Mastocytosis: A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the abnormal increase of MAST CELLS in only the skin (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS), in extracutaneous tissues involving multiple organs (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC), or in solid tumors (MASTOCYTOMA).Mastocytosis, Systemic: A group of disorders caused by the abnormal proliferation of MAST CELLS in a variety of extracutaneous tissues including bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. Systemic mastocytosis is commonly seen in adults. These diseases are categorized on the basis of clinical features, pathologic findings, and prognosis.Mastocytosis, Cutaneous: Skin lesions due to abnormal infiltration of MAST CELLS. Cutaneous mastocytosis is confined to the skin without the involvement of other tissues or organs, and is mostly found in children. The three major variants are: URTICARIA PIGMENTOSA; diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis; and SOLITARY MASTOCYTOMA OF SKIN.Urticaria Pigmentosa: The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.Tryptases: A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Leukemia, Mast-Cell: A form of systemic mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC) characterized by the presence of large numbers of tissue MAST CELLS in the peripheral blood without skin lesions. It is a high-grade LEUKEMIA disease with bone marrow smear of >20% MAST CELLS, multi-organ failure and a short survival.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Methylhistamines: Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Trichinella spiralis: A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Mastocytoma: A solid tumor consisting of a dense infiltration of MAST CELLS. It is generally benign.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Interleukin-9: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Hydroxyzine: A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.Prostaglandins D: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Interleukin-5 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-5 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-5. Several isoforms of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha subunit exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Vulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.
Xanthelasmoidal mastocytosis: Xanthelasmoidal mastocytosis is a cutaneous condition characterized by numerous, confluent, yellow–tan papules.Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis: Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis has diffuse involvement in which the entire integument may be thickened and infiltrated with mast cells to produce a peculiar orange color, giving rise to the term "homme orange."James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Urticaria pigmentosaTryptase: Tryptase (, ) is the most abundant secretory granule-derived serine proteinase contained in mast cells and has been used as a marker for mast cell activation. The biological function of tryptase is unclear.MotesanibDegranulationMast cell leukemiaBone marrow suppression: Bone marrow suppression or myelotoxicity (adjective myelotoxic) or myelosuppression is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine.Bone marrow examination: Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration. Bone marrow examination is used in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, including leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, anemia, and pancytopenia.Anaphylaxis Campaign: The Anaphylaxis Campaign is the only UK charity to exclusively meet the needs of the growing numbers of people at risk from severe allergic reactions by providing information and support relating to foods and other triggers such as latex, drugs and insect stings.The Anaphylaxis CampaignInternational Conference on Trichinellosis: The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the physiopathology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals. Prevention is a primary goal (see ICTweb pages).Intestinal parasiteHydroxyzineBithynia fuchsiana: Bithynia fuchsiana is a species of small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Bithyniidae.Philophthalmus gralliAncestimEosinophilic gastroenteritisScolopendra: Scolopendra (through Latin from Greek "skolopendra") is a genus of centipedes of the family Scolopendridae.Brain biopsyLabial fusion
(1/170) Cutaneous and systemic manifestations of mastocytosis.
Mastocytosis is characterized by an excessive number of apparently normal mast cells in the skin and, occasionally, in other organs. Characteristic skin lesions, called urticaria pigmentosa, are present in most patients, but clinical presentation can vary from a pruritic rash to unexplained collapse and sudden death. These lesions are typically tan to red-brown macules that appear on the trunk and spread symmetrically. Patients with mastocytosis often have a long history of chronic and acute symptoms that were unrecognized as mastocytosis. Skin lesions may or may not accompany systemic mastocytosis. Systemic disease may involve the gastrointestinal tract, the bone marrow or other organs. Even when the disease is considered as a possibility by the physician, the diagnosis can be difficult because of special technical requirements necessary for biopsy and because of the problems with biochemical testing. Drug therapy is initiated to stabilize mast cell membranes, to reduce the severity of the attacks and to block the action of inflammatory mediators. The mainstay of therapy is histamine H1 and H2 blockers and the avoidance of triggering factors. (+info)
(2/170) Stem cell factor is localized in, released from, and cleaved by human mast cells.
Stem cell factor (SCF) is the most important cytokine regulating human mast cell growth and functions. The immunogold technique showed SCF in the secretory granules of skin mast cells and in lung parenchymal mast cells (HLMC). Immunoreactive SCF (iSCF) was detected in cell lysates of HLMC, but not in basophils; iSCF and histamine were detected in supernatants of HLMC 3 min after challenge with anti-FcepsilonRI or anti-IgE, and iSCF in supernatants rapidly declined after 30 min, whereas histamine remained unchanged for 120 min. HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS) analysis of recombinant human SCF1-166 (18,656. 9 +/- 0.9 Da) treated with chymase showed a polypeptide of 17,977.1 +/- 0.6 Da and a minor component of 697.4 +/- 0.1 Da generated by specific cleavage at Phe159. SCF1-166 and SCF1-159 similarly activated HLMC, potentiated anti-IgE-induced activation of these cells, and stimulated HLMC chemotaxis. SCF159-166 had no effect on mast cells. Western blot analysis of supernatants of anti-IgE-activated HLMC incubated with recombinant human SCF1-166 showed that SCF1-166 was rapidly cleaved to SCF1-159 and SCF1-144. Experiments with supernatants of anti-IgE-activated HLMC incubated with SCF1-166 yielded similar results. In conclusion, SCF is stored in mast cell secretory granules and is immunologically released by human mast cells. SCF1-166 is rapidly and specifically cleaved to SCF1-159 by chymase, which retains its biological effect on mast cells. SCF is also cleaved by other proteases to several SCF species whose possible biological activities remain to be established. (+info)
(3/170) An unusual presentation of systemic mastocytosis.
