Proteus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Proteus Syndrome: Hamartoneoplastic malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology characterized by partial GIGANTISM of the hands and/or feet, asymmetry of the limbs, plantar hyperplasia, hemangiomas (HEMANGIOMA), lipomas (LIPOMA), lymphangiomas (LYMPHANGIOMA), epidermal NEVI; MACROCEPHALY; cranial HYPEROSTOSIS, and long-bone overgrowth. Joseph Merrick, the so-called "elephant man", apparently suffered from Proteus syndrome and not NEUROFIBROMATOSIS, a disorder with similar characteristics.Proteus penneri: A genus of gram-negative bacteria isolated from individuals in LONG-TERM CARE facilities and HOSPITALS.
Mirabilis: Mirabilis is a Latin adjective meaning "amazing, wondrous, remarkable", and is used to refer to:Proteus vulgaris: Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole+ and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.Mandy Sellars: Mandy Sellars (born 20 February 1975 in Lancashire, United Kingdom) is a woman with a rare genetic mutation that has resulted in extraordinary growth in both of her legs.Proteus penneri: Proteus penneri is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is an invasive pathogen and a cause of nosocomial infections of the urinary tract or open wounds.
(1/238) Identification of protease and rpoN-associated genes of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis by negative selection in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.
Proteus mirabilis, a motile gram-negative bacterium, is a principal cause of urinary tract infections in patients with functional or anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract or those with urinary catheters in place. Thus far, virulence factors including urease, flagella, haemolysin, various fimbriae, IgA protease and a deaminase have been characterized based on the phenotypic traits conferred by these proteins. In this study, an attempt was made to identify new virulence genes of P. mirabilis that may not have identifiable phenotypes using the recently described technique of signature-tagged mutagenesis. A pool of chromosomal transposon mutants was made through conjugation and kanamycin/tetracycline selection; random insertion was confirmed by Southern blotting of chromosomal DNA isolated from 16 mutants using the aphA gene as a probe. From the total pool, 2.3% (9/397) auxotrophic mutants and 3.5% (14/397) swarming mutants were identified by screening on minimal salts agar and Luria agar plates, respectively. Thirty per cent of the mutants, found to have either no tag or an unamplifiable tag, were removed from the input pool. Then 10(7) c.f.u. from a 96-mutant pool (approximately 10(5) c.f.u. of each mutant) were used as an input pool to transurethrally inoculate seven CBA mice. After 2 d infection, bacteria were recovered from the bladders and kidneys and yielded about 10(5) c.f.u. as an output pool. Dot blot analysis showed that two of the 96 mutants, designated B2 and B5, could not be hybridized by signature tags amplified from the bladder output pool. Interrupted genes from these two mutants were cloned and sequenced. The interrupted gene in B2 predicts a polypeptide of 37.3 kDa that shares amino acid similarity with a putative protease or collagenase precursor. The gene in B5 predicts a polypeptide of 32.6 kDa that is very similar to that encoded by ORF284 of the rpoN operon controlling expression of nitrogen-regulated genes from several bacterial species. The virulence of the two mutants was tested further by co-challenging CBA mice with each mutant and the parental strain. After 1 week of infection, the B2 and B5 mutants were recovered in numbers 100-fold and 1000-fold less than the parental strain, respectively. Using an in vitro assay, it was shown that the B2 mutant had significantly less (P = 0.0001) extracellular protease activity than the wild-type strain. These findings demonstrate that signature-tagged mutagenesis is a viable approach to identify bacterial genes associated with the ability to infect the urinary tract. (+info)
(2/238) Requirement of MrpH for mannose-resistant Proteus-like fimbria-mediated hemagglutination by Proteus mirabilis.
