Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes: Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy: A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334)Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Ocular: Ocular manifestations secondary to various NEOPLASMS in which antibodies to antigens of the primary tumor cross-react with ocular antigens. This autoimmune response often leads to visual loss and other ocular dysfunctions.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.

*  Treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome - Full Text View -

Syndrome. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Gastrinoma. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes. ... Paraneoplastic Syndromes. Neoplasms. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms. Digestive System Neoplasms. Digestive System Diseases. ... In patients with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome the level of gastric acid is elevated. This increased level of gastric acid is what ... It will also be possible to evaluate the effectiveness of histamine H2-receptor in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome ...

*  Nexium Capsules Clinical Experience Investigation - Full Text View -

Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes. Paraneoplastic Syndromes. Neoplasms. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms. Digestive System Neoplasms ... Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome. Gastrinoma. Pathologic Processes. Esophageal Diseases. Gastrointestinal Diseases. Digestive System ... Number of Adverse Drug Reactions [ Time Frame: Patients with gastric ulcer, anastomotic ulcer or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: 8 ... Gastric Ulcer, Duodenal Ulcer, Anastomotic Ulcer, Reflux Oesophagitis,'Non-erosive Reflux Disease, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome ...

*  Paraneoplastic Syndromes - Hematology and Oncology - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes. The endocrine system is often affected by paraneoplastic syndromes. ... Neurologic paraneoplastic syndromes. Several types of peripheral neuropathy are among the neurologic paraneoplastic syndromes. ... Up to 20% of cancer patients experience paraneoplastic syndromes, but often these syndromes are unrecognized. ... Paraneoplastic Syndromes By Bruce A. Chabner, MD, Director of Clinical Research;Professor of Medicine, Massachusetts General ...

*  adrenal glands

Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes. 2. + + +. 51. Carcinoma. 2. + + +. 52. Carcinoma, Renal Cell. 2. + + +. ...

*  Dual paraneoplastic syndromes in a patient with small cell lung cancer: a case report | Journal of Medical Case Reports | Full...

Sequential paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes in small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005, 23: 1312-1314. 10.1200/JCO.2005.01 ... Although paraneoplastic syndromes occur commonly, dual paraneoplastic syndromes occurring simultaneously in the same patient ... SCLC is the most common cancer histology associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. Paraneoplastic syndromes are divided into ... Although rare, there have been reports in the literature of patients with two or more paraneoplastic syndromes involving SCLC [ ...

*  Paraneoplastic syndrome - Wikipedia

Subscription required (help)). Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... may relate to paraneoplastic syndromes. Diagnostic testing in a possible paraneoplastic syndrome depends on the symptoms and ... "Background of Paraneoplastic Syndromes". "Etiology of Paraneoplastic syndromes". Dalmau, Josep; Rosenfield, Myrna R (December 6 ... In the case of paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome arising from a small cel carcinoma of the endometrium, paraneoplastic syndrome ...

*  Resection of giant invasive pituitary tumors through a transfacial approach: technical case report. - Nuffield Department of...

Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes, Pituitary Neoplasms, Postoperative Complications ...

*  Lung cancer - Wikipedia

... which give this tumor an endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome association. Most cases arise in the larger airways (primary and ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Honnorat, J; Antoine JC (May 2007). "Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes". ... Depending on the type of tumor, paraneoplastic phenomena-symptoms not due to the local presence of cancer-may initially attract ... In lung cancer, these phenomena may include hypercalcemia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, abnormally ...

*  List of MeSH codes (C04) - Wikipedia

... paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes MeSH C04.588.322.525 --- parathyroid neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.609 --- pituitary neoplasms ... multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b MeSH C04.700.635.220 --- denys-drash syndrome MeSH C04.700.635.950 --- wagr syndrome MeSH ... paraneoplastic syndromes, nervous system MeSH C04.588.614.550.225 --- lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome MeSH C04.588.614.550. ... gardner syndrome MeSH C04.700.630.500 --- multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 MeSH C04.700.630.505 --- multiple endocrine ...

*  Low-Grade Esthesioneuroblastoma Presenting as SIADH: A Review of Atypical Manifestations

... and insulin represent the most common endocrine substances produced in paraneoplastic syndromes. We found 14 reports of ENB ... Very rarely, ENBs present with symptoms that are associated with paraneoplastic syndromes, such as our patient. These syndromes ... L. C. Pelosof and D. E. Gerber, "Paraneoplastic syndromes: an approach to diagnosis and treatment," Mayo Clinic Proceedings, ... J. Yu, C. A. Koch, A. Patsalides et al., "Ectopic cushing's syndrome caused by an esthesioneuroblastoma," Endocrine Practice, ...

