Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive: Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl: Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.PiperazinesLeukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Genes, abl: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Blast Crisis: An advanced phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia, characterized by a rapid increase in the proportion of immature white blood cells (blasts) in the blood and bone marrow to greater than 30%.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr: Proto-oncogene protein bcr is a serine-threonine kinase that functions as a negative regulator of CELL PROLIFERATION and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. It is commonly fused with cellular abl protein to form BCR-ABL FUSION PROTEINS in PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME positive LEUKEMIA patients.Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase: The initial phase of chronic myeloid leukemia consisting of an relatively indolent period lasting from 4 to 7 years. Patients range from asymptomatic to those exhibiting ANEMIA; SPLENOMEGALY; and increased cell turnover. There are 5% or fewer blast cells in the blood and bone marrow in this phase.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative: A myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myelodysplasia associated with bone marrow and peripheral blood patterns similar to CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, but cytogenetically lacking a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr/abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Leukemia, T-Cell: A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Leukemia, B-Cell: A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl: Non-receptor tyrosine kinases encoded by the C-ABL GENES. They are distributed in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. c-Abl plays a role in normal HEMATOPOIESIS especially of the myeloid lineage. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl arises when specific N-terminal amino acids are deleted, releasing the kinase from negative regulation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Leukemia, Hairy Cell: A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Leukemia L1210Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein: Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.ThiazolesRNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute: An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Leukemic Infiltration: A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.Harringtonines: Tetracyclic spiro-BENZAZEPINES isolated from the seeds of CEPHALOTAXUS. They are esters of the alkaloid cephalotaxine and may be effective as antineoplastic agents.Leukemia, Myeloid, Accelerated Phase: The phase of chronic myeloid leukemia following the chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC-PHASE), where there are increased systemic symptoms, worsening cytopenias, and refractory LEUKOCYTOSIS.Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3: A receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in HEMATOPOIESIS. It is closely related to FMS PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN and is commonly mutated in acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Graft vs Leukemia Effect: Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell: Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Oncogene Proteins v-abl: Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Idarubicin: An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against BREAST NEOPLASMS; LYMPHOMA; and LEUKEMIA.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Preleukemia: Conditions in which the abnormalities in the peripheral blood or bone marrow represent the early manifestations of acute leukemia, but in which the changes are not of sufficient magnitude or specificity to permit a diagnosis of acute leukemia by the usual clinical criteria.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Leukemia, Plasma Cell: A rare, aggressive variant of MULTIPLE MYELOMA characterized by the circulation of excessive PLASMA CELLS in the peripheral blood. It can be a primary manifestation of multiple myeloma or develop as a terminal complication during the disease.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Asparaginase: A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 22.214.171.124.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Arabinofuranosylcytosine Triphosphate: A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell: A lymphoid leukemia characterized by a profound LYMPHOCYTOSIS with or without LYMPHADENOPATHY, hepatosplenomegaly, frequently rapid progression, and short survival. It was formerly called T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Myeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Leukemia, Prolymphocytic: A chronic leukemia characterized by a large number of circulating prolymphocytes. It can arise spontaneously or as a consequence of transformation of CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
ImatinibPyrazolopyrimidinePiperazineChildhood leukemia: Childhood leukemia is a type of leukemia, usually acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and a type of childhood cancer. The cure rate of childhood leukemia is generally higher than adult leukemia, approaching 90%, although some side effects of treatment last into adulthood.Minimally differentiated acute myeloblastic leukemiaB-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemiaBCR (gene): The breakpoint cluster region protein (BCR) also known as renal carcinoma antigen NY-REN-26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCR gene. BCR is one of the two genes in the BCR-ABL complex, which is associated with the Philadelphia chromosome.Myeloid leukemiaCytarabineAntileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Bone marrow suppression: Bone marrow suppression or myelotoxicity (adjective myelotoxic) or myelosuppression is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes). Bone marrow suppression is a serious side effect of chemotherapy and certain drugs affecting the immune system such as azathioprine.Monocytic leukemiaTyrosine-kinase inhibitor: A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades.Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox: Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) refers to a family of transcription factors.Gammaretrovirus core encapsidation signalDaunorubicinHairy cell leukemiaMyeloid: The term myeloid (myelogenous) is an adjective that can refer to a progenitor cell for granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets. Myeloid can be distinguished from the lymphoid progenitor cells that give rise to B cells and T cells.Bone Marrow Transplantation (journal): Bone Marrow Transplantation is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering transplantation of bone marrow in humans. It is published monthly by the Nature Publishing Group.Bovine leukemia virus: Leucosis}}Reuben Rickard: Reuben Rickard (August 20, 1841 – February 28, 1896) was a mining engineer who served as President of the Town Board of Trustees in Berkeley, California from 1891 to 1893, and again for about one month during 1895.Stem cell theory of aging: The stem cell theory of aging is a new theory which was formulated by several scientists and which postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function. Damage and error accumulation in genetic material is always a problem for systems regardless of the age.ThiazolineSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Low-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Coles PhillipsGenetic imbalance: Genetic imbalance is to describe situation when the genome of a cell or organism has more copies of some genes than other genes due to chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Leukemia cutis: Leukemia cutis is the infiltration of neoplastic leukocytes or their precursors into the skin resulting in clinically identifiable cutaneous lesions. This condition may be contrasted with leukemids, which are skin lesions that occur with leukemia, but which are not related to leukemic cell infiltration.Omacetaxine mepesuccinateMinC: The MinC protein is one of three proteins encoded by the minB operon and which is required to generate pole to pole oscillations prior to bacterial cell division as a means of specifying the midzone of the cell. This function is achieved by preventing the formation of the divisome Z-ring around the poles.Oncogene: An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Wilbur, Beth, editor.CrenolanibChromothripsis: Chromothripsis is the phenomenon by which up to thousands of clustered chromosomal rearrangements occur in a single event in localised and confined genomic regions in one or a few chromosomes, and is known to be involved in both cancer and congenital diseases. It occurs through one massive genomic rearrangement during a single catastrophic event in the cell's history.Thermal cyclerAdult T-cell leukemia/lymphomaGranulocyte: framed|Eosinophilic granulocyteFlow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Arsenic trioxide: As3+ O2−
(1/2847) Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins.
Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis. (+info)
(2/2847) Autografting with philadelphia chromosome-negative mobilized hematopoietic progenitor cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Intensive chemotherapy given in early chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has resulted in high numbers of circulating Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-negative hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). We have autografted 30 consecutive patients with CML in chronic phase with HPC collected in this way to facilitate restoration of Ph-negative hematopoiesis in bone marrow after high-dose therapy. Hematopoietic recovery to greater than 0.5 x10(9)/L neutrophils and to greater than 25 x 10(9)/L platelets occurred in all patients, a median of 13 (range, 9 to 32) days and 16 (range, 6 to 106) days postautograft, respectively. Regenerating marrow cells were Ph-negative in 16 (53%) patients and greater than 66% Ph-negative in 10 (33%) patients. Twenty-eight patients are alive 6 to 76 months (median, 24 months) after autografting. Three patients have developed blast crisis from which 2 have died. Eight patients are in complete cytogenetic remission at a median of 20 (range, 6 to 44) months with a median ratio BCR-ABL/ABL of 0.002 (range, <0.001 to 0.01). Eight patients are in major cytogenetic remission at a median of 22 (range, 6 to 48) months. No patient died as a consequence of the treatment. All patients had some degree of stomatitis that was severe in 15 (50%) patients. Gastrointestinal and hepatic toxicities were observed in about one fourth of patients. Thus, autografting with Ph-negative mobilized HPC can result in prolonged restoration of Ph-negative hematopoiesis for some patients with CML; moreover, most autograft recipients report normal or near normal activity levels, suggesting that this procedure need not to be associated either with prolonged convalescence or with chronic debility. (+info)
(3/2847) Disappearance of lupus anticoagulant after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Lupus anticoagulant antibodies have never been reported to disappear after either allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation in humans. We report the first case of disappearance of lupus anticoagulant antibodies in a patient without systemic lupus erythematosus or clinical evidence of other autoimmune disorders, who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. Although marrow transplantation is not a recognized therapy for antiphospholipid syndrome, our observation should be considered another example of the capability of intensive chemo-radiotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation to ablate a pathologic marrow clone resulting in an autoimmune disorder and improve, or even cure, some severe autoimmune diseases. (+info)
(4/2847) Chronic myelogenous leukemia--progress at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center over the past two decades and future directions: first Emil J Freireich Award Lecture.