Two new genes, mrpH and mrpJ, were identified downstream of mrpG in the mrp gene cluster encoding mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Since the predicted MrpH has 30% amino acid sequence identity to PapG, the Galalpha(1-4)Gal-binding adhesin of Escherichia coli P fimbriae, we hypothesized that mrpH encodes the functional MR/P hemagglutinin. MR/P fimbriae, expressed in E. coli DH5alpha, conferred on bacteria both the ability to cause mannose-resistant hemagglutination and the ability to aggregate to form pellicles on the broth surface. Both a DeltamrpH mutant expressed in E. coli DH5alpha and an isogenic mrpH::aphA mutant of P. mirabilis were unable to produce normal MR/P fimbriae efficiently, suggesting that MrpH was involved in fimbrial assembly. Amino acid residue substitution of the N-terminal cysteine residues (C66S and C128S) of MrpH abolished the receptor-binding activity (hemagglutinating ability) of MrpH but allowed normal fimbrial assembly, supporting the notion that MrpH was the functional MR/P hemagglutinin. Immunogold electron microscopy of P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed that MrpH was located at the tip of MR/P fimbriae, also consistent with its role in receptor binding. The isogenic mrpH::aphA mutant of HI4320 was less able to colonize the urine, bladder, and kidneys in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (P < 0.01), and therefore MR/P fimbriae contribute significantly to bacterial colonization in mice. While there are similarities between P. mirabilis MR/P and E. coli P fimbriae, there are more notable differences: (i) synthesis of the MrpH adhesin is required to initiate fimbrial assembly, (ii) MR/P fimbriae confer an aggregation phenotype, (iii) site-directed mutation of specific residues can abolish receptor binding but allows fimbrial assembly, and (iv) mutation of the adhesin gene abolishes virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. (+info)
(3/238) Growth, cellular differentiation and virulence factor expression by Proteus mirabilis in vitro and in vivo.
A uropathogenic strain of Proteus mirabilis was grown in vitro in human and mouse urine and brain-heart infusion broth (BHIB) and in vivo in subcutaneous open chambers (SOC) in mice, intraperitoneal diffusion chambers (IPC) in rats and by ascending urinary tract infection in mice in order to compare growth pattern, cellular differentiation and expression of virulence factors. Although the growth rate was slower in vivo than in vitro, the extent of growth was similar after 24 h. PR mirabilis differentiated into filamentous swarmer cells in all in-vitro culture conditions, but no filamentous cells were observed in either of the in-vivo chamber models. Transurethrally infected mice showed a rapid release or loss of filamentous cells and these could not be seen in kidney or bladder homogenates 7 days after infection. Bacteria showed increasing haemagglutination titres for fresh and tanned red blood cells after subculturing in BHIB, but bacteria grown in vivo did not show haemagglutination. An increasing resistance to normal serum was found when bacteria were grown in vivo. Significant haemolytic activity was detected with bacteria grown in BHIB and IPC, but almost no activity was found when bacteria had grown in urine. These findings improve the understanding of the role of P. mirabilis uropathogenic virulence factors in vivo. (+info)
(4/238) Investigation of the types and characteristics of the proteolytic enzymes formed by diverse strains of Proteus species.
Many diverse clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis (48 strains), P. penneri (25), P. vulgaris biogroup 2 (48) and P. vulgaris biogroup 3 (21) from man were examined for their ability to produce proteolytic enzymes and the nature and characteristics of the proteases were studied. All the P. penneri isolates, most (94-90%) of the P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris biogroup 2 isolates, but only 71% of the P. vulgaris biogroup 3 isolates, secreted proteolytic enzymes. These were detected most readily at pH 8 with gelatin as substrate. A strong correlation was found between the ability of a strain to form swarming growth and its ability to secrete proteases. Non-swarming isolates invariably appeared to be non-proteolytic. However, some isolates, particularly of P. vulgaris biogroup 3, were non-proteolytic even when they formed swarming growth. Analysis of the secreted enzymes of the different Proteus spp. on polyacrylamide-gelatin gels under various constraints of pH and other factors showed that they were all EDTA-sensitive metalloproteinases. Analysis of the kinetics of production of the proteases revealed the formation of an additional protease of undefined type and function that was cell-associated and formed before the others were secreted. The secreted protease was subsequently modified to two isoforms whose mass (53-46 kDa) varied with the Proteus spp. and the strain. There was no evidence that the secreted proteases of strains of Proteus spp. were of types other than metalloproteinases. (+info)
(5/238) Structures of the O-specific polysaccharides and a serological cross-reactivity of the lipopolysaccharides of Proteus mirabilis O24 and O29.