A 47 year old man presented with mastocytosis, a disease process characterised by proliferation of mast cells. The clinical features and outcome are discussed. (+info)
(4/170) Cutaneous mucinosis and mastocytosis in a shar-pei.
A 7-year-old shar-pei was presented because of a recurrent dermatologic condition. Skin biopsies revealed an idiopathic (primary) cutaneous mucinosis that initially responded to corticosteroids. The condition reappeared 2 years later and subsequent biopsies revealed a mast cell tumor in some of the skin sites previously diagnosed with mucinosis. (+info)
(5/170) c-Kit and c-kit mutations in mastocytosis and other hematological diseases.
Mast cells (MC) are tissue elements derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Their differentiation and proliferation processes are under the influence of cytokines, including one of utmost importance known as stem cell factor (SCF). SCF receptor is encoded by the protooncogene c-kit, belongs to the type III receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily, and is also expressed on other hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic cells. Ligation of c-kit receptor by SCF induces its dimerization, followed by induction of multiple intracellular signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and activation. Mastocytosis, a relatively rare group of diseases characterized by accumulation of MC in various tissues, are found isolated or sometimes associated with other hematological malignancies in humans. Although the initial events leading to mastocytosis are not yet unraveled, alterations of the c-kit gene have been described. Particularly interesting are acquired mutations resulting in a constitutively activated receptor, possibly involved in the increased numbers of MC in tissues. For this reason, future strategies might be envisaged to target specifically the mutated c-kit and/or its intracellular signaling. (+info)
(6/170) A role of mast cell glycosaminoglycans for the immunological expulsion of intestinal nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis.
We examined effects of mast cell glycosaminoglycans on the establishment of the intestinal nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, in the mouse small intestine. When intestinal mastocytosis occurred, surgically implanted adult worms could not invade and establish in the intestinal mucosa. In mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice, inhibition of adult worm invasion was not evident as compared with littermate +/+ control mice. Mucosal mastocytosis and inhibition of S. venezuelensis adult worm mucosal invasion was tightly correlated. To determine effector molecules for the invasion inhibition, adult worms were implanted with various sulfated carbohydrates including mast cell glycosaminoglycans. Among sulfated carbohydrates tested, chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-A, ChS-E, heparin, and dextran sulfate inhibited invasion of adult worms into intestinal mucosa in vivo. No significant inhibition was observed with ChS-C, desulfated chondroitin, and dextran. ChS-E, heparin, and dextran sulfate inhibited adhesion of S. venezuelensis adult worms to plastic surfaces in vitro. Furthermore, binding of intestinal epithelial cells to adhesion substances of S. venezuelensis, which have been implicated in mucosal invasion, was inhibited by ChS-E, heparin, and dextran sulfate. Because adult worms of S. venezuelensis were actively moving in the intestinal mucosa, probably exiting and reentering during infection, the possible expulsion mechanism for S. venezuelensis is inhibition by mast cell glycosaminoglycans of attachment and subsequent invasion of adult worms into intestinal epithelium. (+info)
(7/170) Nitric oxide mediates intestinal pathology but not immune expulsion during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice.
The relationship between intestinal pathology and immune expulsion of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes remains controversial. Although immune expulsion of GI helminth parasites is usually associated with Th2 responses, the effector mechanisms directly responsible for parasite loss have not been identified. We have previously shown that while the intestinal pathology accompanying the expulsion of the GI parasite Trichinella spiralis may be dependent on IL-4 and mediated by TNF, parasite loss is independent of TNF. In contrast, intestinal pathology in other disease models has been attributed to Th1 cytokines, although it closely resembles that seen in helminth infections. Whereas production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the gut is important for both homeostasis of the epithelial layer and in protection against pathogenic microorganisms, overproduction of NO has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory conditions. We therefore investigated the role of NO in T. spiralis infection using iNOS-deficient mice. iNOS-/- and iNOS-/+ mice were infected with T. spiralis, and parasite expulsion and intestinal pathology were followed. Parasite expulsion proceeded similarly in both groups of animals, but significant intestinal pathology was only observed in the heterozygous mice. Thus it appears that, although the protective effects of Th2 responses in GI helminth infection do not require NO, this mediator contributes substantially to the associated enteropathy. NO may therefore be an important mediator of enteropathy in both Th1- and Th2-inducing conditions. (+info)
(8/170) Pulmonary manifestation of systemic mast cell disease.
Systemic mast cell disease is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. Systemic infiltration and proliferation of mast cells in skin, bone marrow, gastrointestinum and lymph nodes is the central pathological feature. This study reports a patient with mastocytosis of the skin (urticaria pigmentosa) for 10 yrs. The patient was referred to hospital for dyspnoea. Chest radiograph showed moderate reticular infiltration of both lungs, computerized tomography revealed multiple lymph nodes of the mediastinum and faint nodular lesions of middle and upper areas of lungs. Transbronchial biopsy demonstrated mast cell infiltration of the lung with formation of mast cell granuloma. According to the current literature, systemic mast cell disease with pulmonary involvement is a very rare entity. After a treatment with interferon alpha-2a over 6 months, the patient's condition and particularly dyspnoea showed improvement in parallel with an amelioration of the lesions as demonstrated by thorax computed tomography. (+info)