Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Olfactory Marker Protein: A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).

*  Olfactory Deficits and Donepezil Treatment in Cognitively Impaired Elderly - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Olfaction Disorders. Atropine. Donepezil. Cholinesterase Inhibitors. Cognition Disorders. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Cognition Disorders. Neurocognitive Disorders. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. ... Meets DSM IV TR criteria for:(i)schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, other psychosis, or bipolar I disorder (ii)alcohol or ... Exclusion criterion for olfaction: history of anosmia due to any cause (e.g. traumatic or congenital) verified by UPSIT score ...

*  Human Physiology/Senses - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Disorders of Olfaction[edit]. Anosmia. Anosmia is the lack of olfaction, or a loss of the sense of smell. It can be either ... Disorders of Touch[edit]. Sensory Processing Disorder. In most people sensory integration occurs naturally without a thought ... Diseases, disorders, and age-related changes[edit]. There are many diseases, disorders, and age-related changes that may affect ... Olfaction and Gustation[edit]. Olfaction, taste and trigeminal receptors together contribute to flavor. It should be emphasized ...

*  Assessment of olfaction in multiple sclerosis: evidence of dysfunction by olfactory evoked response and identification tests |...

1992) The olfactory evoked response and evidence of disordered olfaction in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ... Olfactory disorder was present in only 1% of patients with multiple sclerosis according to one observer.2 Dotyet al 3 found ... Disordered CO2potentials were less consistent depending on the method of analysis and did not invariably imply abnormal H2S ... It confirms that olfaction is impaired in multiple sclerosis and validates the earlier pathological findings of Peters7 and ...

*  Diffusion tensor imaging and olfactory identification testing in early-stage Parkinson's disease | SpringerLink

Hawkes CH (2003) Olfaction in neurodegenerative disorders. Mov Disord 18:364-372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Doty RL (2009) The olfactory system and its disorders. Semin Neurol 29:74-81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Since loss of olfaction often precedes the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, the important question raised is "will the ... Tissingh G, Berendse HW, Bergmans P, DeWaard R, Drukarch B, Stoof JC, Wolters EC (2001) Loss of olfaction in de novo and ...

*  Dysosmia - Wikipedia

Quantitative smell disorders refer to disorders in which there is complete or partial loss of olfaction. Anosmia, the complete ... The term dysosmia refers to a qualitative olfaction disorder and include both parosmia and phantosmia. Olfactory dysfunction ... loss of olfaction, and hyposmia, the partial loss of olfaction are the two disorders classified as quantitative because they ... Qualitative smell disorders can't be measured and refer to disorders in which there is alternation or distortion in the ...

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Strategies against Parkinson's Disease: Recent Perspectives | HTML

Hawkes, C. Olfaction in Neurodegenerative Disorder. Mov. Disord. 2003, 18, 364-372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Tolosa, E. Movement Disorders: Advances on Many Fronts. Lancet Neurol. 2007, 6, 7-8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... Albin, R.L.; Young, A.B.; Penney, J.B. The Functional Anatomy of Basal Ganglia Disorders. Trends Neurosci. 1989, 12, 366-375. [ ... Morley, J.F.; Duda, J.E. Olfaction As a Biomarker in Parkinson's Disease. Biomark. Med. 2010, 4, 661-670. [Google Scholar] [ ...

*  Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders | SpringerLink

... some cognitive disorders, insomnia and stress-related disorders. Although essential oils have been used ... Hawkes C. Olfaction in neurodegenerative disorder. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 364-72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Mitchell S. Aromatherapy's effectiveness in disorders associated with dementia. Int J Aromather 1993; 4: 20-3Google Scholar ... It is concluded that aromatherapy provides a potentially effective treatment for a range of psychiatric disorders. In addition ...

*  Association of British Neurologists' Spring Meeting, Church House Conference Centre, Westminster, London, 14-16 April 2004. |...

