Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Salivary Gland DiseasesSubmandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Salivary Duct Calculi: Presence of small calculi in the terminal salivary ducts (salivary sand), or stones (larger calculi) found in the larger ducts.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.

*  Lower Face & Salivary Glands
Salivary gland calculi can cause obstruction of the glands. The diagnosis of calculi is made more easily and more accurately by ... SALIVARY GLANDS: ANATOMY. The major salivary glands include the parotid, the submandibular, and the sublingual glands. The ... there is also lymphoid tissue and minor salivary glands, so that lymphoma and salivary gland tumors can also arise in this area ... The sublingual gland is the smallest of the major salivary glands and may not be apparent on imaging. Compared with other major ...
*  Dry mouth -
Salivary gland disorder *Salivary gland calculus *Excessive urination (type of Urinary disorders) - causes dehydration; see ... If suspect salivary gland stones, the stones can sometimes be felt in the floor of the mouth *more tests...» See full list of ... Absent salivary glands *Sarcoidosis *Cystic fibrosis *Anxiety (895 causes) *Diarrhea (2312 causes) *more symptoms...» ... Absent salivary glands *Adenoid hypertrophy *Aging *Amitriptyline *Amitriptyline toxicity - dry mouth *Amoxapine toxicity - dry ...
*  Will you have Cachexia with Alcohol - from FDA reports - eHealthMe
Will you have Salivary Gland Calculus with Emphysema?. (now). *Will you have Dandruff with Tofranil-Pm?. (a second ago) ...
*  The extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the therapy of salivary calculi: personal experience. Note 2 - Minerva...
... in the therapy of lithiasis of the salivary glands. Seven patients suffering from calculi of the salivary glands were treated. ... The extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the therapy of salivary calculi: personal experience. Note 2. Tartaro G. P., ...
*  Pituitary Gland, Intermediate; Intermediate Lobe of Pituitary
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of ... Salivary Gland Calculi. 2. + + +. 71. Carcinoid Tumor. 2. + + +. 72. Disease Progression. 2. + + +. ...
*  adrenal glands
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a ... Sweat Gland Neoplasms. 3. + + +. 34. Salivary Gland Calculi. 3. + + +. 35. Ganglioneuroblastoma. 3. + + +. ...
*  Minimally Invasive Salivary Gland Surgery - Dr. Rohn, Dr. Gamble
Salivary gland stones (calculi) is termed sialolithiasis. Symptoms are swollen and painful salivary glands, which are located ... Salivary Gland Tumors. The most common occurrence of salivary gland tumors is seen in the parotid gland. Predominantly, these ... The three main paired salivary glands are the submandibular glands, the parotid glands, and the sublingual glands. When a ... Salivary Gland Surgery - Treatment for Salivary Gland Stones and Tumors. Sialoendoscopy is an efficient and minimally invasive ...
*  Salivary gland stones
... stone in salivary glands,/b,? If so, how is it treated in allopathy? Is it necessary to operate for removal? What is the ... Recurrent symptoms caused by salivary calculi may require surgical excision of the involved salivary gland. ... Q: Can one develop a stone in salivary glands? If so, how is it treated in allopathy? Is it necessary to operate for removal? ... Stones of the salivary glands occur in 1% of the population. They are most commonly found between ages 30 and 50 years, ...
*  Parotitis - Wikipedia
Parotitis: Overview, Accessed 03/04/2009 Salivary Gland Stones (Salivary Calculi) Accessed March 20, 2008. John H. Stone; ... the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans. The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly ... Salivary stones (also called sialolithiasis, or salivary duct calculus) are mainly made of calcium, but do not indicate any ... involving any of the major salivary glands, i.e. parotid or submandibular glands. This is often symmetrical and is usually ...
*  Mouth, Teeth and Oral Health
Sialolithiasis is the abnormal formation of stones or salivary calculus in the salivary glands of a person. It is most commonly ...
*  Calcium deposits in veins - Things You Didn't Know
The less likely one is small calculi coming from the ducts of the submandibular salivary gland. The more likely scenario is ... calculus?: I have never seen or heard of calcium deposits forming in the tongue. Two thoughts come to mind. ... The most common locations are the pineal gland and the choroid plexus. Calcium deposits in the brain matter on both sides and ... pieces of calculus dislodging from the teeth. Have your friend see a dentist to find out which one it is. ...Read more ...
*  Mokoia Radiology information on Contrast Medium Information
