Mitragyna: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids: Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
Erowid Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Vault : DosageKratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is described as being a stimulant at low doses, and narcotic/sedative at higher doses. Dosages can ...
Erowid Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Vault : HealthInformation on health affects and concerns related to Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa).
Simulation study of the effect of Mitragyna speciosa on hybrid current in rat hippocampus CA3 pyramidal neuron - IEEE...We have simulated the hybrid current using Neurons in Action software to observe the hypothetical effect of Mitragyna speciosa ...
mitragyna speciosaPosts about mitragyna speciosa written by Mr Kratom ... Welcome to our new blog, for those new to kratom or mitragyna ... kratom trees kratom usage kratom users krypton laxatives legal high legal kratom measuring kratom MECFS metabolites mitragyna ...
Mitragyna | Smurf PlantMitragyna speciosa. Medicinal and other values of Mitragyna speciosa Mitragyna speciosa is a medicinal tree. It is available in ... Mitragyna speciosa trees for the most part develop to a stature of 12-30 ft. or 3.7-9.1 m tall and 15 ft. or 4.6 m wide, albeit ... Mitragyna speciosa. The narcotic effect fruits Do you want to enjoy the natural narcotic effect? How about considering Kratom ... Mitragyna speciosa The narcotic effect fruits Do you want to enjoy the natural narcotic effect? How about considering Kratom ...
Mitragyna Speciosa Kratom Yellow BorneoMitragyna Speciosa Kratom Yellow Borneo is from the young leaves of White Vein Borneo. ... SKU: N/A Categories: Borneo Powders, Bulk, Mitragyna Speciosa Kratom, Powder Tags: kratom, mitragyna, Powder, speciosa, Yellow ...
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Kratrom (Mitragyna speciosa) - Forum za podršku u oporavkuKratrom (Mitragyna speciosa). Molimo Vas da ovdje postavite linkove na stranice na kojima se nalaze informacije o tretmanu ...
Erowid Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Vault | I merely copy and paste.Erowid Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Vault http://www.erowid.org/plants/kratom/kratom.shtml ...
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid - WikipediaGHB has at least two distinct binding sites in the central nervous system. GHB is an agonist at the newly characterized GHB receptor, which is excitatory, and it is a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor, which is inhibitory. GHB is a naturally occurring substance that acts in a similar fashion to some neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain. GHB is probably synthesized from GABA in GABAergic neurons, and released when the neurons fire.. GHB has been found to activate oxytocinergic neurons in the supraoptic nucleus.. If taken orally, GABA itself does not effectively cross the blood-brain-barrier.. GHB induces the accumulation of either a derivative of tryptophan or tryptophan itself in the extracellular space, possibly by increasing tryptophan transport across the blood-brain barrier. The blood content of certain neutral amino-acids, including tryptophan, is also increased by peripheral GHB administration. GHB-induced stimulation of tissue serotonin turnover may be ...
Mitragyna Speciosa - Kratom ShopStudies on the synthesis and opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine-related indole alkaloids: discovery of opioid agonists structurally different from other opioid ligands.. Mitragynine (1) is a major alkaloidal component in the Thai traditional medicinal herb, Mitragyna speciosa, and has been proven to exhibit analgesic activity mediated by opioid receptors. By utilizing this natural product as a lead compound, synthesis of some derivatives, evaluations of the structure-activity relationship, and surveys of the intrinsic activities and potencies on opioid receptors were performed with guinea pig ileum. The affinities of some compounds for mu-, delta-, and kappa-receptors were determined in a receptor binding assay. The essential structural moieties in the Corynanthe type indole alkaloids for inducing the opioid agonistic activity were also clarified. The oxidative derivatives of mitragynine, i.e., mitragynine pseudoindoxyl (2) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (12), were found as opioid agonists ...
Mitragyna Javanica Archives - Smoke 'n BrewAs soon as we got word that the DEA was ready to ban kratom any day now (they may already have by the time you are reading this), we started doing reseach into finding proven, all-natural kratom alternatives. We found and tried dozens of different products and are pleased to say we were able to find a number of them that work as a reasonable substitute for kratom.. The two best ones we found are "Mitragyna Hirsuta" and "Mitragyna Javanica" from the same region of the world as the kratom plant - Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam. We cannot recommend you use these substances in any other way than indicated by the packaging, but Continue reading ...