Our previous work suggests that 80% of IPD patients have disordered olfaction while preliminary studies on ET patients indicate ... Movement disorders in APS are clinically heterogeneous, and can include tics and myoclonus. Chorea, when it occurs, often ... Movement disorders have only rarely been reported in association with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In such cases, chorea ... A normosmic patient with tremor is more likely to have ET than IPD while someone with tremor and impaired olfaction may have ...

*  ORL General Archivos | ORL Mallorca | Encuentra al mejor Otorrino en Mallorca

An accurate assessment of an olfaction disorder will include, among other things, a physical … Continued ... People with olfactory disorders may suffer loss of smell or changes in how they perceive odors. ...

*  Investigation of the Genetic Causes of Kallmann Syndrome and Reproductive Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Olfaction Disorders. Puberty, Precocious. Puberty, Delayed. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Gonadal Disorders. Endocrine System ... 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development. Disorders of Sex Development. Urogenital Abnormalities. Congenital Abnormalities. Genetic ... Investigation of the Genetic Causes of Kallmann Syndrome and Reproductive Disorders. The safety and scientific validity of this ... It is possible that the genetic cause of your reproductive disorder may be learned. This information can be shared with you at ...

*  Frontiers | The influences of age on olfaction: a review | Psychology

Doty, R. L. (2012a). Olfaction in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Neurobiol. Dis. 46, 527-552. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd. ... Citation: Doty RL and Kamath V (2014) The influences of age on olfaction: a review. Front. Psychol. 5:20. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg. ... Cleland, T. A., and Linster, C. (2003). "Central olfactory structures," in Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation. 2nd Edn., ed R ... Cain, W. S., Gent, J., Catalanotto, F. A., and Goodspeed, R. B. (1983). Clinical evaluation of olfaction. Am. J. Otolaryngol. 4 ...

*  Prof-Philip-Beales

Olfaction,*,Olfactory disorders,*,Proteomics,*,Retina,*,Retinitis pigmentosa,*,Sensory transduction,*,Signalling,*,Time-lapse ... Many of these syndromes manifest cognitive impairment as well as disordered peripheral nervous system and sensory reception. We ... Eating disorders,*,Electron Microscopy,*,Enzyme assays,*,G-protein coupled receptors,*,Gene expression,*,Gene expression ...

*  Peptides and Proteins: Novus Biologicals

Olfaction Disorders (2). *. Oligospermia (15). *. Oncocytic Neoplasm (2). *. Osteochondrodysplasias (2). *. Osteoporosis (12) ...

*  Cited In for PubMed (Select 12815652) - PubMed - NCBI

FDG PET, dopamine transporter SPECT, and olfaction: Combining biomarkers in REM sleep behavior disorder. ...

*  Rats match humans in decision-making that involves combining different sensory cues: study

Could we be missing something important about olfaction in autism spectrum disorders by comparing rats to humans using visual ... Such investigations, she hopes, will explain why patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) integrate sensory information ... or simply recognize what they can see and hear with regard to developmental disorders involving neurogenesis? ... how the brain is combining multisensory information and be in a better position to develop treatments for these disorders in ...

*  List of MeSH codes (C23) - Wikipedia

... olfaction disorders MeSH C23.888.592.763.770 --- somatosensory disorders MeSH C23.888.592.763.770.400 --- hyperalgesia MeSH ... sensation disorders MeSH C23.888.592.763.237 --- dizziness MeSH C23.888.592.763.393 --- hearing disorders MeSH C23.888.592.763. ... communication disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500 --- language disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.050 --- agraphia MeSH ... language development disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800 --- speech disorders MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100 --- ...

*  SNCA rabbit monoclonal antibody - (H00006622-K) - Products - Abnova

Olfaction Disorders. *Osteoporosis. *Parkinson Disease. *Parkinson disease. *Parkinson Disease, Secondary. *Parkinsonian ...