*  Paraneoplastic Syndromes - Robert B. Darnell; Jerome B. Posner - Oxford University Press

Paraneoplastic syndromes, defined in this book as disorders caused by cancer, but not a direct result of cancer invasion of the ... SYSTEMIC SYNDROMES (WITH NEUROLOGIC IMPLICATIONS). INTRODUCTION. ENDOCRINE SYNDROMES. Cushing Syndrome Hypercalcemia SIADH ... Neurologic Paraneoplastic Syndromes Nonneurologic Paraneoplastic Syndromes. MELANOMA. URINARY TRACT CANCERS. Renal Cancers ... RHEUMATOLOGIC SYNDROMES. Arthropathy Fasciitis. AUTOIMMUNE SYNDROMES. Lupus Scleroderma Raynaud's Syndrome Digital Ischemia ...

*  Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system Disease Reference Guide -

Paraneoplastic syndromes - Reference guide covers symptoms, treatment of rare neurological disorders associated with cancer. ... Paraneoplastic syndromes can also affect other organ systems including hormone (endocrine), skin (dermatologic), blood ( ... Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system. Overview. Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system are a group of ... Types of paraneoplastic syndromes. Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system include:. *Cerebellar ...

*  Peripherin-IgG Association with Neurologic and Endocrine Autoimmunity

SOX1 antibodies are markers of paraneoplastic Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Neurology. 2008;70:924-8. [PubMed] ... Peripherin-IgG Association with Neurologic and Endocrine Autoimmunity. Jayne L. Chamberlain, Ph.D,a,1 Sean J. Pittock, M.D,b,c ... A role for autoantibodies in some cases of acquired non-paraneoplastic gut dysmotility. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:166-70. ... Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in a patient with stiff-man syndrome, epilepsy, and type I diabetes mellitus. N ...

*  Small cell lung cancer - Cancer Therapy Advisor

... paraneoplastic syndromes). Patients with SCLC may present with signs and symptoms of endocrine or neurologic paraneoplastic ... Lambert-Eaton Syndrome. Approximately 5% of SCLC patients will develop neurologic paraneoplastic syndromes mediated by ... What if a patient presents with a paraneoplastic syndrome?. Symptoms related to the PNS may remit once treatment has been ... Cushing's syndrome. Cushing's syndrome is classically associated with a constellation of symptoms secondary to glucocorticoid ...

*  Lung cancer | definition of lung cancer by Medical dictionary

... referred to as paraneoplastic syndromes. In lung cancer, the most common endocrine syndromes are SIADH, Cushing's syndrome, and ... Both types have the capacity to synthesize bioactive products and produce paraneoplastic syndromes such as syndrome of ... The superior vena cava may become occluded with enlarged lymph nodes and cause superior vena cava syndrome; note edema of the ... Systemic effects of the lung tumor that are unrelated to metastasis may affect the endocrine, hematologic, neuromuscular, and ...

*  Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

... certain cancers causing paraneoplastic syndromes such as small cell carcinoma of the lung; muscle disorders (myopathies), ... endocrine disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or hypoparathyroidism; neurological disorders including ... Ogilvie syndrome is usually associated with an underlying disorder or due to trauma or surgery. (For more information on this ... Ogilvie syndrome, also known as acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, is a rare disorder characterized by abnormalities affecting ...

*  Image Materials - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine

... neurological syndromes -- Spinal tumours and paraneoplastic disorders -- Developmental and familial disorders -- Pain syndromes ... "Atlas of Endocrine Pathology provides a comprehensive compendium of photomicrographs of common and uncommon entities in ... Shoulder pain syndromes -- section 5. Elbow pain syndromes -- section 6. Wrist pain syndromes -- section 7. Hand pain syndromes ... Section 1. Headache pain syndromes -- section 2. Facial pain syndromes -- section 3. Neck and brachial plexus pain syndromes ...

*  Easy Introduction to Basic Cancer Carcinoma Neoplasm and Oncology

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: It includes the endocrine effect of a neoplasm. It may be benign or neoplasm but it does not ... Previous Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Newborn and Surfactant Therapy. Next Pre Pregnancy Care Medical Tips & Tests Before ...

