Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Leukemoid Reaction: A peripheral blood picture resembling that of leukemia or indistinguishable from it on the basis of morphologic appearance alone. (Dorland, 27th ed)Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Thrombocytosis: Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Thrombocythemia, Essential: A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.Polycythemia Vera: A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Anemia, Myelophthisic: Anemia characterized by appearance of immature myeloid and nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood, resulting from infiltration of the bone marrow by foreign or abnormal tissue.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Primary Myelofibrosis: A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Sweet Syndrome: Condition characterized by large, rapidly extending, erythematous, tender plaques on the upper body usually accompanied by fever and dermal infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. It occurs mostly in middle-aged women, is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection, and clinically resembles ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME. Sweet syndrome is associated with LEUKEMIA.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
LeukocytosisLeukemoid reactionParaneoplastic syndrome: A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body but that, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, 2011, Darnell & Posner These phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (by hormones or cytokines) excreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor.ThrombocytosisLouis Henri Vaquez: Louis Henri Vaquez (27 August 1860 – 1936) was a French internist born in Paris. He is known for his work in the field of hematology and his research of heart disease.Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemiaDiffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome occurs in HIV positive patients with low CD4 counts.Myelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases: Myelodysplastic–myeloproliferative diseases are a category of hematological malignancies disorders created by the World Health Organization which have characteristics of both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative conditions.PegfilgrastimDacrocyte: A dacrocyte (or dacryocyte) is a type of poikilocyte that is shaped like a teardrop (a "teardrop cell"). A marked increase of dacrocytes is known as "dacrocytosis".SelectinHinchey Classification: Hinchey Classification is used to describe perforations of the colon due to diverticulitis.Gross examinationBordet-Gengou agar: Bordet-Gengou agar is a type of agar plate optimized to isolate Bordetella, containing blood, potato extract, and glycerol, with an antibiotic such as cephalexin or penicillin and sometimes nicotinamide.The potato extract provided nitrogen and vitamins, and potato starch absorbed fatty acids present in nasal secretions or collection-swab cotton that inhibited growth; glycerol was a carbon source.Neutrophil granulocyteMyelofibrosisRabbit feverReactive neutrophilic dermatoses: Reactive neutrophilic dermatoses are a spectrum of conditions mediated by neutrophils, and typically associated with underlying diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and hematologic malignancy.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Trioxide: A trioxide is a compound with three oxygen atoms. For metals with the M2O3 formula there are several common structures.Blood cell: A blood cell, also called a hemocyte, hematocyte, or hematopoietic cell, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood. In mammals, these fall into three general categories:
(1/489) A murine model of renal abscess formation.
We developed a murine model of kidney abscess by direct renal injection of either Escherichia coli (1 x 10(6) to 7 x 10(6) organisms) or sterile medium. Bacterial infection produced renal abscesses, bacteremia, and late-onset leukocytosis in all animals. Controls were unaffected. This model may be useful for the study of various sequelae of kidney infection. (+info)
(2/489) Effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist overexpression on infection by Listeria monocytogenes.
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is a naturally occurring cytokine whose only known function is the inhibition of interleukin-1 (IL-1). Using a reverse genetic approach in mice, we previously showed that increasing IL-1ra gene dosage leads to reduced survival of a primary listerial infection. In this study, we characterize further the role of endogenously produced IL-1ra and, by inference, IL-1 in murine listeriosis. IL-1ra overexpression inhibits, but does not eliminate, primary immune responses, reducing survival and increasing bacterial loads in the target organs. We demonstrate that IL-1ra functions in the innate immune response to regulate the peak leukocyte levels in the blood, the accumulation of leukocytes at sites of infection, and the activation of macrophages during a primary infection. Reduced macrophage class II major histocompatibility complex expression was observed despite increased gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) levels, suggesting that IL-1 activity is essential along with IFN-gamma for macrophage activation in vivo. We also show that IL-1ra plays a more limited role during secondary listeriosis, blunting the strength of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to listerial antigen while not significantly altering cellular immunity to a second infectious challenge. When these results are compared to those for other mutant mice, IL-1ra appears to be unique among the cytokines studied to date in its regulation of leukocyte migration during primary listeriosis. (+info)
(3/489) Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a determinant of pathogenesis and disease progression in mycobacterial infection in the central nervous system.
The pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis, a devastating complication of tuberculosis in man, is poorly understood. We previously reported that rabbits with experimental tuberculous meningitis were protected from death by a combination of antibiotics and thalidomide therapy. Survival was associated with inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by thalidomide. To test whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of TNF-alpha correlated with pathogenesis, the response of rabbits infected in the central nervous system (CNS) with various mycobacterial strains was studied. CNS infection with Mycobacterium bovis Ravenel, M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Pasteur, and M. bovis BCG Montreal were compared. M. bovis Ravenel induced the highest levels of TNF-alpha in the CSF in association with high leukocytosis, protein accumulation, and severe meningeal inflammation. BCG Pasteur had intermediate effects, and BCG Montreal was the least virulent. In addition, M. bovis Ravenel numbers were highest in the brain and CSF and the bacilli also disseminated more efficiently to distant organs, compared with BCG Pasteur and BCG Montreal. In subsequent experiments, rabbits were infected with either recombinant M. bovis BCG Montreal (vector), or BCG Montreal expressing the murine gene for TNF-alpha (BCG mTNF-alpha). BCG Montreal was rendered virulent by the expression of murine TNF-alpha, as demonstrated by high CSF leukocytosis, high protein accumulation, severe meningeal inflammation, persistent bacillary load, and progressive clinical deterioration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the level of TNF-alpha produced during mycobacterial CNS infection determines, at least in part, the extent of pathogenesis. (+info)
(4/489) Cerebral malaria versus bacterial meningitis in children with impaired consciousness.
Cerebral malaria (CM) and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the two common causes of impaired consciousness in children presenting to hospital in sub-Sahara Africa. Since the clinical features of the two diseases may be very similar, treatment is often guided by the initial laboratory findings. However, no detailed studies have examined the extent to which the laboratory findings in these two diseases may overlap. We reviewed data from 555 children with impaired consciousness admitted to Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Strictly defined groups were established based on the malaria slide, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leucocyte count and the results of blood and CSF culture and CSF bacterial antigen testing. Our data suggests significant overlap in the initial CSF findings between CM and ABM. The absolute minimum proportions of children with impaired consciousness and malaria parasitaemia who also had definite bacterial meningitis were 4% of all children and 14% of children under 1 year of age. The estimated maximum proportion of all children with impaired consciousness and malaria parasitaemia in whom the diagnosis was dual or unclear was at least 13%. The finding of malaria parasites in the blood of an unconscious child in sub-Saharan Africa is not sufficient to establish a diagnosis of cerebral malaria, and acute bacterial meningitis must be actively excluded in all cases. (+info)
(5/489) Neutrophil A2A adenosine receptor inhibits inflammation in a rat model of meningitis: synergy with the type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram.
Bacterial meningitis is a disease worsened by neutrophil-induced damage in the subarachnoid space. In this study, the A2A adenosine receptors on human neutrophils were characterized, and the role of A2A receptors on the trafficking of leukocytes to the cerebrospinal fluid and on blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) was assessed in a rat meningitis model. Neutrophils bind the A2A selective antagonist, 125I-ZM241385 (Bmax=843 receptors/neutrophil; KD=0.125 nM). A selective A2A receptor agonist, WRC-0470 (2-cyclohexylmethylidene-hydrazinoadenosine; 0.03-1 microM), alone and synergistically with the type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram, increased neutrophil [cAMP]i and reduced cytokine-enhanced neutrophil adherence, superoxide release, and degranulation. These effects of WRC-0470 were reversed by ZM241385 (100 nM). In a lipopolysaccharide-induced rat meningitis model, WRC-0470 (0-0.9 microgram/kg/h), with or without rolipram (0-0.01 microgram/kg/h), inhibited pleocytosis and reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in BBBP, indicative of decreased neutrophil-induced damage. (+info)
(6/489) Studies on treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with arsenic trioxide: remission induction, follow-up, and molecular monitoring in 11 newly diagnosed and 47 relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.