*  University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test - Wikipedia

Doty, RL (June 2012). "Olfaction in Parkinson's disease and related disorders". Neurobiology Of Disease. 3. 46: 527-552. doi: ... The disorders with the olfactory dysfunction are those with the most pathology, such as PD and AD. Doty, RL; Frye RE; Agrawal U ... There are many central nervous system disorders that are associated with olfactory dysfunction. Most of these dysfunctions ... Doty, Richard (2003). Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. pp. 461-473. Velaugudhan, L; Pritchard ...

*  Olfactory memory - Wikipedia

Doty, Richard (2012). "Olfaction in Parkinson's disease and related disorders" (PDF). Neurobiological Disorders. 46: 527-552. ... Olfaction: A potential cognitive marker of psychiatric disorder. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32 (2008) 1315-1325.. ... Olfaction Olfactory system Memory University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test Insect olfaction Wilson, DA. (2003) The ... as each disorder has its own distinct features leading to specific predictions about what type of mental disorder a person may ...

*  List of MeSH codes (C10) - Wikipedia

... olfaction disorders MeSH C10.597.751.791 --- somatosensory disorders MeSH C10.597.751.791.400 --- hyperalgesia MeSH C10.597. ... headache disorders MeSH C10.228.140.546.399 --- headache disorders, primary MeSH C10.228.140.546.399.750 --- migraine disorders ... sleep disorders, circadian rhythm MeSH C10.886.425.200.500 --- jet lag syndrome MeSH C10.886.425.800 --- sleep disorders, ... communication disorders MeSH C10.597.606.150.500 --- language disorders MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.050 --- agraphia MeSH C10.597. ...

*  APOE (Human) ELISA Kit - (KA4736) - Products - Abnova

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. *Obstetric Labor, Premature. *Olfaction Disorders. *Optic Neuritis. *Orientation. *Osteoporosis ...

*  Questioning Answers: July 2015

A Mechanistic Link between Olfaction and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Current Biology. 2015. 2 July.. ----------. Rozenkrantz, L ... conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and substance disorders.". Just over ... panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), mood disorders (major depression, dysthymia ... fine motor disorders, language disorders, or autism spectrum disorders.". Sickle cell disease covers quite a bit of diagnostic ...

*  David M Yousem, M.B.A., M.D.

He is a noted authority on disorders of the brain, spine, head and neck, olfaction, cranial neuropathies and neurodegeneration. ... Research Interests: Health Economics; Advanced Imaging; Demyelinating disorders; Head and Neck Cancer; Brain Tumors ...

*  Olfaction - Wikipedia

The following are disorders of olfaction: Anosmia - inability to smell Dysosmia - things smell different from memory or ... Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell. Olfaction has many purposes, such as the detection of hazards, ... Digital Olfaction Society, - 3rd World Congress on Digital Olfaction. ... The olfaction of food has the sensation of being in the mouth because of co-activation of the motor cortex and olfactory ...

*  Olfactory tubercle - Wikipedia

... makes it likely to be involved in several psychiatric disorders in which olfaction and dopamine receptors are affected. Many ... As far as olfaction is concerned, in vitro data from some studies suggest that the olfactory tubercle units have the functional ... Functional contributions of the olfactory tubercle to olfaction are currently unclear; however, there is evidence of a ... Heimer, L. (2003). "A new anatomical framework for neuropsychiatric disorders and drug abuse". Am J Psychiatry. 160 (10): 1726- ...