*  The AnarchAngel : Fallout Boy - Day One

... from paraneoplastic syndrome caused by the thyroid cancer, from microlesions all over my endocrine system making it nuts (which ... your humble narrator has been suffering from unusual health problems with endocrine symptoms since sometime in 2004 (or ...

*  Haven: Neuroblastoma Cancer and ROHHAD Syndrome: Endocrine Results

paraneoplastic syndrome (2) * peach tree (1) * Peanut Butter Recall (1) * Pediatric Pulmonary (8) ...

*  Paraneoplastic | definition of paraneoplastic by Medical dictionary

... paraneoplastic explanation free. What is paraneoplastic? Meaning of paraneoplastic medical term. What does paraneoplastic mean? ... Looking for online definition of paraneoplastic in the Medical Dictionary? ... paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. *paraneoplastic encephalomyelopathy. *Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes. *paraneoplastic ... paraneoplastic. auxiliary to neoplasia.. paraneoplastic syndrome. a collective term for disorders arising from metabolic ...

*  Paraneoplastic hyperhistaminemia | definition of paraneoplastic hyperhistaminemia by Medical dictionary

What is paraneoplastic hyperhistaminemia? Meaning of paraneoplastic hyperhistaminemia medical term. What does paraneoplastic ... Looking for online definition of paraneoplastic hyperhistaminemia in the Medical Dictionary? paraneoplastic hyperhistaminemia ... paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. *paraneoplastic encephalomyelopathy. *Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes. *paraneoplastic ... See also zollinger-ellison syndrome.. paraneoplastic hyperhistaminemia. associated with mast cell tumors which may release ...

*  Psychosis - Wikipedia

... paraneoplastic syndromes) infectious and postinfectious syndromes, including infections causing delirium, viral encephalitis, ... HIV/AIDS, malaria,syphilis endocrine disease, such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, hypoparathyroidism ... Wedekind S. (June 2005). "Depressive syndrome, psychoses, dementia: frequent manifestations in Parkinson disease". MMW Fortschr ... including velocardiofacial syndrome neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and ...

*  Most recent papers with the keyword Insulin endometrium | Read by QxMD

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and endocrine pathology that affect women of reproductive age. PCOS ... is a rare paraneoplastic skin syndrome most commonly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and other intra-abdominal ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects not only ovarian functions but is also able to affect endometrium metabolism. Around ... INTRODUCTION: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have a three-fold higher risk of endometrial cancer. Insulin resistance and ...

*  Psychosis - Wikipedia

endocrine disease, such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal failure, Cushing's syndrome, hypoparathyroidism and ... malignancy (typically via masses in the brain, paraneoplastic syndromes, or drugs used to treat cancer) ... infectious and postinfectious syndromes, including infections causing delirium, viral encephalitis, HIV/AIDS,[34] malaria,[35] ... Persons with Ekbom syndrome may have delusional beliefs of an imaginary parasite infestation,[14] whereas depressed persons ...

(1/57) Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.

Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We conclude that adenomectomy is not an adequate therapy for patients with adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.  (+info)

(2/57) The differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from the hypercalcemia of malignancy.

The presence of hypercalcemia in patients with known cancers may be due to the cancers themselves, or to co-existing primary hyperparathyroidism. The differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from the hypercalcemia of malignancy is important since the relief of distressing symptoms and prevention of hypercalcemic crises and renal failure can be accomplished relatively easily by parathyroid surgery in the former condition, and only with difficulty, at times, with fluids and drugs in the latter condition. The histories of three recent patients are presented, which demonstrate the difficulties inherent in the differentiation of these conditions. These patients were ultimately found at operation to have primary hyperparathyroidism in addition to malignancies of the cervix, adrenal gland and kidney. In our experience the following have been helpful in establishing a diagnosis; history of hypercalcemia prior to development of cancer, the type of cancer itself, the effect of cancer therapy on the hypercalcemia, and selective venous sampling with radioimmunoassay for parathyroid hormone.  (+info)

(3/57) Guanosine nucleotides inhibit different syndromes of PTHrP excess caused by human cancers in vivo.

