Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes: Syndromes resulting from inappropriate production of HORMONES or hormone-like materials by NEOPLASMS in non-endocrine tissues or not by the usual ENDOCRINE GLANDS. Such hormone outputs are called ectopic hormone (HORMONES, ECTOPIC) secretion.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy: A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1334)Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration: Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Ocular: Ocular manifestations secondary to various NEOPLASMS in which antibodies to antigens of the primary tumor cross-react with ocular antigens. This autoimmune response often leads to visual loss and other ocular dysfunctions.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Paraneoplastic syndrome: A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, 2011, Darnell & Posner These phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (by hormones or cytokines) excreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.Metastatic carcinoma: Metastatic carcinoma is able to grow at sites distant from the primary site of origin; thus, dissemination to the skin may occur with any malignant neoplasm, and these infiltrates may result from direct invasion of the skin from underlying tumors, may extend by lymphatic or hematogenous spread, or may be introduced by therapeutic procedures.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Rock Yo Hips: "Rock Yo Hips" is the first single of the hip hop/crunk group Crime Mob's second studio album, Hated on Mostly. The song was released on August 29, 2006 as a digital download single on iTunes.Malformative syndrome: A malformative syndrome (or malformation syndrome) is a recognizable pattern of congenital anomalies that are known or thought to be causally related (VIIth International Congress on Human Genetics).Limbic encephalitisEndocrine glandMuscular Dystrophy Association
(1/57) Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma.
Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We conclude that adenomectomy is not an adequate therapy for patients with adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma. (+info)
(2/57) The differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from the hypercalcemia of malignancy.
The presence of hypercalcemia in patients with known cancers may be due to the cancers themselves, or to co-existing primary hyperparathyroidism. The differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from the hypercalcemia of malignancy is important since the relief of distressing symptoms and prevention of hypercalcemic crises and renal failure can be accomplished relatively easily by parathyroid surgery in the former condition, and only with difficulty, at times, with fluids and drugs in the latter condition. The histories of three recent patients are presented, which demonstrate the difficulties inherent in the differentiation of these conditions. These patients were ultimately found at operation to have primary hyperparathyroidism in addition to malignancies of the cervix, adrenal gland and kidney. In our experience the following have been helpful in establishing a diagnosis; history of hypercalcemia prior to development of cancer, the type of cancer itself, the effect of cancer therapy on the hypercalcemia, and selective venous sampling with radioimmunoassay for parathyroid hormone. (+info)
(3/57) Guanosine nucleotides inhibit different syndromes of PTHrP excess caused by human cancers in vivo.
There are two well-described syndromes caused by tumor production of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), namely osteolytic bone disease associated with breast cancer and humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) that occurs with or without bone metastasis. Both syndromes have been shown experimentally to be inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to PTHrP. In a search for small-molecule inhibitors of PTHrP production or effects, we have identified guanine-nucleotide analogs as compounds that inhibit PTHrP expression by human tumor cells associated with these syndromes. We show in nude athymic murine models that these compounds reduce PTHrP-mediated osteolytic lesions associated with metastatic human breast-cancer cells as well as the degree of hypercalcemia caused by excessive PTHrP production by a squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung. These results suggest that the PTHrP gene promoter may be a suitable target for treating the skeletal effects of malignancy. (+info)
(4/57) Ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma of the vomerosphenoidal junction.
