Mimulus: A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Flower box: __NOTOC__Cytoplasmic male sterility: Cytoplasmic male sterility is total or partial male sterility in plants as the result of specific nuclear and mitochondrial interactions. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes.F1 hybrid: An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F1 hybrids are used in genetics, and in selective breeding, where it may appear as F1 crossbreed.
(1/56) Inbreeding and the genetic variance in floral traits of Mimulus guttatus.
The additive genetic variance, V(A), is frequently used as a measure of evolutionary potential in natural plant populations. Many plants inbreed to some extent; a notable observation given that random mating is essential to the model that predicts evolutionary change from V(A). With inbreeding, V(A) is not the only relevant component of genetic variation. Several nonadditive components emerge from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic dominance. An important empirical question is whether these components are quantitatively significant. We use maximum likelihood estimation to extract estimates for V(A) and the nonadditive 'inbreeding components' from an experimental study of the wildflower Mimulus guttatus. The inbreeding components contribute significantly to four of five floral traits, including several measures of flower size and stigma-anther separation. These results indicate that inbreeding will substantially alter the evolutionary response to natural selection on floral characters. (+info)
(2/56) Deleterious mutations and the genetic variance of male fitness components in Mimulus guttatus.
Deleterious mutations are relevant to a broad range of questions in genetics and evolutionary biology. I present an application of the "biometric method" for estimating mutational parameters for male fitness characters of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus. The biometric method rests on two critical assumptions. The first is that experimental inbreeding changes genotype frequencies without changing allele frequencies; i.e., there is no genetic purging during the experiment. I satisfy this condition by employing a breeding design in which the parents are randomly extracted, fully homozygous inbred lines. The second is that all genetic variation is attributable to deleterious mutations maintained in mutation-selection balance. I explicitly test this hypothesis using likelihood ratios. Of the three deleterious mutation models tested, the first two are rejected for all characters. The failure of these models is due to an excess of additive genetic variation relative to the expectation under mutation-selection balance. The third model is not rejected for either of two log-transformed male fitness traits. However, this model imposes only "weak conditions" and is not sufficiently detailed to provide estimates for mutational parameters. The implication is that, if biometric methods are going to yield useful parameter estimates, they will need to consider mutational models more complicated than those typically employed in experimental studies. (+info)
(3/56) Allele substitution at a flower colour locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers.
The role of major mutations in adaptive evolution has been debated for more than a century. The classical view is that adaptive mutations are nearly infinite in number with infinitesimally small phenotypic effect, but recent theory suggests otherwise. To provide empirical estimates of the magnitude of adaptive mutations in wild plants, we conducted field studies to determine the adaptive value of alternative alleles at a single locus, YELLOW UPPER (YUP). YUP controls the presence or absence of yellow carotenoid pigments in the petals of pink-flowered Mimulus lewisii, which is pollinated by bumblebees, and its red-flowered sister species M. cardinalis, which is pollinated by hummingbirds. We bred near-isogenic lines (NILs) in which the YUP allele from each species was substituted into the other. M. cardinalis NILs with the M. lewisii YUP allele had dark pink flowers and received 74-fold more bee visits than the wild type, whereas M. lewisii NILs with the M. cardinalis yup allele had yellow-orange flowers and received 68-fold more hummingbird visits than the wild type. These results indicate that an adaptive shift in pollinator preference may be initiated by a single major mutation. (+info)
(4/56) The influence of floral display size on selfing rates in Mimulus ringens.
Pollinators often visit several flowers in sequence on plants with large floral displays. This foraging pattern is expected to influence the rate of self-fertilization in self-compatible taxa. To quantify the effects of daily floral display on pollinator movements and selfing, we experimentally manipulated flower number in four replicate (cloned) arrays of Mimulus ringens (Scrophulariaceae), each consisting of genets with unique combinations of homozygous marker genotypes. Four display classes (two, four, eight and 16 flowers) were present in each array. Pollinator visitation rate per flower and seed set per fruit were unaffected by display. However, flower number strongly influenced the frequency of within-plant pollinator movements, which increased from 13.8% of probes on two-flower displays to 77.6% of probes on 16-flower displays. The proportion of within-plant movements was significantly correlated with selfing (r = 0.993). The increase from 22.9% selfing on two-flower displays to 37.3% selfing on 16-flower displays reflects changes in the extent of geitonogamous self-pollination. We estimate that approximately half of all selfing on 16-flower displays resulted from geitonogamy. Selfing also varied dramatically among fruits within display classes. Nested ANOVA indicates that differences among flowers on two-flower ramets accounted for 45.4% of the variation in selfing, differences among genets accounted for 16.1% of the variation, and statistical and sampling error accounted for 38.5% of the variation. Differences among flowers within ramets may reflect the order of sequential floral probes on a display. (+info)
(5/56) A novel meiotic drive locus almost completely distorts segregation in mimulus (monkeyflower) hybrids.