Olfactory sulcus: The medial orbital gyrus presents a well-marked antero-posterior sulcus, the olfactory sulcus, for the olfactory tract.Shape theory of olfaction: The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups. It has also been described by a 'lock and key' mechanism by which a scent molecule fits into olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium.Odorant-binding protein: Odorant-binding proteins are abundant small soluble proteins secreted in the nasal mucus of many animal species and in the sensillar lymph of chemosensory sensilla of insects.Piriform cortex: In anatomy of animals, the piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex, is a region in the brain, part of the rhinencephalon situated in the telencephalon. The function of the piriform cortex relates to olfaction.Olfactory receptor: Olfactory receptors expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons are responsible for the detection of odor molecules. Activated olfactory receptors are the initial player in a signal transduction cascade which ultimately produces a nerve impulse which is transmitted to the brain.Sustentacular cellBipolar disorderOlfactory ensheathing glia: Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG), also known as olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type of macroglia (radial glia) found in the nervous system. They are also known as olfactory Schwann cells because they ensheath the non-myelinated axons of olfactory neurons in a similar way to which Schwann cells ensheath non-myelinated peripheral neurons.Mental disorderSlit sensilla: The slit sensilla, also known as the slit sense organ, is a small mechanoreceptory organ or group of organs in the exoskeleton of arachnids which detects physical deformation or strain due to forces experienced by the animal. The organ appears in the vast majority of discovered arachnids, and is "remarkably consistent" in location and direction within each order.Social anxiety disorderSchizophreniaMapracoratBrexpiprazolePercolation threshold: Percolation threshold is a mathematical concept related to percolation theory, which is the formation of long-range connectivity in random systems. Below the threshold a giant connected component does not exist; while above it, there exists a giant component of the order of system size.Trail pheromone: Trail pheromones are semiochemicals secreted from the body of an individual to impact the behavior of another individual receiving it. Trail pheromones often serve as a multi purpose chemical secretion in which, it leads members of its own species towards a food source, while representing a territorial mark in the form of an allomone to organisms outside of their species.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderTaste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder: In psychology, relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder (ROCD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on intimate relationships (whether romantic or non-romantic). Such obsessions can become extremely distressing and debilitating, having negative impacts on relationships functioning.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.AsaroneClaustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Relationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Substance-related disorderInteroceptor: An interoceptor is a sensory receptor that detects stimulus within the body. Examples of stimuli that would be detected by interoceptors include blood pressureCampbell, Neil A.Trigeminovascular system: The trigeminovascular system consists of neurons in the trigeminal nerve that innervate cerebral blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that the trigeminovascular system may be involved in some types of headaches.Red Noses: Red Noses is a comedy about the black death by Peter Barnes, first staged at Barbican Theatre in 1985. It depicted a sprightly priest, originally played by Antony Sher, who travelled around the plague-affected villages of 14th century France with a band of fools, known as God's Zanies, offering holy assistance.To Kau Wan: To Kau Wan () is a bay on the north shore of northeast Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Contaminated soil from Penny's Bay was transferred here for thermal desorption to separate the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) along with cement immobilization of metal contamination from Penny's Bay.Central chemoreceptors: Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment.Tic disorderNAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Citronellal

(1/311) A female case of Kallmann's syndrome.

A case of 20-year-old woman with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia is reported, since very few female cases of Kallmann's syndrome have been reported so far in Japan. Three uncles on the father's side had no children. Height was 168 cm, and arm span 165 cm. The olfactory test revealed complete anosmia. Bone age was 13 year. Chromosome was 46 XX and normal karyotype. Basal levels of serum FSH, LH and estrogens (E1, E2 and E3) were low. Serum FSH and LH levels rose slightly only after LH-RH administration, and did not increase in clomiphene test. Plasma estrogens did not increase after daily injection of 150 IU of HMG for 3 successive days. The response of serum GH to arginine infusion was normal, while that to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was poor.  (+info)

(2/311) Investigation of a unique male and female sibship with Kallmann's syndrome and 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis with short stature.

A sibship is described where the brother and a sister both have Kallmann's syndrome (anosmia and deficiency of gonadotrophin releasing hormone) and the woman also has streak ovaries. Although there are several conditions that may occur with Kallmann's syndrome, there are no known reports of ovarian dysgenesis being associated with this disorder. Cytogenetic analysis showed no rearrangement or major deletions of the chromosomes. Linkage analysis using informative microsatellite markers predicts that a gene other than KAL1 (at Xp22.3) is implicated in the Kallmann's syndrome manifesting concurrently with ovarian dysgenesis found in this family.  (+info)

(3/311) What a tangled web we weave: discriminating between malingering and anosmia.