Fifty-eight acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients (11 newly diagnosed and 47 relapsed) were studied for arsenic trioxide (As2O3) treatment. Clinical complete remission (CR) was obtained in 8 of 11 (72.7%) newly diagnosed cases. However, As2O3 treatment resulted in hepatic toxicity in 7 cases including 2 deaths, in contrast to the mild liver dysfunction in one third of the relapsed patients. Forty of forty-seven (85.1%) relapsed patients achieved CR. Two of three nonresponders showed clonal evolution at relapse, with disappearance of t(15;17) and PML-RARalpha fusion gene in 1 and shift to a dominant AML-1-ETO population in another, suggesting a correlation between PML-RARalpha expression and therapeutic response. In a follow-up of 33 relapsed cases over 7 to 48 months, the estimated disease-free survival (DFS) rates for 1 and 2 years were 63.6% and 41.6%, respectively, and the actual median DFS was 17 months. Patients with white blood cell (WBC) count below 10 x 10(9)/L at relapse had better survival than those with WBC count over 10 x 10(9)/L (P =.038). The duration of As2O3-induced CR was related to postremission therapy, because there was only 2 of 11 relapses in patients treated with As2O3 combined with chemotherapy, compared with 12 of 18 relapses with As2O3 alone (P =.01). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in both newly diagnosed and relapsed groups showed long-term use of As2O3 could lead to a molecular remission in some patients. We thus recommend that ATRA be used as first choice for remission induction in newly diagnosed APL cases, whereas As2O3 can be either used as a rescue for relapsed cases or included into multidrug consolidation/maintenance clinical trials. (+info)
(7/489) Hydroxyurea in the management of the hematologic complications of chronic granulocytic leukemia.
The effect of hydroxyurea in 35 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), who either had entered an accelerated phase of the disease or had experienced excessive myelosuppression following alkylating agents, was studied. By either intravenous or oral administration, the drug was successful in reducing peripheral leukocyte and blast counts in all cases and in reducing splenomegaly in 13 of 17 patients. The median duration of disease control was 75 days in myeloproliferative acceleration and 27 days in frank blastic transformation. Mild nausea and vomiting were experienced by most patients, but reversible bone marrow suppression occured in only three patients. The drug proved useful in 19 patients who demonstrated myeloproliferative acceleration, especially in controlling excessive leukocytosis and/or thrombocytosis. Rapid reduction of an elevated blast cell count was achieved in nine patients who presented in blastic crisis, in an attempt to eliminate the associated risk of cerebral vascular leukostasis. Five patients who required treatment for their disease following splenectomy in the chronic phase were also well controlled. Hydroxyurea appears to have a definite role in the management of these hematologic complications of CGL. (+info)
(8/489) Epidemiological and clinical differences of snake bites among children and adults in south western Saudi Arabia.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical course and complications of snake bite in children and adults. METHODS: A retrospective review of 66 patients (28 children and 38 adults) admitted after snake bites for management at the Prince Abdullah Hospital in Bisha, in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, during the period May 1992 to May 1995. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in time of bite, site of bite, and sex preference between adults and children. Local complications, such as tissue necrosis, were commoner in children (14%) than in adults (5%). Systemic manifestations were also more commonly seen in children than in adults; this is possibly due to a higher ratio of injected venom to body mass in children. Leukocytosis was seen in 54% of children (adults 13%), a low haemoglobin concentration in 14% of children (adults 11%), prolonged prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times in 41% of children (adults 16%), while a high creatine phosphokinase was seen in 31% of children compared with 17% of adults. CONCLUSIONS: Children seem to have more serious local and systemic complications than adults and this may indicate the need to use a higher dose of antivenom than that being used at present. (+info)