We report the discovery, mapping, and characterization of a meiotic drive locus (D) exhibiting nearly 100% nonrandom transmission in hybrids between two species of yellow monkeyflowers, outcrossing Mimulus guttatus and selfing M. nasutus. Only 1% of F(2) hybrids were M. nasutus homozygotes at the marker most tightly linked to D. We used a set of reciprocal backcrosses to distinguish among male-specific, female-specific, and zygote-specific sources of transmission ratio distortion. Transmission was severely distorted only when the heterozygous F(1) acted as the female parent in crosses to either parental species, ruling out pollen competition and zygote mortality as potential sources of drive. After four generations of backcrossing to M. nasutus, nearly isogenic lines were still >90% heterozygous at markers linked to D, suggesting that heterozygosity at the drive locus alone is sufficient for nonrandom transmission. A lack of dramatic female fitness costs in these lines rules out alternatives involving ovule or seed mortality and points to a truly meiotic mechanism of drive. The strength and direction of drive in this system is consistent with population genetic theory of selfish element evolution under different mating systems. These results are the first empirical demonstration of the strong female-specific drive predicted by new models of selfish centromere turnover. (+info)
(6/56) Estimating heritabilities and genetic correlations with marker-based methods: an experimental test in Mimulus guttatus.
The calculation of heritabilities and genetic correlations, which are necessary for predicting evolutionary responses, requires knowledge about the relatedness between individuals. This information is often not directly available, especially not for natural populations, but can be inferred by using molecular markers such as allozymes. Several methods based on inferred relatedness from marker data have been developed to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations in natural populations. Most methods use maximum-likelihood procedures to assign pairs or groups of individuals to predefined discrete relatedness classes (e.g., half sibs and unrelated individuals). The Ritland method, on the other hand, uses method of moments estimators to estimate pairwise relatedness among individuals as continuous values. We tested both the Ritland method and a maximum-likelihood method by applying them to a greenhouse population consisting of seed families of the herb Mimulus guttatus and comparing the results to the ones from a frequently used standard method based on half-sib families. Estimates of genetic correlations were far from accurate, especially when we used the Ritland method. However, this study shows that even with a few variable allozyme loci, it is possible to get qualitatively good indications about the presence of heritable genetic variation from marker-based methods, even though both methods underestimated it. (+info)
(7/56) Transmission ratio distortion in intraspecific hybrids of Mimulus guttatus: implications for genomic divergence.
We constructed a genetic linkage map between two divergent populations of Mimulus guttatus. We genotyped an F(2) mapping population (N = 539) at 154 AFLP, microsatellite, and gene-based markers. A framework map was constructed consisting of 112 marker loci on 14 linkage groups with a total map length of 1518 cM Kosambi. Nearly half of all markers (48%) exhibited significant transmission ratio distortion (alpha = 0.05). By using a Bayesian multipoint mapping method and visual inspection of significantly distorted markers, we detected 12 transmission ratio distorting loci (TRDL) throughout the genome. The high degree of segregation distortion detected in this intraspecific map indicates substantial genomic divergence that perhaps suggests genomic incompatibilities between these two populations. We compare the pattern of transmission ratio distortion in this map to an interspecific map constructed between M. guttatus and M. nasutus. A similar level of segregation distortion is detected in both maps. Collinear regions between maps are compared to determine if there are shared genetic patterns of non-Mendelian segregation distortion within and among Mimulus species. (+info)
(8/56) Epistasis in monkeyflowers.
Epistasis contributes significantly to intrapopulation variation in floral morphology, development time, and male fitness components of Mimulus guttatus. This is demonstrated with a replicated line-cross experiment involving slightly over 7000 plants. The line-cross methodology is based on estimates for means. It thus has greater power than the variance partitioning approaches historically used to estimate epistasis within populations. The replication of the breeding design across many pairs of randomly extracted, inbred lines is necessary given the diversity of multilocus genotypes residing within an outbred deme. Male fitness is shown to exhibit synergistic epistasis, an accelerating decline in fitness with inbreeding. Synergism is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a mutational deterministic hypothesis for the evolutionary maintenance of sexual reproduction. Unlike male fitness measures, flower morphology and development time yield positive evidence of epistasis but not of synergism. The results for these traits suggest that epistatic effects are variable across genetic backgrounds or sets of interacting loci. (+info)