Two groups of normosmic subjects were instructed to feign a total olfactory loss when tested with the Olfactory Confusion Matrix (OCM). One of the groups was given specific instructions as to the number of odorants and trials in the test, as well as the number of items that might be expected to be correctly identified by chance. The responses of both groups of malingerers were compared with responses gathered from a group of anosmic patients. The groups did not differ in terms of performance level (percent correct). In spite of the similarity in terms of accuracy level, an analysis of the pattern of OCM responses to an irritant allowed the anosmic patients to be distinguished from subjects attempting to feign a loss. Subjects were given explicit details about the test performed at the same level as those simply told to feign a loss. These results suggest that the OCM is an effective tool in separating malingering from anosmia.  (+info)

(4/311) Assessing the impact of anosmia: review of a questionnaire's findings.

The inability to detect odours, anosmia, can cause profound psychological effects resulting in feelings of physical and social vulnerability and victimization. In addition, there may be unhappiness related to the loss of the ability to detect pleasurable food smells and, as a consequence, anosmics may develop problems relating to eating. These profound effects arise from a condition which can have a rapid onset and a very poor prognosis for recovery, and are largely treated with a lack of sympathy and indifference by people with normal olfactory ability. In an attempt to educate, inform and help sufferers, a questionnaire was developed in the early 1980s and sent to those who contacted the Warwick Olfaction Research Group. The responses from this questionnaire form the basis of this review. Feelings of personal isolation, lack of interest in eating and emotional blunting were common responses from these sufferers and it seems that we still have some way to go before an adequate recognition of problems associated with anosmia is gained by the general population and, more importantly, within the medical profession.  (+info)

(5/311) Is Parkinson's disease a primary olfactory disorder?

It has been known for over 30 years that olfactory function is disordered in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The severity and partial specificity of anosmia was not realized until recently, with the advent of more detailed analysis and sophisticated measurement. The olfactory vector hypothesis suggests that the causative agent for IPD enters the brain via the nasal route, but the reason for olfactory dysfunction may be more subtle. Evidence for olfactory disturbance is reviewed from pathological, psychological, neurophysiological and genetic stand-points. It is proposed that the initial causative event in IPD may start in the rhinencephalon (olfactory brain) prior to damage in the basal ganglia.  (+info)

(6/311) Smell and taste disorders: a primary care approach.

Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, with loss of smell occurring more frequently. Although these disorders can have a substantial impact on quality of life and may represent significant underlying disease, they are often overlooked by the medical community. Patients may have difficulty recognizing smell versus taste dysfunction and frequently confuse the concepts of "flavor" and "taste." While the most common causes of smell disturbance are nasal and sinus disease, upper respiratory infection and head trauma, frequent causes of taste disturbance include oral infections, oral appliances (e.g., dentures), dental procedures and Bell's palsy. Medications can interfere with smell and taste, and should be reviewed in all patients with reported dysfunction. In addition, advancing age has been associated with a natural impairment of smell and taste ability. A focused history and a physical examination of the nose and mouth are usually sufficient to screen for underlying pathology. Computed tomographic scanning or magnetic resonance imaging of affected areas, as well as commercially available standardized tests, may be useful in selected patients. The causes of olfactory dysfunction that are most amenable to treatment include obstructing polyps or other masses (treated by excision) and inflammation (treated with steroids). Enhancement of food flavor and appearance can improve quality of life in patients with irreversible dysfunction.  (+info)

(7/311) A novel mutation of the KAL1 gene in Kallmann syndrome.