There are two well-described syndromes caused by tumor production of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), namely osteolytic bone disease associated with breast cancer and humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) that occurs with or without bone metastasis. Both syndromes have been shown experimentally to be inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to PTHrP. In a search for small-molecule inhibitors of PTHrP production or effects, we have identified guanine-nucleotide analogs as compounds that inhibit PTHrP expression by human tumor cells associated with these syndromes. We show in nude athymic murine models that these compounds reduce PTHrP-mediated osteolytic lesions associated with metastatic human breast-cancer cells as well as the degree of hypercalcemia caused by excessive PTHrP production by a squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung. These results suggest that the PTHrP gene promoter may be a suitable target for treating the skeletal effects of malignancy.  (+info)

(4/57) Ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma of the vomerosphenoidal junction.

OBJECTIVE: We describe an unusual case of ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma arising from the vomerosphenoidal junction. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 52-Year-old man with a long-standing history of hyperthyroidism was referred to the University Hospital in September 2001 because of increasingly disabling symptoms of nasal obstruction. For the past 18 Years the patient had complained of palpitations, hypertension, weight loss, and nervousness. A presumptive diagnosis of Graves' disease was made. Treatment with methimazole was begun, but the patient was lost to follow-up. On admission, physical examination revealed signs of hyperthyroidism and a large diffuse goiter. Tests of thyroid function showed inappropriate secretion of TSH with hyperthyroidism. Both a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and resistance to thyroid hormone could be taken into account. There was no evidence of pituitary tumour by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but a large space-occupying lesion involving the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx was incidentally discovered. INTERVENTATION AND TECHNIQUE: Using an endoscopic endonasal approach, the tumour was removed en bloc together with the sphenoid floor, sphenoid rostrum, bony septum, and part of the soft palate mucosa. Histological features and immunophenotype were those of a TSH-secreting tumour. CONCLUSION: Although exceedingly rare, ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary tumour should be borne in mind in cases of inappropriate secretion of TSH with hyperthyroidism and no evidence of pituitary tumour by computed tomography and/or MRI when a mass located along the migration path of the Rathke's pouch is demonstrated by radiological examination. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case in the literature.  (+info)

(5/57) Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

We report a case of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) caused by ectopic Cushing's syndrome and give a review of the literature. The most common cause of SEL is prolonged therapy with glucocorticoids, only a very few cases are related to endogenous Cushing's syndrome. The pathophysiological mechanism is not clear but there is a possible role for the autonomic nervous system in the stimulation of growth of epidural fat. Severe neurological symptoms which indicate myelopathy and radiculopathy can occur, but there is often a delay in diagnosis because the non-specific initial symptoms are not recognized. The epidural fat is mostly located in the thoracic and lumbar region. Magnetic resonance imaging can establish the diagnosis rapidly. In patients with severe neurological symptoms, surgical decompression of the myelum and removal of the epidural fat is the treatment of choice. Most patients have partial or complete recovery of neurological deficits after surgical treatment or after discontinuing glucocorticoid therapy; mild cases can also be treated conservatively. Routine imaging for the detection of epidural-located lipomatosis in patients at risk is probably useful.  (+info)

(6/57) [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography imaging of thymic carcinoid tumor presenting with recurrent Cushing's syndrome.

We report a case of a young woman with Cushing's syndrome (CS), in whom although endocrine investigations and negative pituitary imaging were suggestive of ectopic ACTH secretion, the results of inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) sampling after coricotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation were suggestive of pituitary ACTH hypersecretion. (111)In-labelled octreotide and high-resolution computer tomography (CT) revealed a lesion possibly responsible for the ACTH source in the thymus. Thymectomy confirmed concomitant ectopic CRH and probable ACTH production by a thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma. After an 8-year remission period the patient developed a clinical and biochemical relapse. A high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax showed a 2-cm nodule in the thymic bed, which was positive on a [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan. However, a repeated thymectomy did not result in remission. A repeat [(18)F]FDG PET study showed persistent disease in the thymic bed and also uptake in the adrenals. The patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, which resulted in clinical remission. A further [(18)F]FDG PET scan 8 months later showed no progression of the thymic tumor and confirmed complete excision of the adrenals. This is a rare case of concomitant CRH and ACTH secretion from a thymic carcinoid tumor; the case illustrates the usefulness of functional imaging with [(18)F]FDG PET in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumors.  (+info)

(7/57) Mixed endocrine pancreatic tumors producing several peptide hormones.