The purpose of this study was to review the progress in clinical and translational research in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) over the past 20 years at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The CML database updating the clinical and basic research investigations was reviewed as the source of this report. Publications resulting from these investigations were summarized. The long-term results with intensive chemotherapy, IFN-alpha therapy alone or in combination, autologous stem cell transplantation, and new agents such as homoharringtonine and decitabine showed encouraging results. Biological studies related to the BCR-ABL molecular abnormality, other molecular events, and the detection of minimal residual disease were detailed. Future strategies with potential promise in CML were outlined. Significant progress in understanding CML biology and in treating patients afflicted with the disease has occurred. Several therapeutic and research tools are currently investigated, which should hopefully improve further the prognosis of patients with CML. (+info)
(5/2847) Methylation of the ABL1 promoter in chronic myelogenous leukemia: lack of prognostic significance.
The BCR-ABL chromosomal translocation is a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). One of the ABL1 promoters (Pa) and the coding region of the gene are usually translocated intact to the BCR locus, but the translocated promoter appears to be silent in most cases. Recently, hypermethylation of Pa was demonstrated in CML and was proposed to mark advanced stages of the disease. To study this issue, we measured Pa methylation in CML using Southern blot analysis. Of 110 evaluable samples, 23 (21%) had no methylation, 17 (15%) had minimal (<15%) methylation, 12 (11%) had moderate methylation (15% to 25%), and 58 (53%) had high levels of methylation (>25%) at the ABL1 locus. High methylation was more frequent in advanced cases of CML. Among the 76 evaluable patients in early chronic phase (ECP), a major cytogenetic response with interferon-based therapy was observed in 14 of 34 patients with high methylation compared with 19 of 42 among the others (41% v 45%; P value not significant). At a median follow-up of 7 years, there was no significant difference in survival by ABL1 methylation category. Among patients who achieved a major cytogenetic response, low levels of methylation were associated with a trend towards improved survival, but this trend did not reach statistical significance. Thus, Pa methylation in CML is associated with disease progression but does not appear to predict for survival or response to interferon-based therapy. (+info)
(6/2847) Presence of P210bcrabl is associated with decreased expression of a beta chemokine C10 gene in a P210bcrabl-positive myeloid leukemia cell line.
BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to start with the acquisition of the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation that codes for the P210bcrabl tyrosine-specific protein kinase. The CML cells exhibit anchorage-independent cell growth and genetic instability. After the initial phase, the cells acquire the phenotype of growth factor-independent growth. After the chronic phase, the disease evolves into the accelerated and blastic phases through the process of sequential random mutation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify some of the genetic changes that contribute to the phenotype of blastic and accelerated phase cells, we used differential display PCR to compare levels of cDNA reverse transcripts of mRNA in 32Dc13 cells and 32Dc13 cells that were stably transfected with a bcrabl cDNA plasmid in a constitutively expressed transcription unit. These cells were designated 32Dc13P210bcrabl. For these studies, we used the 32D myeloid leukemia cell line, which depends on IL-3 for growth. RESULTS: Following introduction of the bcr-abl cDNA through transfection, the cell line became growth factor independent, mimicking the change in phenotype that occurs during the later phases of CML. These differential display screening assays detected altered levels of transcripts for 28 genes. Of interest to the biology of growth factor-independent growth in the bcrabl-positive 32D cells was the fact that the C10 beta chemokine gene was expressed at higher levels in the 32Dc13 cells than in the 32Dc13P210bcrabl cells. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that a C10 beta chemokine gene was expressed at different levels with or without P210bcrabl. (+info)
(7/2847) Comparative outcomes of T-cell-depleted and non-T-cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: impact of donor lymphocyte infusion.