Sialography - to demonstrate the salivary glands - eg looking for calculus. *Dacrocystography - to demonstrate the tear ducts ...
*  Indian Journal of Dentistry : Table of Contents
Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. Most of the salivary calculi are small in ... They may occur in any of the salivary gland ducts but are most common in Wharton's duct and in the submandibular gland. This ... Some calculi that reach several centimeters are reported as megaliths or giant calculi in the literature. ... This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland duct sialolith, the subsequent ...
*  Salivary Gland Swelling -
Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Salivary Gland Swelling. ... List of 24 disease causes of Salivary Gland Swelling, patient stories, diagnostic guides. ... calculi) *Salivary gland tumours *Benign adenoma *Malignant salivary gland tumours *more symptoms...» Salivary Gland Swelling: ... Salivary Gland *Salivary Gland symptoms (355 causes) *Salivary Gland disease *Salivary Gland disorder *Salivary Gland pain (25 ...
*  Advances in the treatment of salivary gland disease | Feature | Pulse Today
14 Escudier M, Brown J, McGurk M. Modern management of salivary calculi. Br J Surg 2005;92(1):107-12 ... Salivary gland tumours The aetiology of salivary gland neoplasia remains largely unknown. The strongest evidence for a single ... Malignant salivary gland disease Malignant salivary gland tumours are relatively uncommon and have a peak incidence in the ... 27 Spiro R. Factors affecting survival in salivary gland cancer. In Controversies in the management of salivary gland disease. ...
*  Case Reports - Reviews sub-cluster 75
This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland ... endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These ... Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, ...
*  Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Practice Essentials, Etiology, Pathophysiology
... the diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland neoplasms remain com... ... Neoplasms that arise in the salivary glands are relatively rare, yet they represent a wide variety of both benign and malignant ... submandibular gland enlargement is most commonly secondary to chronic inflammation and calculi. ... The salivary glands are divided into 2 groups: the major salivary glands and the minor salivary glands. The major salivary ...
*  Board of Trustees
His main research foci are salivary gland disease, in which he completed an MD on the minimally invasive management of calculi ...
*  Sialolithiasis - Wikipedia
... and renal calculi (kidney stones). Sialolithiasis refers to the formation of calculi within a salivary gland. If a calculus ... of all disease occurring in major salivary glands, and for about 66% of all obstructive salivary gland diseases. Salivary gland ... Less commonly the parotid gland or rarely the sublingual gland or a minor salivary gland may develop salivary stones. The usual ... In about 0-5% of cases, the sublingual gland or a minor salivary gland is affected. When minor glands are rarely involved, ...
*  Case Reports - Reviews sub-cluster 12
In addition, the presentation of bilateral calculi in children is rare. The formation of stones in the salivary glands has been ... SMEC involvement of salivary gland is exceptional, with only six cases in the literature. We present here the first case of an ... Benign minor salivary gland neoplasms of the parapharyngeal space have been described in the adult literature, but there is ... This report describes the first case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the submandibular salivary glands and emphasizes the role of ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C23) - Wikipedia
... salivary calculi MeSH C23.300.175.700.325 --- salivary duct calculi MeSH C23.300.175.700.500 --- salivary gland calculi MeSH ... bladder calculi MeSH C23.300.175.850.550 --- kidney calculi MeSH C23.300.175.850.750 --- ureteral calculi MeSH C23.300.306.500 ... salivary gland fistula MeSH C23.300.575.687 --- respiratory tract fistula MeSH C23.300.575.687.225 --- bronchial fistula MeSH ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C23.300.070.500 --- muscular atrophy MeSH C23.300.175.350 --- dental calculus MeSH C23.300. ...
*  Salivary Gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous - Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas
... and blockage of ducts by salivary calculi. Squamous metaplasia of the ductular epithelium may be a preneoplastic lesion ... Salivary gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). The ... Salivary gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 3). The ... Salivary gland, Duct - Metaplasia, Squamous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 5). The ...