Kratom Basics - Kratom ShopKratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has recently been mis-categorized as a 'synthetic' and a 'synthetic street drug'. It absolutely is not; Kratom is a 100% natural plant and herbal supplement that has been used safely for thousands of years. There is also a growing body of clinical studies that outline Kratom's potential life-saving medicinal properties. Before you make your Kratom purchase, why not educate yourself and join the fight to keep Kratom legal today by visiting the Botanical Legal Defense website?. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has taken the world by storm, and this is the original informational site, with up-to-date research on anything related to this versatile plant, including the best sources we've personally discovered. We seek shops who offer Kratom products made from only the highest quality leaf, such as Rifat (Red Vein), Maeng Da, Thai leaf, or the latest "Private Reserve" offered by just a few online shops. All are known for their high mitragynine content, one ...
Mitragyna Speciosa | Speciosa.org - Page 2Disclaimer: None of the descriptions given on this site have been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Kratom discussed on this site are not meant to diagnose, heal, cure, relieve or prevent any disease. All information on this site are the views of their individual writers who do not declare to be medical experts giving pharmaceutical advice. You should discuss with your physician or another adequate healthcare expert before you start using any dietary pills or link in mental health or wellness programs. Different affiliates maintain this site, and we receive a paid commission on certain products from our sponsors. Any and all logos, labels, service marks, and brand names presented on this website are the registered or unregistered Trademarks of their particular owners. © 2017. Speciosa Organization. ...
Sedative, Cognitive Impairment and Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Mitragyna Speciosa in Rodents | Speciosa.orgactivity has tile with 5 × 5 small boxes. In locomotor activity, number of crossing was counted with all four paws of rats was in the same tile. Number of crossing before treatment and 30 minutes after treatment was counted. The data was transformed to log10 and will then be further analyzed using statistical analysis.. 2.3.2 Novel-object Discrimination Test (NOD). For novel-object discrimination test (NOD), the rat was first placed in a perspex box which was parallel to the side walls and its nose was pointed away from the objects. For first three minutes exposure, the rat was exposed to two familiar objects (E1) while at the second three minutes exposure (E2), the rat was exposed to one familiar object and one novel object. The time interval between those two exposures was one minute. The time-spent on familiar (F) and novel (N) objects was recorded for both exposures. Discrimination ratio (D1) was calculated by substracting the N to F, while discrimination index (D2) was obtained by dividing ...
Stem and Veins of Mitragyna speciosa | GaianaI started exploring the various strains. Because grinding is a pain and I enjoyed the slow come up of the coarse material I decided not to use grinded material.. Sumatra-S&V. First one I tried was the Red Vein Sumatra Stem and Veins. It was very intense and in a way even aggressive, almost dirty feeling but I thoroughly enjoyed it. Since I burn mainly for stress relief the intense relaxation was perfect.. The S&V from the WVS were more or less comparable to the red. Somehow it was a bit more energetic and even nervous at times but I would have a hard time telling them apart.. Malay-S&V. I had high expectations since the Malay makes such a potent leaf. I was surprised to find that the S&Vs from this strain were very mellow, smooth and pleasantly relaxing. Compared to the Sumatra's the Malay was more stretched out and smouldering. Because of its long lasting and smooth analgesic effect the Malay S&V could be an excellent choice for people with chronic pain. Surprisingly in some combinations it can ...
HealthMitragyna Speciosa, also known as Kratom, is closely related to the coffee plant. It is native to S.E countries, where it has been used as a traditional herbal medication for a very long time to help relieve pain, alleviate depression and anxiety symptoms, and boost energy, as well as promoting feelings happiness and wellbeing.. Presently, Kratom leaves have become very popular for treating various illnesses. It derives most of its health benefits from the unique nutrients and chemical compounds that are contained within the leaves of the plant. Here below are some of the health benefits of Kratom leaves that have greatly contributed to its increasing popularity:. ...
Kratom - A Promising Herbal Pain Reliever | Speciosa.orgBy Paul Kemp. What Is Kratom and Why You Should Care. Kratom is many things to many different people.. To the ethnobotanist, kratom is an interesting herb with many traditional uses and a long record of safety. To the DEA, it is a substance of concern, though not yet illegal.. To those intrepid cosmonauts of the drug subculture, kratom represents a new frontier in the never-ending search for Euphoria, which is a common side-effect of painkillers, both natural and synthetic.. To the press, it is fodder for horror stories of those who have abused the herb and are now paying the price. Here is a typical TV News report on this new "drug menace" - full of hearsay, all negative and none of the documented positives uncovered by published scientific researchers.. To the pharmaceutical researchers, kratom contains 40 unique compounds, some of which may be turned into blockbuster prescription drugs. Kratom also represents a potential threat to Big Pharma's profitable sales of addictive painkillers and OTC ...