OBJECTIVE: We describe an unusual case of ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma arising from the vomerosphenoidal junction. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 52-Year-old man with a long-standing history of hyperthyroidism was referred to the University Hospital in September 2001 because of increasingly disabling symptoms of nasal obstruction. For the past 18 Years the patient had complained of palpitations, hypertension, weight loss, and nervousness. A presumptive diagnosis of Graves' disease was made. Treatment with methimazole was begun, but the patient was lost to follow-up. On admission, physical examination revealed signs of hyperthyroidism and a large diffuse goiter. Tests of thyroid function showed inappropriate secretion of TSH with hyperthyroidism. Both a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and resistance to thyroid hormone could be taken into account. There was no evidence of pituitary tumour by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but a large space-occupying lesion involving the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx was incidentally discovered. INTERVENTATION AND TECHNIQUE: Using an endoscopic endonasal approach, the tumour was removed en bloc together with the sphenoid floor, sphenoid rostrum, bony septum, and part of the soft palate mucosa. Histological features and immunophenotype were those of a TSH-secreting tumour. CONCLUSION: Although exceedingly rare, ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary tumour should be borne in mind in cases of inappropriate secretion of TSH with hyperthyroidism and no evidence of pituitary tumour by computed tomography and/or MRI when a mass located along the migration path of the Rathke's pouch is demonstrated by radiological examination. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case in the literature. (+info)
(5/57) Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.
We report a case of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) caused by ectopic Cushing's syndrome and give a review of the literature. The most common cause of SEL is prolonged therapy with glucocorticoids, only a very few cases are related to endogenous Cushing's syndrome. The pathophysiological mechanism is not clear but there is a possible role for the autonomic nervous system in the stimulation of growth of epidural fat. Severe neurological symptoms which indicate myelopathy and radiculopathy can occur, but there is often a delay in diagnosis because the non-specific initial symptoms are not recognized. The epidural fat is mostly located in the thoracic and lumbar region. Magnetic resonance imaging can establish the diagnosis rapidly. In patients with severe neurological symptoms, surgical decompression of the myelum and removal of the epidural fat is the treatment of choice. Most patients have partial or complete recovery of neurological deficits after surgical treatment or after discontinuing glucocorticoid therapy; mild cases can also be treated conservatively. Routine imaging for the detection of epidural-located lipomatosis in patients at risk is probably useful. (+info)
(6/57) [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography imaging of thymic carcinoid tumor presenting with recurrent Cushing's syndrome.
We report a case of a young woman with Cushing's syndrome (CS), in whom although endocrine investigations and negative pituitary imaging were suggestive of ectopic ACTH secretion, the results of inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) sampling after coricotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation were suggestive of pituitary ACTH hypersecretion. (111)In-labelled octreotide and high-resolution computer tomography (CT) revealed a lesion possibly responsible for the ACTH source in the thymus. Thymectomy confirmed concomitant ectopic CRH and probable ACTH production by a thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma. After an 8-year remission period the patient developed a clinical and biochemical relapse. A high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax showed a 2-cm nodule in the thymic bed, which was positive on a [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan. However, a repeated thymectomy did not result in remission. A repeat [(18)F]FDG PET study showed persistent disease in the thymic bed and also uptake in the adrenals. The patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, which resulted in clinical remission. A further [(18)F]FDG PET scan 8 months later showed no progression of the thymic tumor and confirmed complete excision of the adrenals. This is a rare case of concomitant CRH and ACTH secretion from a thymic carcinoid tumor; the case illustrates the usefulness of functional imaging with [(18)F]FDG PET in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumors. (+info)
(7/57) Mixed endocrine pancreatic tumors producing several peptide hormones.
Twenty-four endocrine pancreatic tumors were examined immunohistochemically for insulin, glucagon, gastrin and ACTH. In seven of these tumors, more than one peptide-hormone-containing cell type was observed. These seven tumors were also examined with conventional staining methods for the presence of A1, A2, and B cells. The results showed that these staining methods do not always distinguish between the different hormone-producing cell types of endocrine pancreatic tumors. In spite of the fact that several types of hormone-secreting cells were found in the tumors, the case histories described symptoms characteristic of hypersecretion of only one of the hormones. The hormone of the predominating cell type could not always explain the clinical symptoms. Our results indicate the endocrine pancreatic tumors often are multihormonal. Therefore, it would seem advisable to screen serum from all insuloma patients for a variety of peptide hormones. (+info)
(8/57) ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of gallbladder.
The case of a 44-year-old woman is reported. The diagnosis after the appropriate tests and laparotomy was ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of the gallbladder. This is a rare tumour and this case is believed to be the first reported of an ectopic hormone producing tumour from this side. (+info)