Sialoendoscopy: Sialoendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that allows for salivary gland surgery for the safe and effective treatment of sialadenitis and other conditions of the salivary glands. During sialoendoscopy a small camera is placed into the salivary glands through the salivary ducts that empty into the mouth.Dredge turning gland: Dredge Turning Gland is a Trailing Suction Hopper Dredger component.EnterolithCalculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Renal stone formation in space: Renal stone formation and passage during space flight can potentially pose a severe risk to crew member health and safety and could affect mission outcome. While the renal stones are routinely and successfully treated on Earth, the occurrence of these during space flight can prove to be problematic.Bladder stonePolymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, often abbreviated PLGA, is a rare, asymptomatic, slow-growing malignant salivary gland tumor. It is most commonly found in the palate.Submandibular gland: The paired submandibular glands are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. They each weigh about 15 grams and contribute some 60–67% of unstimulated saliva secretion; on stimulation their contribution decreases in proportion as the parotid secretion rises to 50%.Gordon Hobday: Sir Gordon Ivan Hobday (1 February 1916 - 27 May 2015) was a British scientist who worked on penicillin with Alexander Fleming and is noted for his role as director of the Boots research team that developed ibuprofen. He later became chairman of Boots.Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

(1/18) Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy.

OBJECTIVE: Uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate in salivary glands reflects intact salivary gland parenchyma. However, no standardized protocol for an accurate quantification of parenchymal function has been established so far. METHODS: In this paper we report on a validated acquisition protocol supplying a normal database for standardized quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy. RESULTS: The major advantage of salivary gland scintigraphy, as compared to other imaging modalities, is that both parenchymal function and excretion fraction of all four major salivary glands (i.e., parotid and submandibular glands) can be simultaneously quantified with a single intravenous injection. CONCLUSION: Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy is demonstrated to be a suitable imaging modality for research applications in evaluating the effects of radioprotective drugs on salivary glands. Salivary gland scintigraphy is easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.  (+info)

(2/18) The MR imaging assessment of submandibular gland sialoadenitis secondary to sialolithiasis: correlation with CT and histopathologic findings.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has been proved to be effective in depicting wide variety of pathologic changes of the salivary gland. Therefore, we evaluated clinical usefulness of MR imaging for sialolithiasis. METHODS: Sixteen patients with sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland underwent MR imaging. MR images of the glands were obtained with a conventional (T1-weighted), fast spin-echo (fat-suppressed T2-weighted) and short inversion time-inversion recovery sequences. Contrast enhancement was not used. MR imaging features then were compared with clinical symptoms, histopathologic features of excised glands, and CT imaging features. RESULTS: Submandibular glands with sialolithiasis could be classified into three types on the basis of clinical symptoms and MR imaging features of the glands. Type I glands were positive for clinical symptoms and MR imaging abnormalities, and were characterised histopathologically by active inflammation (9 [56%] of 16). Type II glands were negative for clinical symptoms and positive for MR imaging abnormalities (4 [25%] of 16), and the glands were replaced by fat. Type III glands were negative for clinical symptoms and MR imaging abnormalities (3 [19%] of 16). CT features of these glands correlated well with those of MR imaging. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that MR imaging features may reflect chronic and acute obstruction, and a combination of CT and MR imaging may complement each other in examining glands with sialolithiasis.  (+info)

(3/18) Selected problems in fine needle aspiration of head and neck masses.