Ballot IntegritySince I started taking kratom, my anxiety levels have dropped to basically nothing. I haven't experienced anxiety in quite a long time, and even when I stop taking kratom, I rarely experience anxiety. I'm not sure if this is an effect of the kratom, or a different personal development, but the two coincide quite well.. I have noticed, however, that in some cases, such as panic attacks, kratom is mostly ineffective. The reason for this is that it is simply not fast-acting enough. The only option to make it effective, is to have kratom tea ready, and chug it down quickly while in a panicked state, which is difficult. For generalized anxiety, however, kratom seems to be quite effective.. How I Use Kratom for Anxiety. In my experience, the best way to take kratom for anxiety is sporadically, as confirmed here. Once you develop a tolerance to kratom, it becomes somewhat less effective. For this reason, a good way to use kratom for anxiety is to take it before you enter a situation that you know will ...
Kratom Articles Archives - Kratom ShopPosted by Kratom Specialist on Feb 28, 2014 in Kratom Articles , 0 comments. What a curious little plant this Mitragynine speciosa is! It is a fanciful treat, donned from the annals of cloudless nights and the.... Read More ...
Why the FDA Is Suppressing KratomKratom received a hard slap on the hand recently to remind us all that those who sell kratom must play by the FDA's confusing rules.
Beta-arrestin | Speciosa.orgDisclaimer: None of the descriptions given on this site have been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Kratom discussed on this site are not meant to diagnose, heal, cure, relieve or prevent any disease. All information on this site are the views of their individual writers who do not declare to be medical experts giving pharmaceutical advice. You should discuss with your physician or another adequate healthcare expert before you start using any dietary pills or link in mental health or wellness programs. Different affiliates maintain this site, and we receive a paid commission on certain products from our sponsors. Any and all logos, labels, service marks, and brand names presented on this website are the registered or unregistered Trademarks of their particular owners. © 2017. Speciosa Organization. ...
opiates - sixthseal.comThis should probably go into castitas.com but I feel like writing on my main blog. Kratom (known as ketum in Malaysia) is a leaf with psychoactive properties. I have been searching for it for quite some time - it's sold in certain parts of Malaysia (especially in the rural cultivation community) in bags of homemade prepared liquid kratom.. Unfortunately, the Malaysian government decided to ban ketum a few years back and the only ones available are highly dubious and sans quality control. Kratom is illegal in Malaysia.. It is rather ironic that I have to travel all the way to Amsterdam to experience a psychoactive plant that is indigenous to MY OWN COUNTRY.. ...
EnglishKratom is an addictive drug, and classified as a psychoactive substance. Here are some signs and symptoms of abuse of the drug Kratom.
Kratom | GaianaGreen Malay. The current potency of this strain/batch I would rate 8/10. It is a very good balanced strain. It is euphoric,…. joshua.schueppen ...
Herbal medicine for pain relief | LMB Health GroupNatural remedies have been used in many treatments. Many of these herbs are even used in cooking in particular countries. For example, kratom was a snack that was presented to guests who came to visit you in Thailand
Mitragyna: Mitragyna is a genus of trees in the Rubiaceae family. Members of this genus contain antimalarial and analgesic indole alkaloids.MitragynineOphiorrhiza: Ophiorrhiza is a genus of flowering plants in the coffee (Rubiaceae) family. Species of the genus contain camptothecin, an alkaloid used to make chemotherapeutic agents.
(1/13) A new 9-methoxyyohimbine-type indole alkaloid from Mitragyna africanus.