Twenty-four endocrine pancreatic tumors were examined immunohistochemically for insulin, glucagon, gastrin and ACTH. In seven of these tumors, more than one peptide-hormone-containing cell type was observed. These seven tumors were also examined with conventional staining methods for the presence of A1, A2, and B cells. The results showed that these staining methods do not always distinguish between the different hormone-producing cell types of endocrine pancreatic tumors. In spite of the fact that several types of hormone-secreting cells were found in the tumors, the case histories described symptoms characteristic of hypersecretion of only one of the hormones. The hormone of the predominating cell type could not always explain the clinical symptoms. Our results indicate the endocrine pancreatic tumors often are multihormonal. Therefore, it would seem advisable to screen serum from all insuloma patients for a variety of peptide hormones.  (+info)

(8/57) ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of gallbladder.

The case of a 44-year-old woman is reported. The diagnosis after the appropriate tests and laparotomy was ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of the gallbladder. This is a rare tumour and this case is believed to be the first reported of an ectopic hormone producing tumour from this side.  (+info)


  • Paraneoplastic syndromes, defined in this book as "disorders caused by cancer, but not a direct result of cancer invasion of the affected organ or tissue", once believed to be rare and esoteric neurologic disorders have assumed increasing importance as an explanation of neurologic and other symptoms in patients suffered from occult or controllable cancers. (
  • The section discusses the clinical findings and treatment of individual paraneoplastic syndromes with chapters dedicated to each of the neurologic syndromes and a chapter discussing nonneurologic syndromes such as endocrine, cutaneous, and rheumatologic paraneoplastic disorders. (
  • Blau syndrome Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome Familial cold urticaria (familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome) Familial Mediterranean fever Hyper-IgD syndrome Majeed syndrome Muckle-Wells syndrome TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (familial Hibernian fever, TRAPS, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome) Chronic blistering cutaneous conditions have a prolonged course and present with vesicles and bullae. (

treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes

  • The book is divided into 4 sections: The first is an overview, classifying the disorders, describing a clinical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes in general and identifying their pathogenesis. (
  • Hormonal therapy may also be used in the treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes or to ameliorate certain cancer- and chemotherapy-associated symptoms, such as anorexia. (


  • He also discovered that certain cancers, especially of the lungs, can secrete ACTH, producing a paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome. (
  • It can also be used for the treatment of hyperadrenocortical syndromes, such as Cushing's syndrome and hyperaldosteronism in adrenocortical carcinoma. (
  • Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol. (
  • Cushing's syndrome is caused by either excessive cortisol-like medication such as prednisone or a tumor that either produces or results in the production of excessive cortisol by the adrenal glands. (
  • It is the second most common cause of Cushing's syndrome after medication. (
  • Cushing's syndrome was first described by Harvey Cushing in 1932. (
  • Cushing's syndrome may also occur in other animals including cats, dogs, and horses. (
  • Other striking and distressing skin changes that may appear in Cushing's syndrome include facial acne, susceptibility to superficial fungus (dermatophyte and malassezia) infections, and the characteristic purplish, atrophic striae on the abdomen. (
  • Untreated Cushing's syndrome can lead to heart disease and increased mortality. (
  • Osteoporosis is also an issue in Cushing's syndrome since osteoblast activity is inhibited. (


  • Cushing syndrome (cortisol excess, leading to hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, hypertension, central obesity, moon facies) may result from ectopic production of ACTH or ACTH-like molecules, most often with small cell cancer of the lung. (
  • Hematological dysfunction of paraneoplastic syndromes can be seen from an increase of erythropoietin (EPO), which may occur in response to hypoxia or ectopic EPO production/altered catabolism. (
  • In lung cancer, these phenomena may include hypercalcemia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, abnormally concentrated urine and diluted blood), ectopic ACTH production, or Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to autoantibodies). (
  • These can include origin in an ectopic location, unusual presenting symptoms, and associated paraneoplastic syndromes. (


  • Rheumatologic (hypertrophic osteoarthropathy), renal (secondary kidney amyloidosis and sedimentation of immunocomplexes in nephrons), and gastrointestinal (production of molecules that affect the motility and secretory activity of the digestive tract) dysfunctions, for example, may relate to paraneoplastic syndromes. (
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes can also affect other organ systems including hormone (endocrine), skin (dermatologic), blood (hematologic) and joints (rheumatologic). (