Kallmann syndrome is defined by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia, for which three modes of transmission have been described: X-linked, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. The KAL1 gene, responsible for the X-linked form of the disease, has been isolated and its intron-exon organization determined. We report sequence analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method of the entire coding region and splice site junctions of the KAL1 gene in three males with Kallmann syndrome. We found a novel mutation in one case and no mutation in the other two cases. The mutation consisted of a C to T substitution in exon 1 converting codon 66 (CAG) encoding glutamine into a termination codon (TAG)/(Q66X). As a consequence of this mutation, the function of the KAL1 protein consisting of 680 amino acids was severely truncated so as to be consistent with Kallmann syndrome. As only this patient had unilateral renal hypoplasia among the three cases, this would suggest the existence of KAL1 gene mutation in this abnormality.  (+info)

(8/311) Psychological test performance during experimental challenge to toluene and n-butyl acetate in cases of solvent-induced toxic encephalopathy.

OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether performance in neurobehavioral tests deteriorates during subjectively annoying chemical challenge below known neurotoxic thresholds among persons with toxic encephalopathy with subjective hypersensitivity to chemicals. METHODS: Subjects with symptoms and previous neuropsychological test results compatible with toxic encephalopathy (TE) of either type 2A (N=12) or 2B (N=12) and unexposed referents (N=12) were challenged in an exposure chamber. In a counterbalanced design, the subjects were exposed on 2 occasions to increasing air concentrations of n-butyl acetate and toluene at levels well below the thresholds for neurotoxic effects. Attention and motor speed tests were given (i) in room air outside the chamber before the challenge, (ii) in room air inside the chamber before the exposure, (iii) at 12 ppm (44 or 56 mg/m3), and (iv) at 48 ppm (at 180 or 228 mg/m3). RESULTS: For both substances the TE groups showed a slight increase (deterioration) in the simple reaction-time task during chemical exposure, but not in the complex reaction-time task or in the digit symbol test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Contrary to reference subjects, the TE subjects did not show any improvement or learning effect in the digit symbol test over the chamber phases. n-Butyl acetate tended to affect cognitive functioning more obviously than toluene did. Suggestion or expectancy effects were not observed in any group in the clean-air baseline conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not support the notion that men with subjective hypersensitivity to chemicals would be more affected than healthy men regarding cognitive functioning during annoying solvent exposure below thresholds for acute neurotoxic effects.  (+info)


  • The senses of gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell) fall under the category of chemoreception . (wikibooks.org)
  • Gustation and olfaction are chemical senses because the receptors they contain are sensitive to the molecules in the food we eat, along with the air we breathe. (wikibooks.org)
  • They carry the special senses of smell (olfaction) and taste (gustation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation (2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include the five classic senses of vision (sight), audition (hearing), tactile stimulation (touch), olfaction (smell), and gustation (taste). (wikipedia.org)


  • METHODS Olfaction was assessed by: (1) The University of Pennsylvania smell identification test (UPSIT, which uses microencapsulated odours that are released when scratched with a pencil) in 72 patients with multiple sclerosis and 96 controls, (2) olfactory evoked potentials (OEP) to 20 ppm H 2 S by volume, and 50% CO 2 in air for 45 patients with multiple sclerosis and 47 controls. (bmj.com)
  • Dysosmia is a disorder described as any qualitative alteration or distortion of the perception of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative smell disorders refer to disorders in which there is complete or partial loss of olfaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Qualitative smell disorders can't be measured and refer to disorders in which there is alternation or distortion in the perception of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with olfactory disorders may suffer loss of smell or changes in how they perceive odors. (orlmallorca.com)
  • It is perhaps not surprising, then, that smell loss or disordered smell function significantly impacts our safety, appetite, nutrition, and physical and mental well-being. (frontiersin.org)
  • Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, land organisms will have separate olfaction systems for smell and taste (orthonasal smell and retronasal smell), but water-dwelling organisms usually have only one system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemosensory disorders Diseases or problems associated with the sense of smell or the sense of taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). (wikipedia.org)
  • A physician can determine if the problem is with the sense of smell (olfactory system) or taste (gustatory system), or if it is caused by a neurological or psychiatric disorder. (wikipedia.org)


  • He is a noted authority on disorders of the brain, spine, head and neck, olfaction, cranial neuropathies and neurodegeneration. (hopkinsmedicine.org)