PURPOSE: Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) can restore complete remission in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who have relapsed after T-cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The existence of salvage treatment for patients with DLI after TCD allogeneic BMT prompted an evaluation of overall outcome after CD6+ -TCD allogeneic BMT for patients treated during the time when DLI has been available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 46 patients who underwent TCD allogeneic BMT for stable-phase CML and compared these outcomes with those of 40 patients who underwent non-TCD allogeneic BMT. All subjects were patients at one of two neighboring institutions during a period when DLI was available. All patients received marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors, underwent similar myeloablative regimens, and had similar pretreatment characteristics. RESULTS: After BMT, the TCD group had a lower incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute (15% v 37%, P = .026) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (18% v 42%, P = .024) than did the non-TCD group. The 1-year treatment-related mortality rates for the TCD group and the non-TCD group were 13% and 29%, respectively (P = .07). The estimated 3-year probability of relapse (cytogenetic or hematologic) was higher for patients in the TCD group than for patients in the non-TCD group (62% v 24%, P = .0003). Twenty-three patients (20 in the TCD group and three in the non-TCD group) received and were assessable for response to DLI. After DLI, 17 of 20 patients in the TCD group and two of three patients in the non-TCD group achieved complete remission. Donor lymphocyte infusion induced GVHD in nine of 23 patients. Thirty (65%) of 46 patients in the TCD group and 27 (69%) of 39 assessable patients in the non-TCD group remained alive without evidence of disease. The estimated 3-year overall survival rates were similar for the TCD group and the non-TCD group (72% v 68%, respectively; P = .38). At last follow-up, there was no difference in the overall prevalence of GVHD or the proportion of patients requiring immunosuppressive agents between groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the combination of T-cell depletion and post-BMT DLI is a viable treatment option for patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for CML and should be prospectively compared with traditional forms of GVHD prophylaxis. (+info)
(8/2847) Extremely high and specific activity of DNA enzymes in cells with a Philadelphia chromosome.
BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from chromosome 22 translocations (the Philadelphia chromosome) that creates BCR-ABL fusion genes, which encode two abnormal mRNAs (b3a2 and b2a2). Various attempts to design antisense oligonucleotides that specifically cleave abnormal L6 BCR-ABL fusion mRNA have not been successful. Because b2a2 mRNA cannot be effectively cleaved by hammerhead ribozymes near the BCR-ABL junction, it has proved very difficult to engineer specific cleavage of this chimeric mRNA. Nonspecific effects associated with using antisense molecules make the use of such antisense molecules questionable. RESULTS: The usefulness of DNA enzymes in specifically suppressing expression of L6 BCR-ABL mRNA in mammalian cells is demonstrated. Although the efficacy of DNA enzymes with natural linkages decreased 12 hours after transfection, partially modified DNA enzymes, with either phosphorothioate or 2'-O-methyl groups at both their 5' and 3' ends, remained active for much longer times in mammalian cells. Moreover, the DNA enzyme with only 2'-O-methyl modifications was also highly specific for abnormal mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: DNA enzymes with 2'-O-methyl modifications are potentially useful as gene-inactivating agents in the treatment of diseases such as CML. In contrast to conventional antisense DNAs, some of the DNA enzymes used in this study were highly specific and cleaved only abnormal BCR-ABL mRNA. (+info)