  • Paraneoplastic syndromes is the term used to refer to the disorders that accompany benign or malignant tumors but are not directly related to mass effects or invasion. (
  • The signs, symptoms, and metabolic alterations associated with paraneoplastic disorders may be overlooked in the context of a malignancy and its treatment. (
  • A specifically devastating form of (neurological) paraneoplastic syndromes is a group of disorders classified as paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs). (
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system are a group of uncommon disorders that develop in some people who have cancer. (
  • Neural-restricted autoantibodies serve as valuable serum biomarkers aiding the diagnosis of acquired neurological disorders amenable to immunotherapy, both idiopathic and paraneoplastic. (
  • Some of these are associated with inherited disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. (
  • Secondary chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction can occur as a consequence of a number of other conditions, including Kawasaki disease, Parkinson's disease, Chagas' disease, Hirschsprung's disease, intestinal hypoganglionosis, collagen vascular diseases, mitochondrial disease, endocrine disorders and use of certain medications. (


  • Paraneoplastic syndromes are symptoms that occur at sites distant from a tumor or its metastasis. (
  • The following diseases manifest by means of physiological dysfunction besides the categories above: membranous glomerulonephritis, tumor-induced osteomalacia, Stauffer syndrome, Neoplastic fever, and thymoma-associated multiorgan autoimmunity. (
  • Depending on the type of tumor, paraneoplastic phenomena-symptoms not due to the local presence of cancer-may initially attract attention to the disease. (
  • Her tumor was low grade, appeared to arise primarily from the middle nasal cavity, and presented as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). (
  • We describe a patient with ENB that presented in several atypical ways-low-grade tumor which appeared to originate in the middle nasal cavity, presentation as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and diagnosis during pregnancy. (
  • Because the initial endocrine response to GnRH analogs is actually hypersecretion of gonadal steroids, hormone receptor antagonists such as flutamide are typically used to prevent a transient boost in tumor growth. (


  • The following diseases manifest by means of endocrine dysfunction: Cushing syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, hypercalcemia, hypoglycemia, carcinoid syndrome, and hyperaldosteronism. (
  • The following diseases manifest by means of neurological dysfunction: Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, encephalomyelitis, limbic encephalitis, brainstem encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, and polymyositis. (
  • This syndrome is due to dysfunction of the cerebellum or its connections. (
  • Acanthosis nigricans associated with endocrine dysfunction is more insidious in its onset, is less widespread, and the patients are often concurrently obese. (


  • Successful treatment is best obtained by controlling the underlying cancer, but some symptoms can be controlled with specific drugs (eg, cyproheptadine or somatostatin analogs for carcinoid syndrome, bisphosphonates and corticosteroids for hypercalcemia). (


  • A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. (
  • Sometimes, the symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes show before the diagnosis of a malignancy, which has been hypothesized to relate to the disease pathogenesis. (
  • Diagnostic testing in a possible paraneoplastic syndrome depends on the symptoms and the suspected underlying cancer. (
  • The most common cancers associated with PNDs are breast, ovarian, and lung cancers, but many other cancers can produce paraneoplastic symptoms, as well. (
  • Signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system can develop relatively quickly, often over days to weeks. (
  • Signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system often begin even before a cancer is diagnosed. (
  • POTS can co-occur in all types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a hereditary connective tissue disorder marked by loose hypermobile joints prone to subluxations and dislocations, skin that exhibits moderate or greater laxity, easy bruising, and many other symptoms. (


  • Although paraneoplastic syndromes occur commonly, dual paraneoplastic syndromes occurring simultaneously in the same patient are very rare. (
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system occur when cancer-fighting agents of the immune system also attack parts of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves or muscle. (


  • The most common endocrinologic and hematologic syndromes associated with underlying neoplasia will be discussed here. (


  • Paraneoplastic syndromes are typical among middle-aged to older patients, and they most commonly present with cancers of the lung, breast, ovaries, or lymphatic system (a lymphoma). (
  • The final section discusses the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with individual cancers. (


  • To the best of our knowledge, dual paraneoplastic syndromes involving these two hormones have not been previously reported in the literature. (
  • Tumors of neuroendocrine origin, such as small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and carcinoids, produce a wide array of peptide hormones and are common causes of paraneoplastic syndromes. (
  • Many hormones are produced at low levels from a wide array of tissues in addition to the classic endocrine source. (
  • It involves the manipulation of the endocrine system through exogenous or external administration of specific hormones, particularly steroid hormones, or drugs which inhibit the production or activity of such hormones (hormone antagonists). (