A new yohimbine-type indole alkaloid (1). was isolated from the stem bark of Mitragyna africanus (WILLD.) collected in Nigeria, along with known seven Corynanthe-type oxindole alkaloids, two secoiridoids, three lignans, and a quinovic acid derivative. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. (+info)
(2/13) Expression of connexins 40 and 43 in human left atrium in atrial fibrillation of different aetiologies.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with changes in the expression of connexins 40 and 43 in the left atrium with more pronounced changes in mitral valve disease than in lone AF. METHODS: Protein concentrations of connexin 40 and connexin 43 were analysed in left atrial tissue of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. One group of patients had lone AF (n = 41), one group had AF and mitral valve repair (n = 36), and one group in sinus rhythm served as controls (n = 15). RESULTS: Western blot analysis of connexin 40 and connexin 43 expression showed an increase of both gap junctional proteins (connexin 43 > connexin 40) in patients with AF of all forms compared with patients in sinus rhythm (p = 0.01 and p = 0.011, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed increased concentrations of connexin 40 in lone AF and AF with mitral valve disease compared with sinus rhythm (p = 0.06 and p = 0.029, respectively), whereas the same analysis for connexin 43 reached significance only in the mitral valve disease group (p = 0.031). No differences in connexin 40 and connexin 43 expression were detectable between lone AF and AF with mitral valve disease. Within the groups connexin 40 and connexin 43 expression did not differ between patients with paroxysmal AF and patients with chronic AF. CONCLUSION: The present study shows for the first time that AF can induce changes in the left atrium with increased connexin expression. Furthermore, no systematic differences between patients with paroxysmal and chronic AF were detected. (+info)
(3/13) Molecular analysis of the genus Mitragyna existing in Thailand based on rDNA ITS sequences and its application to identify a narcotic species: Mitragyna speciosa.
In Thailand, there are four Mitragyna species; M. speciosa, M. hirsuta, M. diversifolia, and M. rotundifolia. One, M. speciosa, is a narcotic plant and has medicinal importance for its opium-like effect. Since the use of M. speciosa has been forbidden in Thailand, the leaves of M. diversifolia or others are frequently used as substitutes but are not considered as effective. Therefore, accurate authentication of M. speciosa is essential for both medicinal and forensic purposes. The nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and the 5.8S coding region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the Mitragyna species were analyzed. The whole length of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was 608 bp in M. speciosa, 607 bp in the other species. Nineteen sites of nucleotide substitutions and 3 sites of 1-bp indels were observed, and M. speciosa showed specific sequence differed from the others. Based on the ITS sequences, a distinctive site recognized by a restriction enzyme XmaI in M. speciosa was found and then PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was established to differentiate M. speciosa from the others. By the method, a 409-bp PCR fragment of ITS1-5.8S (partial) rDNA region from M. speciosa was cleaved into two fragments of 119 bp and 290 bp while the other species remained undigested. This method provides an effective and accurate identification of M. speciosa. (+info)
(4/13) Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (Mitragynia speciosa korth).
(5/13) Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous, methanolic and alkaloid extracts from Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae family) leaves.
(6/13) In vitro and in vivo effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa korth leaf extracts on phase II drug metabolizing enzymes--glutathione transferases (GSTs).
(7/13) Seizure and coma following Kratom (Mitragynina speciosa Korth) exposure.
(8/13) Absence of organ specific toxicity in rats treated with Tonica, an aqueous herbal haematinic preparation.
The sub-chronic toxicity of Tonica, an aqueous herbal haematinic prepared from the stem barks of Khaya senegalensis, Mitragyna stipulosa and Kigelia africana, was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 28, 280 and 560 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing the normal human dose, 10x and 20x that dose, respectively for 6 weeks. The growth rate of animals over the period of treatment and certain serum biochemical and haematological indices as well as urinalysis and weight of selected organs at termination, were determined. Results show that the extract did not affect the weight gain of the animals with time or the mean wet weights of selected organs. Although there were slight but insignificant (p>0.05) elevations in WBC (16-27%) and PLT (8-11%) counts in Tonica-treated animals compared to controls at 10x and 20x the normal dose, most serum biochemical, haematological and urinalysis data indicated no significant differences (p>0.05) between tests and control rats. There were also no changes in the morphology of liver, kidney, lung and heart tissues as a result of Tonica treatment. These findings suggest that Tonica is safe at the dosage regimens administered to the animals in this study, and there appears to be no overt organ specific toxicity associated with it. (+info)
kratom or mitragyna speciosa
- Welcome to our new blog, for those new to kratom or mitragyna speciosa, this is a nice starting point to collect and share information and questions. (wordpress.com)
- As it is popularly known, Kratom or Mitragyna Speciosa is used as an alternative to drugs due to its many medicinal benefits. (salviamonster.com)
- Yellow Borneo Mitragyna speciosa bulk tea powder. (zionherbals.com)
- Kratom, also known as Mitragyna Speciosa is considered as a psychoactive tree with a wide array of uses. (smurfplant.com)