  • Anosmia, the complete loss of olfaction, and hyposmia, the partial loss of olfaction are the two disorders classified as quantitative because they can be measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other olfactory disorders such as hyposmia and anosmia have been found to be a symptom of mood disorders (depression). (wikipedia.org)

psychiatric disorders

  • This review includes evidence from the limited number of clinical trials that have been published of 'psychoaromatherapy' in relation to psychiatric disorders, together with evidence from mechanistic, neuropharmacological studies of the effects of essential oils in relevant in vitro and in vivo models. (springer.com)
  • It is concluded that aromatherapy provides a potentially effective treatment for a range of psychiatric disorders. (springer.com)
  • Examples of such disruption include changes in normal odor-guided behavior, and impairments in modulating state and motivational behavior, which are common in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, dementia and depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, chronic stress has been associated with diminished levels of allopregnanolone and altered allopregnanolone stress responsivity, psychiatric disorders, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. (wikipedia.org)

sensory modalities

  • Olfaction has been one of the most difficult human sensory modalities to evaluate by passively delivered stimuli, chiefly because early techniques predisposed to simultaneous trigeminal stimulation that inevitably corrupted the stimulus. (bmj.com)

olfactory disorders

  • However, it is not known what olfactory disorders occur and if they are indeed a symptom of a depressive disorder. (wikipedia.org)


  • Aromatherapy is currently used worldwide in the management of chronic pain, depression, anxiety, some cognitive disorders, insomnia and stress-related disorders. (springer.com)
  • Many of these syndromes manifest cognitive impairment as well as disordered peripheral nervous system and sensory reception. (ucl.ac.uk)

bipolar disorder

  • It can also be a symptom of certain mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, intoxication or withdrawal from drugs and alcohol, or psychotic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • They often occur with other mental disorders, particularly bipolar disorder, eating disorders, major depressive disorder, or certain personality disorders. (wikipedia.org)

neurological disorder

  • It is typically considered a neurological disorder and clinical associations with the disorder have been made. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of dysosmia has not been determined but there have been clinical associations with the neurological disorder: Upper respiratory tract infection (URTIs) Nasal and paranasal sinus disease Toxic chemical exposure Neurological abnormalities Head trauma Nasal surgery Tumors on the frontal lobe or olfactory bulb Epilepsy Most of cases are described as idiopathic and the main antecedents related to parosmia are URTIs, head trauma, and nasal and paranasal sinus disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder. (wikipedia.org)


  • The peripheral explanation of this disorder is that rogue neurons malfunction and transmit incorrect signals to the brain or it may be due to the malfunction of the olfactory neurons. (wikipedia.org)


  • This study suggests that there may be value in combining behavioral (olfaction) and MRI testing to identify early Parkinson's disease. (springer.com)


  • Olfaction occurs when odorants bind to specific sites on olfactory receptors located in the nasal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One or more additional odorant receptors appear to be involved in trimethylamine olfaction in humans as well. (wikipedia.org)


  • Such investigations, she hopes, will explain why patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) integrate sensory information in an atypical and less-than-optimal way, relative to healthy people. (medicalxpress.com)
  • or the group of syndromes to which autistic disorder belongs - the autism spectrum disorders. (wikipedia.org)


  • Studies into the perceptual correlates of sniffing on human olfaction did not reach the mainstream scientific community until the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)


  • Qualitative disorders include parosmia (also called troposmia) and phantosmia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term dysosmia refers to a qualitative olfaction disorder and include both parosmia and phantosmia. (wikipedia.org)


  • There is also research showing that deficits in olfactory memory can act as a base in assessing certain types of mental disorders such as depression as each mental disorder has its own distinct pattern of olfactory deficits. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4,16-androstadien-3β-ol) is an investigational new drug proposed as an indication for the acute treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder PH10 is being developed as an indication for the acute treatment of depression. (wikipedia.org)