A wide variety of masses in the head and neck, including those in the major salivary glands, can be approached by fine needle aspiration. In many instances, a correct definitive diagnosis con be rendered after examination of smears or cell block material. However, several significant but uncommon areas can lead to diagnostic difficulties, with the potential for clinically important diagnostic errors. Many of these occur in salivary gland lesions. The most frequent problems involve variations in the expected cytology of pleomorphic adenoma. Then, there are several benign-malignant "look-alike" pairs of lesions. The first of these is related to small-cell epithelial neoplasms of low nuclear grade; the most frequent problem is between basal cell adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinoma, particularly the solid (anaplastic) type. The next area contrasts mucoepidermoid carcinoma with its cytologic mimic, benign salivary gland duct obstruction. The final difficulty in salivary gland aspiration contrasts large-cell epithelial lesions of low nuclear grade: oncocytic proliferations and acinic cell carcinoma. The clinical implications of cytologically benign squamous cell-containing cyst aspirates from the lateral neck will be discussed. Finally, a brief consideration of methodological optimization for thyroid aspirations will be offered.  (+info)

(4/18) Sialolithiasis: an unusually large submandibular salivary stone.

Salivary gland calculi account for the most common disease of the salivary glands. The majority of sialoliths occur in the submandibular gland or its duct and are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This case report describes a patient presenting with an unusually large submandibular gland sialolith, the subsequent patient management, the aetiology, diagnosis and various treatment modalities available for management of salivary gland calculi depending on their site and size.  (+info)

(5/18) Comparative study of MR sialography and digital subtraction sialography for benign salivary gland disorders.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR sialography has become an alternative imaging technique for ductal salivary gland diseases. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of MR sialography and digital subtraction sialography in patients with successful completion of both examinations and benign salivary gland disorders. METHODS: In a prospective study, we attempted to examine salivary glands in 80 patients with clinically suspected diagnoses of sialadenitis and/or sialolithiasis. Each patient underwent digital subtraction sialography and MR sialography. MR sialography was obtained with a T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2800/1100 msec, acquisition time 7 seconds), with use of a quadrature head coil. Final diagnoses were confirmed by clinical follow-up and results of biopsy (n = 9) or surgery (n = 19). RESULTS: Failure rate was 5% (four of 80) for MR sialography and 14% (11 of 80) for digital subtraction sialography. Eighty-one salivary glands (48 parotid, 33 submandibular) in 65 patients were successfully visualized with both modalities. MR sialography depicted the main ductal system and first- and second-order branches, whereas digital subtraction sialography was able to depict third-order branches. Sensitivity and specificity to diagnose chronic sialadenitis were 70% and 98% with MR and 96% and 100% with digital subtraction sialography. MR sialography enabled diagnosis of sialolithiasis with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 98% versus 90% and 98% for each with digital subtraction sialography. CONCLUSION: MR sialography with a heavily T2-weighted sequence is highly successful in the noninvasive visualization of the ductal system of major salivary glands. It is useful for diagnosing sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Digital subtraction sialography, an invasive technique, had a substantial procedural failure rate, particularly for the submandibular duct. However, because of its higher spatial resolution, successfully completed digital subtraction sialography achieved superior diagnostic information compared with that of MR sialography.  (+info)

(6/18) Extracellular matrix molecules in chronic obstructive sialadenitis: an immunocytochemical and Western blot investigation.

The exact pathomechanism of inflammation progress and fibrosis in chronic sialadenitis is unknown. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various fibrotic conditions. These factors are thought to be essential in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and the development of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, the expression of CTGF, MMP-2, -3, -9, -13 and TIMP-3 was examined in chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Tissue samples of 13 patients with chronic sialadenitis of the submandibular gland associated with sialolithiasis and 4 normal tissue samples of the submandibular gland were analyzed immunohistochemically and by Western blot analysis. An intense CTGF immunoreactivity was observed in the ductal system of inflamed salivary glands, whereas in normal glands no reactivity or a very low CTGF immunoreactivity was present. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a low to strong reactivity of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 in the ductal system, in acinar cells and in lymphomonocytic infiltrates in normal and inflamed tissues. The expression of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 was confirmed by Western blotting in all cases. Over-expression of CTGF in chronic obstructive sialadenitis suggests that this factor may play a role in glandular fibrosis. However, the physiological role of MMP-2, -3, -9, -13, and TIMP-3 in normal glands, as well as their possible role in inflammation progress and fibrosis in chronic obstructive sialadenitis, remains to be elucidated.  (+info)

