (wikipedia.org)

superficial

  • This gland can usually be felt as it is in the superficial cervical region and feels like a rounded ball. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below indicates the various and main techniques typically associated with a parotidectomy: superficial (near surface) or lateral (side) parotidectomy - excising all the parts of the gland superficial or lateral to the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • partial superficial parotidectomy - superficial parotidectomy where the surgeon excises only the portion of the gland surrounding the neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid duct, a long excretory duct, emerges from the front of each gland, superficial to the masseter muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • From lateral to medial, these are: Facial nerve Retromandibular vein External carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of the great auricular nerve Maxillary artery Superficial or lateral relations: The gland is situated deep to the skin, superficial fascia, superficial lamina of investing layer of deep cervical fascia and great auricular nerve (anterior ramus of C2 and C3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The fascia at the imaginary line between the angle of mandible and mastoid process splits into the superficial lamina and a deep lamina to enclose the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superficial structures such as muscles, tendons, testes, breast, thyroid and parathyroid glands, and the neonatal brain are imaged at a higher frequency (7-18 MHz), which provides better axial and lateral resolution. (wikipedia.org)

sympathetic

  • Postganglionic sympathetic fibers from superior cervical sympathetic ganglion reach the gland as periarterial nerve plexuses around the middle meningeal artery and their function is mainly vasoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)

cheek

  • The gland can be felt on either side, by feeling in front of each ear, along the cheek, and below the angle of the mandible. (wikipedia.org)

tongue

  • Von Ebner's glands are glands found in a trough circling the circumvallate papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue near the terminal sulcus. (wikipedia.org)

major

  • They are 1 to 2 mm in diameter and unlike the major glands, they are not encapsulated by connective tissue, only surrounded by it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is often seen in patients who have had radiotherapy involving the major salivary glands, termed radiation-induced caries. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990: Konigsberger and Gundlach separately performed sialoendoscopy when they introduced an endoscope into the major salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals. (wikipedia.org)

plaque

  • In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell density within dental plaque and calculus is very high, consisting of an estimated 200,000,000 cells per milligram. (wikipedia.org)
  • The processes of calculus formation from dental plaque are not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculus - Hard residue, commonly known as tarter that forms on teeth due to inadequate plaque control. (dentistry.com)

formation

  • There are thought to be a series of stages that lead to the formation of a calculus (lithogenesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculus formation is associated with a number of clinical manifestations, including bad breath, receding gums and chronically inflamed gingiva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth of the submandibular gland continues after birth with the formation of more acini. (wikipedia.org)

acini

  • The gland has usually a number of acini connected in a tiny lobule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The submandibular gland's highly active acini account for most of the salivary volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The submandibular gland acini develop from the cords' rounded terminal ends at 12 weeks, and secretory activity via the submandibular duct begins at 16 weeks. (wikipedia.org)

venous

  • Calculi in the veins are called venous calculi (phleboliths). (wikipedia.org)

occur

  • Calculi in the skin, such as in sweat glands, are not common but occasionally occur. (wikipedia.org)

thyroid

  • Cases where there is acute infection, patients with thyroid function tests When calculi are located in anterior part of the salivary gland duct Contrast agents are classified into two groups: fat-soluble contrast agents and water-soluble contrast agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic structure of tissues and organs of surgical relevance e.g. skin, thyroid gland, appendix, etc. (techylib.com)

lymph nodes

  • Sarcoidosis: The lungs, skin, and lymph nodes are most often affected, but the salivary glands are involved in approximately 10% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland is mainly drained into the preauricular or parotid lymph nodes which ultimately drain to the deep cervical chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lymphatics from submandibular gland first drain into submandibular lymph nodes and subsequently into jugulo - digastric lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)

nerves

  • Furthermore, the extratemporal (outside temporal bone) facial nerve and its subsidiaries run through the parotid gland and innervate (supply nerves to) the face. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgeon tries to remove the gland apart from the facial nerve, yet dissecting all branches of the facial nerves. (wikipedia.org)

proteins

  • The organic extracellular matrix in calculus consists primarily of proteins and lipids (fatty acids, triglycerides, glycolipids, and phospholipids), as well as extracellular DNA. (wikipedia.org)

parotitis

  • HIV parotitis: Generalized lymphadenopathy has long been associated with HIV, but the localized enlargement of the parotid gland is less well known[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)

infection

  • The development of infection in the gland also influences the signs and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mumps is a viral infection, caused by infection in the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The care of this disease was forbidden to the physicians that had taken the Hippocratic Oath[citation needed] because There was a high probability of intraoperative and postoperative surgical complication like infection or bleeding The physicians would not perform surgery as in ancient cultures they were two different professions Bezoar Calculus (dental) Lithotomy Grases F. (wikipedia.org)

humans

  • Enteroliths are a type of calculus found in the intestines of animals (mostly ruminants) and humans, and may be composed of inorganic or organic constituents. (wikipedia.org)

facial

  • Facial nerve excised in addition to parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland receives its blood supply from the facial and lingual arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland is supplied by sublingual and submental arteries and drained by common facial and lingual veins. (wikipedia.org)

mineral

  • Calculus is composed of both inorganic (mineral) and organic (cellular and extracellular matrix) components. (wikipedia.org)