  • This is a glossary of medical terms related to communications disorders such as blindness and deafness. (wikipedia.org)


  • Thus, while sniffing is often considered a critical part of olfaction, its link with motivated and reward behaviors suggests it plays a role in other behaviors. (wikipedia.org)


  • Since loss of olfaction often precedes the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, the important question raised is "will the combination of olfactory testing and MRI (DTI) testing identify pre-motor Parkinson's disease? (springer.com)
  • Tissingh G, Berendse HW, Bergmans P, DeWaard R, Drukarch B, Stoof JC, Wolters EC (2001) Loss of olfaction in de novo and treated Parkinson's disease: possible implications for early diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • Audiologist Health care professional who is trained to evaluate hearing loss and related disorders, including balance (vestibular) disorders and tinnitus, and to rehabilitate individuals with hearing loss and related disorders. (wikipedia.org)


  • It is possible that the genetic cause of your reproductive disorder may be learned. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which are often prescribed to treat anxiety), as well as withdrawal from drugs of abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trimethylaminuria is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder involving a defect in the function or expression of flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) which results in poor trimethylamine metabolism. (wikipedia.org)


  • Effect of an Acute Intranasal Aerosol Dose of PH94B on Social and Performance Anxiety in Women With Social Anxiety Disorder" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, anxiety has been linked with physical symptoms such as IBS and can heighten other mental health illnesses such as OCD and panic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anxiety symptoms may be masking an organic disease, or appear associated or as a result of a medical disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas trait anxiety represents worrying about future events, anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear. (wikipedia.org)


  • This project will be of value in the selection of patients with MCI and AD for treatment based on the evaluation of olfaction tests to predict response to donepezil. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Olfactory disorder was present in only 1% of patients with multiple sclerosis according to one observer. (bmj.com)
  • However, no study has examined olfaction and diffusion imaging in olfactory tract and substantia nigra in the same group of patients. (springer.com)
  • The aims of this study are: 1) to identify genes that play a role in human pubertal development and reproduction, 2) to characterize the phenotypic spectrum of patients with these gene defects, and 3) to discern the mode of inheritance for disorders caused by these gene defects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sensory modulation disorder, in which patients seek sensory stimulation due to an over or under response to sensory stimuli. (wikipedia.org)


  • Atypical sniffing has been reported in cases of neurological disorders, especially those disorders characterized by impaired motor function and olfactory perception. (wikipedia.org)


  • If this study discovers what genes are responsible, it will help to further the understanding of this disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Neuroscience for the study of communicative disorders. (wikipedia.org)


  • Methadone is indicated for the maintenance treatment of opioid dependency (i.e. opioid use disorder per the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). (wikipedia.org)


  • Throughout evolutionary history, olfaction has served various purposes related to the survival of the species, such as the development of communication. (wikipedia.org)


  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) Balance disorder that results in sudden onset of dizziness, spinning, or vertigo when moving the head. (wikipedia.org)



  • We can use our rat model to 'look under the hood' to understand how the brain is combining multisensory information and be in a better position to develop treatments for these disorders in people. (medicalxpress.com)


  • It has also been found that the perception of the odor is worse in the nostril that is weaker in olfaction ability. (wikipedia.org)


  • Sensory processing disorder or sensory discrimination disorder, which is characterized by postural control problems, lack of attentiveness, and disorganization. (wikipedia.org)


  • The sensitivity of UPSIT and OEP was similar although disorder on one test did not necessarily indicate abnormality in the other. (bmj.com)


  • This disorder can be further classified into three main types. (wikipedia.org)


  • This disorder is known as Sensory processing disorder (SPD). (wikipedia.org)


  • In olfaction there exists a strong tendency for habituation, which is discussed further in the following paragraph. (wikipedia.org)


  • To cure severe emotional disorders, this connection was sometimes surgically severed, a procedure of psychosurgery, called a prefrontal lobotomy (this is actually a misnomer). (wikipedia.org)