(7/18) Current opinions in sialolithiasis diagnosis and treatment.

The introduction, 15 years ago, of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of salivary gland calculi, has changed the therapeutic approach in these patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lithotripsy in sialolithiasis, after 10 years follow-up. A review has been made of the literature to establish current opinions in diagnosis and treatment of sialolithiasis. The role of ultrasonography, radiography and, in particular, of sialomagnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of salivary lithiasis has been evaluated. The greater efficiency of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment for parotid, compared to submandibular calculi, has been demonstrated (57% versus 33%). In 68% of our patients, lithotripsy was resolutive after 10 years. Ultrasonograpy should be considered first choice examination in diagnosis of salivary calculi. Sialo-magnetic resonance imaging is a recent, non-invasive diagnostic procedure with the advantage of no radiation exposure, and with better definition of anatomical and functional state of glandular parenchyma and duct, compared to other available techniques.  (+info)

(8/18) A case report of coexistence of a sialolith and an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the submandibular gland.

The occurrence of sialoliths in the submandibular gland is 80% due to the specific anatomy of both the gland and its duct. The diagnosis is rather easy because of the obvious clinical signs of the entity. Imaging studies are always necessary in order to treat the patient as effectively as possible. The stones do not tend to occur within the gland as frequently as in the respective duct. The coexistence of sialoliths and malignant tumors is extremely rare. A 70-year-old woman with intraparenchymal stone was operated in our ENT department. In addition to the sialolith the pathological examination revealed the existence of an adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), that extended to the neighboring skeletal muscle. This is the reason why we believe it would be useful to report this case of a large stone (14 mm in diameter) located in the submandibular gland coexisting with ACC. This case report is a very good example illustrating that all available means should be used prior to reaching a conclusion and making a health professional decision.  (+info)