  • The excess cortisol may also affect other endocrine systems and cause, for example, insomnia, inhibited aromatase, reduced libido, impotence in men, and amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhea and infertility in women due to elevations in androgens. (


  • The third section discusses autoantibodies that characterize individual paraneoplastic syndromes. (


  • In patients with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome the level of gastric acid is elevated. (
  • This protocol describes the use of histamine H2-receptor antagonists to control gastric acid hypersecretion in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (
  • It will also be possible to evaluate the effectiveness of histamine H2-receptor in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome after successful gastrinoma resection who continue to have mild gastric hypersecretion. (
  • H2-Histamine receptor blocking agents in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (
  • Patients treated with Nexium for the first time due to gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, anastomotic ulcer, reflux oesophagitis, non-erosive reflux disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (


  • Our further demonstration that peripherin-immunoreactive autonomic fibers in pancreas, thyroid and ovary are juxtaposed to endocrine epithelium, complement our clinical observations in suggesting that neuronal elements may be a pertinent initial target for immune attack in multiple forms of endocrine autoimmunity (intermolecular epitope spreading). (


  • citation needed] Diagnosis may be difficult in patients in whom paraneoplastic antibodies cannot be detected. (


  • Acanthosis nigricans is conventionally divided into benign and malignant forms, although may be divided into syndromes according to cause: Benign This may include obesity-related, hereditary, and endocrine forms of acanthosis nigricans. (
  • It delineates acanthosis nigricans syndromes according to their associated syndromes, including benign and malignant forms, forms associated with obesity and drugs, acral acanthosis nigricans, unilateral acanthosis nigricans, and mixed and syndromic forms. (


  • There is significant overlap between POTS and chronic fatigue syndrome, with evidence of POTS in 25-50% of CFS cases. (


  • We describe the case of a patient with small cell lung cancer and dual paraneoplastic syndromes involving adrenocorticotropic hormone and calcitonin. (


  • Consequently, atypical clinical manifestations in a patient with cancer should prompt consideration of a paraneoplastic syndrome. (
  • Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by severe impairment in the ability of the intestines to push food through. (


  • We discuss the work-up and treatment of the patient's unusual laboratory presentation with two concurrent paraneoplastic syndromes. (


  • Mucocutaneous dysfunctions of paraneoplastic syndromes can be seen in cases of itching (hypereosinophilia), immune system depression (latent varicella-zoster virus in sensory ganglia), pancreatic tumors (leading to adipose nodular necrosis of subcutaneous tissues, flushes (prostaglandin secretions), and even dermic melanosis (cannot be eliminated via urine and results in grey to black-blueish skin tones). (


  • Careful studies of the prevalence of paraneoplastic syndromes indicate that they are more common than is generally appreciated. (
  • A trifecta of POTS, EDS, and Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS) is becoming increasingly more common, with a genetic marker common among all three conditions. (


  • Malignant acanthosis nigricans refers to acanthosis nigricans occurring as a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with a cancer. (


  • Insulin resistance syndromes may be divided into type A (HAIR-AN) and type B syndromes. (


  • This syndrome refers to inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Neuromyotonia - also known as Isaacs' syndrome - is characterized by abnormal impulses in nerve cells outside the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerve hyperexcitability) that control muscle movement. (


  • Depending on where the nervous system is affected, paraneoplastic syndromes can cause problems with muscle movement or coordination, sensory perception, memory or thinking skills, or even sleep. (


  • He also described Liddle's syndrome, a genetic syndrome causing high blood pressure. (


  • This term refers to a syndrome of injury limited to the spinal cord. (


  • The abbreviation PNS is sometimes used for paraneoplastic syndrome, although it is used more often to refer to the peripheral nervous system. (


  • Up to 20% of cancer patients experience paraneoplastic syndromes, but often these syndromes are unrecognized. (
  • This syndrome affects 1-2% of all cancer patients, but is observed in 10-50% of SCLC patients at some point in their disease process. (


  • In consequence, PTH is vital to health, and health problems that yield too little or too much PTH (such as hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, or paraneoplastic syndromes) can wreak havoc in the form of bone disease, hypocalcaemia, and hypercalcaemia. (


  • Tumors in the top of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to Horner's syndrome (dropping of the eyelid and a small pupil on that side), as well as damage to the brachial plexus. (

lung cancer

  • When it occurs as a paraneoplastic syndrome, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is typically associated with lung cancer. (