Strains of Proteus mirabilis belonging to serogroups O24 and O29 are frequent in clinical specimens. Anti-P. mirabilis O24 serum cross-reacted with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. mirabilis O29 and vice versa. The structures of the O-specific polysaccharides (OPSs, O-antigens) of both LPSs were established using sugar analysis and one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and found to be different. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting suggested that the serological cross-reactivity of the LPSs is due to a common epitope(s) on the core-lipid A moiety, rather than on the OPS. Therefore, the epitope specificity and the structures of the O-antigens studied are unique among Proteus serogroups. (+info)
(6/238) Serum immunoglobulin response and protection from homologous challenge by Proteus mirabilis in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.
We tested the hypothesis that experimental Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection in mice would protect against homologous bladder rechallenge. Despite production of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM (median titers of 1:320 and 1:80, respectively), vaccinated (infected and antibiotic-cured) mice did not show a decrease in mortality upon rechallenge; the survivors experienced only modest protection from infection (mean log(10) number of CFU of P. mirabilis Nal(r) HI4320 per milliliter or gram in vaccinated mice versus sham-vaccinated mice: urine, 100-fold less [3.5 versus 5.5; P = 0.13]; bladder, 100-fold less [3.1 versus 5.1; P = 0.066]; kidneys, 40-fold less [2.7 versus 4.3; P = 0.016]). Western blots using protein from the wild-type strain and isogenic mutants demonstrated antibody responses to MR/P and PMF fimbriae and flagella. There was no correlation between serum IgG or IgM levels and protection from mortality or infection. There was a trend toward elevated serum IgA titers and protection from subsequent challenge (P >/= 0.09), although only a few mice developed significant serum IgA levels. We conclude that prior infection with P. mirabilis does not protect significantly against homologous challenge. (+info)
(7/238) Problems related to determination of MICs of oximino-type expanded-spectrum cephems for Proteus vulgaris.
During in vitro susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of Proteus vulgaris, we noted that the MICs of several expanded-spectrum cephems were much higher in the broth microdilution method than in the agar dilution method (termed the MIC gap phenomenon). Here we investigated the mechanism of the MIC gap phenomenon. Cephems with the MIC gap phenomenon were of the oximino type, such as cefotaxime, cefteram, and cefpodoxime, which serve as good substrates for inducible class A beta-lactamase (CumA) enzymes produced by P. vulgaris; this finding suggests a relationship between the MIC gap phenomenon and CumA. Since peptidoglycan recycling shares a system common to that inducing CumA, we analyzed the mechanism of the MIC gap phenomenon using P. vulgaris B317 and isogenic mutants with mutations in the peptidoglycan recycling and beta-lactamase induction systems. The MIC gap phenomenon was observed in the parent strain B317 but not in B317G (cumG-defective mutant; defective peptidoglycan recycling) and B317R (cumR-defective mutant; defective CumA transcriptional regulator). No beta-lactamase activity was detected in B317G and B317R. beta-Lactamase activity and the MIC gap phenomenon were restored in B317G/pMD301 (strain transcomplemented by a cloned cumG gene) and B317R/pMD501 (strain transcomplemented by a cloned cumR gene). MICs determined by the agar dilution method increased when lower agar concentrations were used. Our results indicated that the mechanism of the MIC gap phenomenon is related to peptidoglycan recycling and CumA induction systems. However, it remains unclear how beta-lactamase induction of P. vulgaris is suppressed on agar plates. (+info)
(8/238) Evaluation of the discriminatory powers of the Dienes test and ribotyping as typing methods for Proteus mirabilis.
A total of 63 clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis collected over a 19-month period were typed by the Dienes test and ribotyping. Ribotyping was performed using the fully automated RiboPrinter Microbial Characterization System (Qualicon, Wilmington, Del.). Isolates that were indistinguishable by the Dienes test and/or ribotyping were characterized further by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Most of the isolates represented unique strains as judged by the Dienes test and ribotyping. Forty isolates represented 40 different ribotypes and Dienes types. The remaining 23 isolates were grouped into 13 Dienes types, 12 ribotypes, and 14 PFGE types. The index of discrimination was 0.980 for the Dienes test, 0.979 for ribotyping, and 0.992 for PFGE. Both the Dienes test and ribotyping are useful methods for identifying individual strains of P. mirabilis. The Dienes test is simple, inexpensive, and easy to perform. It can be performed in virtually any laboratory and should be used in the initial epidemiologic characterization of P. mirabilis isolates. (+info)