  • neoplasms
  • Imaging of the head and neck has developed significantly with the advent of CT and MR. These modalities greatly compliment the physical and endoscopic examinations by revealing possible blind areas, such as subtle extension of neoplasms from the lower face and/or salivary glands to deep spaces, nonpalpable adenopathy, bone marrow invasion, and distant metastasis. (
  • Indications include: In the evaluation of the functional integrity of the salivary glands In case of obstructions To evaluate the ductal pattern In case of facial swellings, to rule out salivary gland pathology In case of intra-glandular neoplasms. (
  • Relatively rare in occurrence, this condition is benign, but presents as hard, indurated and enlarged masses that are clinically indistinguishable from salivary gland neoplasms or tumors. (
  • Benign parotid gland neoplasms typically present after the age of 40 and have an equal presentation in both genders. (
  • sialolith
  • After a sialolith is removed from an affected gland, a sialastic stent is inserted into the duct for two to four weeks for the duration of the healing process of the oral region and until normal function of the gland is restored. (
  • cranial nerves
  • Posteromedial relations: The gland is situated anterolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone with its attached sternocleidomastoid and digastric muscles, styloid process of temporal bone with its three attached muscles (stylohyoid, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus) and carotid sheath with its contained neurovasculature (internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th cranial nerves). (
  • obstruction
  • Signs and symptoms are variable and depend largely upon whether the obstruction of the duct is complete or partial, and how much resultant pressure is created within the gland. (
  • Swelling of the gland, also usually intermittent, often suddenly appearing or increasing before mealtimes, and then slowly going down (partial obstruction). (
  • The second leading cause of salivary obstruction is from strictures and adhesions, which can happen from prior salivary gland infections, including childhood infections like mumps. (
  • Diseases
  • See detailed information below for a list of 24 causes of Salivary Gland Swelling , Symptom Checker , including diseases and drug side effect causes. (
  • This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Salivary Gland Swelling. (
  • Diseases of the Salivary Glands Including Dry Mouth and Sjögren's Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment. (
  • Rauch S GR: Diseases of the salivary glands. (
  • However, there are really only two main distinctions to be made in parotidectomies: The specific nerve(s) to be dissected or not dissected The amount of gland excised It is important to note that the specific surgery chosen is based on preservation of the facial nerve in order to avoid significant morbidities (diseases). (
  • infection
  • Mumps is a viral infection, caused by infection in the parotid gland. (
  • The care of this disease was forbidden to the physicians that had taken the Hippocratic Oath[citation needed] because There was a high probability of intraoperative and postoperative surgical complication like infection or bleeding The physicians would not perform surgery as in ancient cultures they were two different professions Bezoar Calculus (dental) Lithotomy Grases F. (
  • Cases where there is acute infection, patients with thyroid function tests When calculi are located in anterior part of the salivary gland duct Contrast agents are classified into two groups: fat-soluble contrast agents and water-soluble contrast agents. (
  • superficial or lateral
  • Below indicates the various and main techniques typically associated with a parotidectomy: superficial (near surface) or lateral (side) parotidectomy - excising all the parts of the gland superficial or lateral to the facial nerve. (
  • From lateral to medial, these are: Facial nerve Retromandibular vein External carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of the great auricular nerve Maxillary artery Superficial or lateral relations: The gland is situated deep to the skin, superficial fascia, superficial lamina of investing layer of deep cervical fascia and great auricular nerve (anterior ramus of C2 and C3). (
  • Diagnosis
  • The diagnosis is made by typical chest radiograph findings, cultures, or histologic diagnosis after the gland has been removed. (
  • Once the endoscopes are introduced into gland, the internal anatomy is explored either for diagnosis or for treatment of a specific disease entity. (
  • secretions
  • Conversely a person who reports experiencing xerostomia may not show signs of reduced salivary secretions (subjective xerostomia). (
  • Their secretions, like the secretions of other salivary glands, are regulated directly by the parasympathetic nervous system and indirectly by the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Nevertheless, direct stimulation of sympathetic nerves will cause an increase in salivary enzymatic secretions. (
  • Cheek
  • Supragingival calculus formation is most abundant on the buccal (cheek) surfaces of the maxillary (upper jaw) molars and on the lingual (tongue) surfaces of the mandibular (lower jaw) incisors. (
  • The gland can be felt on either side, by feeling in front of each ear, along the cheek, and below the angle of the mandible. (
  • sympathetic
  • Postganglionic sympathetic fibers from superior cervical sympathetic ganglion reach the gland as periarterial nerve plexuses around the middle meningeal artery and their function is mainly vasoconstriction. (
  • mouth
  • There are 800 to 1,000 minor salivary glands located throughout the oral cavity within the submucosa of the oral mucosa in the tissue of the buccal, labial, and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral parts of the hard palate, and the floor of the mouth or between muscle fibers of the tongue. (
  • Problems with dentures are sometimes associated with minor salivary glands if there is dry mouth present (see further discussion). (
  • A baseline radiograph (scout film) of the required salivary gland would be taken, the duct is dilated using graded lacrimal probes, a cannula then is inserted in this salivary gland duct's opening in the mouth, then a Radio-opaque fluid (Contrast medium) is injected in the duct through a small tube. (
  • The formation of calculus varies widely among individuals and at different locations within the mouth. (
  • Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth, which is often (but not always) associated with hypofunction of the salivary glands. (
  • The endoscope is introduced into the gland through its natural orifice in the mouth or by a making a small incision in the duct opening. (
  • In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of the mouth and in front of both ears. (